Limburgish called Limburgan, Limburgian, or Limburgic, is a group of East Low Franconian varieties spoken in the Belgian and Dutch provinces both named Limburg and some neighbouring areas of Germany. The area in which it is spoken fits within a wide circle from Venlo to Düsseldorf to Aachen to Maastricht to Tienen and back to Venlo. In some parts of this area it is used as the colloquial language in daily speech, it shares many characteristics with both German and Dutch and is considered as a variant of one of these languages. Within the modern communities of the Belgian and Dutch provinces of Limburg, intermediate idiolects are very common, which combine standard Dutch with the accent and some grammatical and pronunciation tendencies derived from Limburgish; this "Limburgish Dutch" is confusingly often referred to as "Limburgish", although in Belgium such intermediate idiolects tend to be called tussentaal, no matter the exact dialect/language with which standard Dutch is combined. The name Limburgish derives only indirectly from the now Belgian town of Limbourg, the capital of the Duchy of Limburg during the Middle Ages.
More directly it is derived from the more modern name of the Province of Limburg in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, split today into a Belgian Limburg and a Dutch Limburg. In the area around the old Duchy of Limburg the main language today is French, but there is a particular Limburgish language, sometimes referred to as "Low Dietsch dialects". People from Limburg call their language Plat, the same as Low German speakers do; this plat refers to the fact that the language is spoken in the low plains country, as opposed to the use of High in High German languages, which are derived from dialects spoken in the more mountainous southerly regions. The word can be associated with platteland; the general Dutch term for the language of ordinary people in former ages was Dietsch or Duutsch, as it still exists in the term Low Dietsch. This term is derived from Proto-Germanic "þiudiskaz", meaning "of the people". In Dutch the word "plat" means "flat", but refers to the way a language is spoken: "plat" means "slang" in that case.
Limburgish has overlapping definition areas, depending on the criteria used: All dialects spoken within the political boundary of the two Limburg provinces. Limburgish according to Jo Daan, the associative "arrow" method of Meertens Institute. South Lower Franconian, isogloss definition between the Uerdingen and Benrath lines by Wenker and Goossens. Western limit of Limburgish pitch accent Southeast Limburgish dialect. Except for the Southeast Limburgish dialect, Modern Limburgish descends from some of the dialects that formed the offspring of Old Dutch in the Early Middle Ages, its history being at least as long as that of other Low Franconian languages, of which some yielded Standard Dutch. Being a variety of Franconian descent, Limburgish can today be considered as a regional language overarched by two succeeding Dachsprachen, which are Dutch in Belgium and the Netherlands and German in Germany. Under the influence of the Merovingian and the Carolingian dynasty, Eastern Low Franconian underwent much influence from the neighbouring High German languages.
This resulted among other things in the partial participation of Eastern Low Franconian in the High German consonant shift in the 10th and the 11th century, which makes the Limburgish-speaking area part of the so-called Rhenish fan. It is this trait which distinguishes Limburgish from Western Low Franconian. In the past, all Limburgish dialects were therefore sometimes seen as West Central German, part of High German; this difference is caused by a difference in definition: the latter stance defines a High German variety as one that has taken part in any of the first three phases of the High German consonant shift. It is most common in linguistics to consider Limburgish as Low Franconian. From the 13th century on, the Duchy of Brabant extended its power; as a consequence, at first the western and also the eastern variants of Limburgish underwent great influence of Brabantian. When Standard Dutch was formed out of elements of different Low Franconian dialects in the 16th century, the Limburgish dialects spoken in the Low Countries had little or no influence on this process.
