San Isidro District, Lima
San Isidro is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Established on April 24, 1930, San Isidro has become a major financial quarter in recent years, as many banks and businesses left downtown Lima to set up their headquarters in modern office blocks, it is inhabited by upper middle and upper-class families. The district has a total land area of 9.78 km². Its administrative center is located at 109 meters above sea level. North: La Victoria and Jesús María East: San Borja South: Miraflores and Surquillo West: Magdalena del Mar and the Pacific OceanFor more than fifty years, the border at the western area of the district has been disputed with neighboring Magdalena del Mar. A judge ordered the councils of both districts to deposit the money of the affected areas' taxpayers in the National Bank of Peru until this long-standing conflict is resolved. According to a 2002 estimate by the INEI, the district has 68,438 inhabitants and a population density of 6,165.6 persons/km².
In 1999, there were 20,598 households in the district. San Isidro prides itself on being home to many Peruvian artists. A few museums, as well as the Wak'a Wallamarka, a pre-Inca burying temple which dates back to the 4th century where concerts and exhibitions are held show the cultural heritage of the district. Notable residents of San Isidro have include painter Fernando de Szyszlo, president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Javier Perez de Cuellar, José Antonio García Belaúnde, Francisco Tudela, among others. There are 38 embassies and consulates in San Isidro, which are Algeria, Austria, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, North Korea, Panama, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand and Uruguay; the Hotel Westin Libertador, the tallest building in Peru, is located in the district. Lima's most important avenues, criss-cross the district. With 21 bank headquarters and 50 agencies, San Isidro is the financial center of Peru.
Monuments to Peruvian heroes and other world personalities There are 15 Catholic Churches and temples of other religions. Municipalidad de San Isidro - San Isidro District Council official website PUCP - Centro Cultural - Cultural Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, located on Avenida Camino Real in San Isidro Miramar Peru Real State Agency
Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. Its capital is Lima, the nation's capital. Despite its small area, this province is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Peruvian economy, it concentrates one-third of the country's population and 50% of Peru's GDP in 2012. The province was created in 1821 as Peru's territory was divided into departments, provinces and parishes; the province was part of the Lima Department, formed by the territories of present-day Lima and Ica regions, the provinces of Casma and Santa, which would be part of the La Costa Department. The department was further subdivided as time passed but the Lima Province kept being part of it. Due to the massive migration from other areas of the country, the need to separate the province from the rest of the department was forecast by experts. In 2002, the new regionalization law passed by President Alejandro Toledo made the Lima Province a separate entity from the rest of the newly created Lima Region.
The province is divided into 43 districts. Each of them is headed by a mayor, although the Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council, led by the mayor of Lima exercises its authority in these districts. All the districts of Lima province are fused together in a continuous urban area, with the exception of the beach resorts of Ancon and Santa Rosa in the north and Pachacamac, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo, Santa Maria del Mar and Pucusana in the south. North: Huaral Province Northeast: Canta Province East: Huarochirí Province South: Cañete Province West: Callao Region and the Pacific Ocean Lima Province is administered by the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, which administers the city of Lima, its current mayor is Jorge Muñoz Wells
Ancón is a district of northern Lima Province in Peru. It is a popular beach resort, visited every summer by thousands of people from Lima. Established as a district on October 29, 1874, the current mayor of Ancón is John Barrera Bernui; the district's postal code is 2. Ancón is an important site in Peruvian archaeology; this was a fishing town and as a burying ground for pre-Inca Indigenous civilizations of Ancon-Supe, which flourished about 4,000 years ago as one of the oldest societies in Peruvian history. In Ancon, the ridges of gravel and sandy soil were littered with skulls and remnants of tattered handwoven cloth. Beneath the surface, grave robbers found mummified bodies with all the accompanying grave goods in shallow graves. In this region, the preservation of the bodies was due to the dry climate, reportedly, the saltpetre and other preservative elements contained in the soil. In the late 1800s, archaeologist digging here found bodies, sometimes tattooed, adorned with beads, copper earrings and bird feathers, swathed in richly colored blankets or cotton cloth, with jars of provisions beside them.
Tablets fashioned of cloth, stretched upon frames of wood and painted with figures and characters, described the virtues of the deceased. Pre-historic Ancón was a fishing village, so many handmade nets were found, along with baskets of woven fibre representing the industries of women; the extension of the railroad in 1870 to Chancay made the Necropolis of Ancón accessible to the day visitor. The geologists Reiss and Stubel conducted their excavations at Ancón during the period 1874-1875 because they feared the extent of digging there would deplete the site. In 1884 Stolpe conducted excavations at Ancon on behalf of the Museum of Ethnography in Stockholm. Modern buildings and old houses dating back to the 19th century can be found in the district's beach area. Ancón has a yacht club that exists since 1950; the Treaty of Ancón, that ended the War of the Pacific, was signed on October 20, 1883, ceding Tarapacá to Chile. The district has a total land area of 299.22 km2. Its administrative center is located 3 meters above sea level.
BoundariesNorth: Aucallama District East: Huamantanga District, Carabayllo District South: Santa Rosa and Puente Piedra, as well as Ventanilla in the Constitutional Province of Callao West: Pacific Ocean The district is divided into 2 populated centers: Ancón Piedras Gordas According to the 2005 census by the INEI, the district has 29,419 inhabitants, a population density of 98.3 persons/km² and 12,990 households. It is the 40th most populous district in Lima. Ancón used to be a deluxe upscale beach resort during the early 20th centuries, its sandy soil and dry atmosphere made it a welcome place for persons with pulmonary and bronchial affections. Besides the beach, in 1913, there was a tennis court, one or two hotels, many cottages; the train trip from Desamparados station in downtown Lima took about an hour and a half through dry desert. Administrative divisions of Peru
Comas District, Lima
Comas is a district in the City of Lima located in the North Side area of the city. It is one of the most populous districts in Peru's capital, in the Province of Lima, its current mayor is Raul Diaz Perez. Comas has a total land area of 48.75 km². Its administrative center is located 140 meters above sea level. North: Carabayllo East: San Juan de Lurigancho South: Independencia West: Puente Piedra and Los Olivos According to 2005 census conducted by the INEI, Comas has 464,745 inhabitants, a population density of 9,533.2 persons/km² and 100,950 households. During its first years of existence, Comas was a pueblo joven. Comas humble beginnings were a direct result of the many organized invasions led by immigrants from the highlands during the 1970s. Most of these peasants arrived from the regions of Junín and Huacanvelica in the central sierra of Peru. Comas is one of the poorest districts in Lima Comas has been developed into a low-middle class residential district. There are 3 main roads serving the district: Avenida Túpac Amaru, Avenida Universitaria and the Chillón-Trapiche Highway.
In the last decade Comas' economy and social structure has grown at a fast pace. It boasts a large middle-class, has grown from a pueblo joven" in a short period of time. However, in spite of this visible progress; the only civil aviation school in Peru was located at the Aeroclub de Collique. Administrative divisions of Peru Municipalidad Distrital de Comas - Comas District Council official website ComasWeb - Comas District Portal
A residential area is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary between, through, residential areas; these include multi-family residential, or mobile homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may exclude business and industry, it may only permit low density uses. Residential zoning includes a smaller FAR than business, commercial or industrial/manufacturing zoning; the area may be small. In certain residential areas rural, large tracts of land may have no services whatever, thus residents seeking services must use a motor vehicle or other transport, so the need for transport has resulted in land development following existing or planned transport infrastructure such as rail and road. Development patterns may be regulated by restrictive covenants contained in the deeds to the properties in the development, may result from or be reinforced by zoning. Restrictive covenants are not changed when the agreement of all property owners is required.
The area so restricted may be small. Residential areas may be subcategorized in the concentric zone model and other schemes of urban geography. Residential development is real estate development for residential purposes; some such developments are called a subdivision, when the land is divided into lots with houses constructed on each lot. Such developments became common during the late nineteenth century in the form of streetcar suburbs. In previous centuries, residential development was of two kinds. Rich people bought a townlot, hired an architect and/or contractor, built a bespoke / customized house or mansion for their family. Poor urban people lived in tenements built for rental. Single-family houses were built on speculation, for future sale to residents not yet identified; when cities and the middle class expanded and mortgage loans became commonplace, a method, rare became commonplace to serve the expanding demand for home ownership. Post–World War II economic expansion in major cities of the United States New York City and Los Angeles produced a demand for thousands of new homes, met by speculative building.
Its large-scale practitioners disliked the term "property speculator" and coined the new name "residential development" for their activity. Entire farms and ranches were subdivided and developed with one individual or company controlling all aspects of entitlement, land development and housing. Communities like Levittown, Long Island or Lakewood south of Los Angeles saw new homes sold at unprecedented rates—more than one a day. Many techniques which had made the automobile affordable made housing affordable: standardization of design and small, repetitive assembly tasks, a smooth flow of capital. Mass production resulted in a similar uniformity of product, a more comfortable lifestyle than cramped apartments in the cities. With the advent of government-backed mortgages, it could be cheaper to own a house in a new residential development than to rent; as with other products, continual refinements appeared. Curving streets, greenbelt parks, neighborhood pools, community entry monumentation appeared.
Diverse floor plans with differing room counts, multiple elevations appeared. Developers remained competitive with each other on everything, including location, community amenities, kitchen appliance packages, price. Today, a typical residential development in the United States might include traffic calming features, such as a winding street, dead-end road, or looped road lined with homes. Suburban developments help form the stereotypical image of a "suburban America," and are associated with the American middle-class. Most offer homes in a narrow range of age, price and features, thus potential residents having different needs, wishes or resources must look elsewhere; some residential developments are gated communities. Criticisms of residential developments may include: They do not mesh well with the greater community; some are isolated, with only one entrance, or otherwise connected with the rest of the community in few ways. Being commuter towns, they serve no more purpose for the greater community than other specialized settlements do, thus require residents to go to the greater community for commercial or other purposes.