As a result, Limburgish – although being a variety of Low Franconian – still has a considerable distance from Standard Dutch with regards to phonology and lexicon today. Moreover, being of East Low Franconian origin, it has many distinctive features in comparison with the West Low Franconian varieties such as the Hollandic dialect, the Brabantian dialect and South Guelderish. In German sources, the dialects linguistically counting as Limburgish spoken to the east of the river Rhine are called Bergish. West of the river Rhine they are called "Low Rhenish", considered a transitional zone between Low Franconian and Ripuarian, thus German linguists tended to call these dialects L
Limburg is a province in Belgium. It is the easternmost of the five Dutch-speaking provinces that together form the Region of Flanders, one of the three main political and cultural sub-divisions of modern Belgium. Limburg is located west of the river Meuse, upon which it borders the named Dutch province Limburg, it borders on the Wallonian province of Liège to the south, with which it has historical ties. To the north and west are the old territories of the Duchy of Brabant: the Flemish provinces of Flemish Brabant and Antwerp to the west, the Dutch province of North Brabant to the north; the province of Limburg has an area of 2,414 km2 which comprises three arrondissements containing 44 municipalities. Among these municipalities are the current capital Hasselt, the early medieval capital Borgloon, Genk and Tongeren, the only Roman city in the province and regarded as the oldest city of Belgium; the municipality of Voeren is geographically detached from Limburg and the rest of Flanders, with the Netherlands to the north and the Walloon province of Liège to the south.
This municipality was established by the municipal reform of 1977 and on 1 January 2008 with its six villages had a total population of 4,207. Its total area is 50.63 km2. Belgian Limburg was not called "Limburg" until the 19th century, when this province, like the rest of Belgium, was part of the Netherlands for some decades, after the fall of Napoleon. Like the name Belgium itself, the name Limburg was chosen from the region's history. In fact, the historical name for the territory of Belgian Limburg was County of Loon; the medieval Duchy of Limburg, although it was nearby, did not contain any part of today's province. The first wave of people with farming and pottery technology in northern Europe was the LBK culture which originated in central Europe and reached a geographical limit in the fertile southern Haspengouw part of Limburg about 5000 BC, only to die out about 4000 BC. A wave from central Europe, the Michelsburg culture arrived about 3500 BC and shared a similar fate. Pottery technology had however been taken up by local tribes of the Swifterbant culture, who remained present throughout.
The area became permanently agricultural only with the Urnfield culture, followed by the related Halstatt and La Tène material cultures, which are associated with Celts. Under these cultures the population increased in the region, it is during this period that Indo European languages are thought to have arrived. Caesar gave the first surviving written description of the area and described its people as the Germani cisrhenani, who were a part of the Belgae. Amongst these Germani, Belgian Limburg contained at least part of the country of the Eburones who fought against Julius Caesar under their leaders Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Apart from the Germani, somewhere in the west of the region were the Aduatuci, who were the descendants of the Cimbri and Teutones who had settled from the direction of Denmark some generations before Caesar. Under the Romans, the area was home to the Tungri. Tacitus equated these Tungri to the earliest tribes of "Germani" to have settled in Gaul, implying that they were still descended from the Germani cisrhenani, states that the use of the name "Germani" had been expanded in Roman times to cover a larger grouping of similar tribes those in Germany east of the Rhine.
The Tungri are accepted as being speakers of a Germanic language, but modern authors disagree over the extent to which they descend from new immigrants who came from over the Rhine after Caesar. Notably, the Tungri participated on the Roman side in the Revolt of the Batavi against Roman rule. In the north of Limburg during Roman times lived the Toxandri; the site of the fort in which the Romans encamped was called Aduatuca. This was a general word for a fort, associated not only with the Eburones, but the Aduatuci, the Tungri; the Roman city established in Belgian Limburg was referred to as Aduatuca Tungrorum meaning "Aduatuca of the Tungri". Today this has become "Tongeren", in the southeast of Belgian Limburg, it was the capital of a Roman administrative region called the "Civitas Tungrorum". Under the Romans, the Tungri civitas was first a part of Gallia Belgica, split out with the more militarized border regions between it and the Rhine, to become Germania Inferior, converted into Germania Secunda.
In late Roman and early medieval times, the northern or "Kempen" part of Belgian Limburg became empty because of Germanic plundering. This area, still known by its Roman name as Toxandria, was settled by incoming Salian Franks from the north, who were under pressure from Saxons; the southern or "Haspengouw" part of Belgian Limburg remained more Romanised, but became a core land of the Frankish empires. By the 9th century, the Frankish Carolingian dynasty, based in and around Belgian Limburg, had turned Gaul into "Francia" and ruled an empire that included much of Western Europe. Early Christianity was established earliest in the romanised southeastern corner of Limburg, around Tongeren, missionaries went north from there to convert the Franks; the church capital moved to nearby Maastricht and Liège, this was the area of activity of St Servatius and Lambert of Maastricht. The archbishops, became responsible for a lar
The Limbourg brothers were famous Dutch miniature painters from the city of Nijmegen. They were active in the early 15th century in France and Burgundy, working in the style known as International Gothic, they created what is the best-known late medieval illuminated manuscript, the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Around 1398, after their father's death, the brothers were sent for by their uncle Jean Malouel, the most important painter for the French and Burgundian courts of the time. Herman and Johan learned the craft of goldsmithing in Paris. At the end of 1399 they were travelling to visit Nijmegen but, owing to a war, they were captured in Brussels. Since their mother could not pay the ransom of 55 gold escuz, the local goldsmiths' guild started to collect the money. Philip the Bold paid the ransom for the sake of their uncle Malouel, his painter; the two boys were released in May 1400. From surviving documents it is known that in February 1402 Paul and Johan were contracted by Philip to work for four years on illuminating a bible.
This may or may not have been the Bible Moralisée, indisputably an early work by the Limbourg brothers. Philip II died in 1404. After Philip's death, Herman and Johan in 1405 came to work for his brother John, Duke of Berry, an extravagant collector of arts and books, their first assignment was to illuminate a Book of Hours, now known as the Belles Heures du Duc de Berry. This work was finished in 1409 much to the satisfaction of the duke, he assigned them to an more ambitious project for a book of hours; this became the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, regarded as the peak of late medieval book illumination, the most valuable book in the world. It is kept as Ms. 65 in the Musée Condé in France. Paul was on good terms with the duke, received a court position as valet de chambre, or personal attendant; the duke gave him a large house in Bourges. Paul was attracted to a young girl, Gillette la Mercière; the duke had the girl confined, released her only on the king's command. In 1411 Paul and Gillette married anyway.
In the first half of 1416, Jean de Berry and the three Limbourg brothers – all less than 30 years old – died of the plague, leaving the Très Riches Heures unfinished. An unidentified artist worked on the famous calendar miniatures in the 1440s when the book was in the possession of René d'Anjou, in 1485 Jean Colombe finished the work for the House of Savoy; the work of the Limbourg brothers, being inaccessible, became forgotten until the 19th century. They set an example for the next generations of painters, which extended beyond miniature painting, they display influences from Italian models. Website of the 2005 exhibition in Nijmegen Website of the annual medieval festival dedicated to the Limbourg brothers in Nijmegen Limbourg brothers last Illuminators of the Medieval Art
Limburg (Weilheim an der Teck)
Limburg is a mountain of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Striking is the breakdown of vegetation: the summit is covered with lean lawn and some solitary Tilia. Below this is a zone of scrub forest on the southern slope with vineyards, on the lower slopes of extensive orchards; the Limburg is a mountain of volcanic origin, more a active volcanic vent of the Swabian Jura. However, it does not correspond, despite its striking cone shape the Ashes volcanoes on the type of Etna or Vesuvius. Before about 17 million years ago there came here to massive gas and dust explosions when percolating water met in the columns of the Jura on a magma bubble that had formed in the depths; the up broken rocks solidified over time to basaltic. Here no molten lava came to the surface, she froze there to Basalt. In the following year, millions the Jurassic layers were eroded more; the Basalttuffpfropf was more resistant than the surrounding limestone and remained as the northern slope of the Swabian Alb mountain upstream cone stand and testified that this extended further to the north
Limburg an der Lahn
Limburg an der Lahn is the district seat of Limburg-Weilburg in Hesse, Germany. Limburg lies in the Westerwald on the river Lahn; the town lies centrally in a basin within the Rhenish Slate Mountains, surrounded by the low ranges of the Taunus and Westerwald and called the Limburg Basin. Owing to the favourable soil and climate, the Limburg Basin stands as one of Hesse's richest agricultural regions and moreover, with its convenient Lahn crossing, it has been of great importance to transport since the Middle Ages. Within the basin, the Lahn's otherwise rather narrow lower valley broadens out noticeably, making Limburg's mean elevation only 117 m above sea level. Limburg forms, together with the town of Diez, a middle centre but functions as an upper centre to western Middle Hesse. Limburg's residential neighbourhoods reach beyond the town limits. Surrounding towns and communities are the community of Elz and the town of Hadamar in the north, the community of Beselich in the northeast, the town of Runkel in the east, the communities of Villmar and Brechen in the southeast, the community of Hünfelden in the south, the community of Holzheim in the southwest, the town of Diez and the communities of Aull and Gückingen in the west.