Whereas mixed-use developments provide for commerce and other activities, thus residents need not go as to the greater community. The dictionary definition of residential at Wiktionary Meadowbrook symbol of postwar housing boom - Pantagraph Residential Property Valuations
A favela, is a unique and middle-income, unregulated neighborhood in Brazil that has experienced historical governmental neglect. The first favela, now known as Providência in the center of Rio de Janeiro, appeared in the late 19th century, built by soldiers who had nowhere to live following the Canudos War; some of the first settlements were called bairros africanos. Over the years, many former enslaved Africans moved in. Before the first favela came into being, poor citizens were pushed away from the city and forced to live in the far suburbs. However, most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Unable to find places to live, many people found themselves in favelas. Census data released in December 2011 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics showed that in 2010, about 6 percent of the Brazilian population lived in slums; the term favela dates back to the late 1800s. At the time, soldiers were brought from the conflict against the settlers of Canudos, in the Eastern province of Bahia, to Rio de Janeiro and left with no place to live.
When they served the army in Bahia, those soldiers had been familiar with Canudos' Favela Hill – a name referring to favela, a skin-irritating tree in the spurge family indigenous to Bahia. When they settled on the Providência hill in Rio de Janeiro, they nicknamed the place Favela hill." The favelas were formed prior to the dense occupation of cities and the domination of real estate interests. Following the end of slavery and increased urbanization into Latin America cities, a lot of people from the Brazilian countryside moved to Rio; these new migrants sought work in the city but with little to no money, they could not afford urban housing. In the 1920s the favelas grew to such an extent that they were perceived as a problem for the whole society. At the same time the term favela underwent a first institutionalization by becoming a local category for the settlements of the urban poor on hills. However, it was not until 1937 that the favela became central to public attention, when the Building Code first recognized their existence in an official document and thus marked the beginning of explicit favela policies.
The housing crisis of the 1940s forced the urban poor to erect hundreds of shantytowns in the suburbs, when favelas replaced tenements as the main type of residence for destitute Cariocas. The explosive era of favela growth dates from the 1940s, when Getúlio Vargas's industrialization drive pulled hundreds of thousands of migrants into the former Federal District, to the 1970s, when shantytowns expanded beyond urban Rio and into the metropolitan periphery. Urbanization in the 1950s provoked mass migration from the countryside to the cities throughout Brazil by those hoping to take advantage of the economic opportunities urban life provided; those who moved to Rio de Janeiro, chose an inopportune time. The change of Brazil's capital from Rio to Brasília in 1960 marked a slow but steady decline for the former, as industry and employment options began to dry up. Unable to find work, therefore unable to afford housing within the city limits, these new migrants remained in the favelas. Despite their proximity to urban Rio de Janeiro, the city did not extend sanitation, electricity, or other services to the favelas.
They soon became associated with extreme poverty and were considered a headache to many citizens and politicians within Rio. In the 1970s, Brazil's military dictatorship pioneered a favela eradication policy, which forced the displacement of hundreds of thousands of residents. During Carlos Lacerda's administration, many were moved to public housing projects such as Cidade de Deus popularized in a wildly popular feature film of the same name. Poor public planning and insufficient investment by the government led to the disintegration of these projects into new favelas. By the 1980s, worries about eviction and eradication were beginning to give way to violence associated with the burgeoning drug trade. Changing routes of production and consumption meant that Rio de Janeiro found itself as a transit point for cocaine destined for Europe. Although drugs brought in money, they accompanied the rise of the small arms trade and of gangs competing for dominance. While there are Rio favelas which are still ruled by drug traffickers or by organized crime groups called milícias, all of the favelas in Rio's South Zone and key favelas in the North Zone are now managed by Pacifying Police Units, known as UPPs.
While drug dealing, sporadic gun fights, residual control from drug lords remain in certain areas, Rio's political leaders point out that the UPP is a new paradigm after decades without a government presence in these areas. Most of the current favelas expanded in the 1970s, as a construction boom in the more affluent districts of Rio de Janeiro initiated a rural exodus of workers from poorer states in Brazil. Since favelas have been created under different terms but with similar end results. Communities form in favelas over time and develop an array of social and religious organizations and forming associations to obtain such services as running water and electricity. Sometimes the residents manage to gain title to the land and are able to improve their homes; because of crowding, unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition and pollution, disease is rampant in the poorer favelas and infant mortality rates are high. Those favelas which are situated on hillsides are at risk from flooding and landslides.
In the late 19th century, the state gave regulatory impetus for the creation of Rio de Jane
Pucusana is a district in southern Lima Province in Peru. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west, the district of Santa María del Mar on the north, the Chilca District of the Cañete Province on the east, the Pacific Ocean on the south, it attracts many beachgoers every summer. Many of them rent apartments during this season, making its population increase considerably; the district has a club with a large seawater swimming pool. The most popular beaches in the district are La Tiza. Administrative divisions of Peru Municipalidad Distrital de Pucusana Portal del Balneario de Pucusana