The nearest major cities are Wetzlar and Gießen to the north east and Frankfurt to the south and Koblenz to the west. The town consists of eight autonomous Ortsteile or villages, listed here by population. Limburg: 18,393 Lindenholzhausen: 3,377 Linter: 3,160 Eschhofen: 2,803 Staffel: 2,656 Offheim: 2,572 Dietkirchen: 1,724 Ahlbach: 1,281Blumenrod is often called a constituent community, although this is only a big residential neighbourhood in the main town’s south end, its landmark is the Domäne Blumenrod, a former manor house, restored and remodelled by the Limburg Free Evangelical community. Limburg’s biggest outlying centre is Lindenholzhausen; the derivation of the name “Limburg” is not quite clear and may well hearken back to a castle built here. In 910 the town was first mentioned as Lintpurc. Two of the popular theories are: The name was chosen because of the close proximity to the Linterer Bach, a former stream in Linter that has now run dry and that emptied into the Lahn at the Domfelsen.
Linda is the Gaulish word for water. Rather unlikely but popular is the connection to a dragon saga and the connection with the monastery of Saint George the "Dragon Slayer" founded in Limburg. However, the monastery was built after the castle and founded around the time of the first written mention of the name. About 800 A. D. the first castle buildings arose on the Limburg crags. This was designed for the protection of a ford over the river Lahn. In the decades that followed, the town developed under the castle's protection. Limburg is first mentioned in documents in 910 under the name of Lintpurc when Louis the Child granted Konrad Kurzbold an estate in the community on which he was to build a church. Konrad Kurzbold laid the foundation stone for Saint George's Monastery Church, where he was buried; the community soon increased in importance with the monastery's founding and profited from the lively goods trade on the Via Publica. In 1150, a wooden bridge was built across the Lahn; the long-distance road from Cologne to Frankfurt am Main subsequently ran through Limburg.
In the early 13th century, Limburg Castle was built in its current form. Shortly afterwards, the town passed into the ownership of the Lords of Ysenburg. In 1214, the community was granted town rights. Remains of the fortification wall from the years 1130, 1230 and 1340 with a maximum length of one thousand metres indicate to this day the blossoming town's quick development in the Middle Ages. There is proof of a mint in Limburg in 1180. One line of the Lords of Ysenburg resided from 1258 to 1406 at Limburg Castle and took their name from their seat, Limburg. From this line came the House of Limburg-Stirum and Imagina of Isenburg-Limburg, German King Adolf's wife; the ruling class among the mediaeval townsfolk were rich merchant families whose houses stood right near the castle tower and were surrounded by the first town wall once it was built. The area of today's Rossmarkt, in which many simple craftsmen lived, was only brought within the fortifications once the second town wall was built; the inhabitants there, unlike the merchant élite, were accorded no entitlement to a voice in town affairs and were not allowed to send representatives to the town council.
They had to bear the main financial burden of running the town. Only in 1458 were they allowed to send two representatives to town council. Saint George's Cathedral built on the old monastery church's site, called Georgsdom, was consecrated in 1235. On 14 May 1289, a devastating fire wiped out great parts of the inner town, although these were subsequently rebuilt. One of the houses built at that time was the Römer 2-4-6, today one of Germany's oldest half-timbered houses. In 1337, Limburg's Jews were expelled from the town. Only in 1341 were they once again able to settle by royal decree. In 1344 a half share of the town was pledged to the Electorate of Trier, in 1420, the town passed wholly into the ownership of Trier; this event, along with another town fire in 1342, the Black Death in 1349, 1356 and 1365, but above all the rise of the Territorial Princ
Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg
The Diocese of Limburg is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. It belongs to the ecclesiastical province Cologne, its territory encompasses parts of the States of Rhineland-Palatinate. Its cathedral church is St George's Cathedral Limburg an der Lahn; the diocese's largest church is St. Bartholomew. From October 2013, the administrator of the diocese during the suspension of Bishop Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst is Wolfgang Rösch; the Bishop resigned. The Cathedral Chapter elected and on July 1, 2016, Pope Francis appointed, the Vicar General of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier, Georg Bätzing, to serve as the next Bishop of the Diocese of Limburg, succeeding Bishop Tebartz-van Elst, he was consecrated by the Archbishop of Cologne Rainer Woelki on September 18, 2016. At the end of 2008 the diocese had 2,386,000 inhabitants. About 28 per cent of them were Catholics; the diocese is divided into multiple administrative districts. Each district is represented by a clerical dean. Frankfurt am Main Hochtaunus Lahn-Dill-Eder Limburg Main-Taunus Rheingau Rhein-Lahn Untertaunus Westerwald Wetzlar Wiesbaden The Diocese of Limburg was established in 1827, during the reorganization of Catholic diocese in the course of the secularization.
It was established as a suffragan diocese of the ecclesiastical province Upper Rhine with its metropolitan seat in Freiburg im Breisgau. Its territory had before been under what is today the Diocese of Diocese of Mainz; the diocese, therefore, is a rather young diocese. Today it encompasses the former territory of the Duchy of Nassau, the city of Frankfurt am Main, landgraviate Hesse-Homburg, the former county Biedenkopf. In 1929, it was subordinated to the ecclesiastical province Cologne, according to the so-called Prussian Concordat; the first bishop of Limburg was Jakob Brand. At that time, there were about 650.000 Catholics in the diocese. The bishop Franz Kamphaus founded five theme churches, he converted in 2005 three parish churches in 2005 to youth churches, two more parish churches were converted in 2007 to the Centre for Christian Meditation and Spirituality in the Holy Cross Church, Frankfurt-Bornheim and the Centre for Mourning Counselling in the church St. Michael, Frankfurt-Nordend in Frankfurt.
He stepped down after Pope Benedict XVI had accepted his retirement on 2 February 2007. He was succeeded by the auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Münster, Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst, elected by the cathedral chapter, he was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on 28 November 2007 and inaugurated by the Archbishop of Cologne Joachim Cardinal Meisner. In 2013 the Bishop of Limburg Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst was accused of lying and of squandering church money, he had a new episcopal headquarters built and was said to have lied about its cost, which has escalated from an initial 5.5 million euros to 31 million euros. He was accused of flying first class to India, where he went to help poor children, he rejected calls to resign and the Vatican sent Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo to try to resolve the situation. The accusations are under church investigation. In parallel, the attorney general of Cologne investigated the bishop. On 13 October the bishop travelled to Rome to discuss the situation with the Vatican Curia.
On 23 October 2013, Tebartz van-Elst was suspended by Pope Francis as bishop of Limburg, Wolfgang Rösch was named a new vicar general to administer the diocese in his absence. The "Synodal Way" was initiated by Bishop Wilhelm Kempf on 16 March 1969 in holding the first elections for a parish council; the basic idea is to have laity participate in important decisions concerning the diocese. “The main idea is to give every appointee a counterpart that consists of elected members who form a council. Both bodies are to discuss and decided certain issues." Accordingly, every appointed member of the clergy, such as a parish priest, faces a parish council that consists of elected members. On the next higher level, the pastoral realm, a clerical director faces the employees committee. On every "level" of the diocese and appointed officials work together. Jakob Brand Johann Wilhelm Bausch Peter Joseph Blum Johannes Christian Roos Karl Klein Dominikus Willi, O. Cist. Augustinus Kilian Antonius Hilfrich Ferdinand Dirichs Wilhelm Kempf Franz Kamphaus Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst Georg Bätzing Official homepage List of Bishops of Limburg History of the Diocese Limburg