Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Colin James and the Little Big Band
Colin James and the Little Big Band is a swing-jive album by Canadian musician Colin James, released in 1993. The album had sold 220,000 units in Canada by January, 1999. "Cadillac Baby" – 3:12 "That's What You Do To Me" – 3:27 "Sit Right Here" – 2:45 "Three Hours Past Midnight" – 6:07 "Satellite" – 4:12 "Surely" – 3:40 "Breakin' Up The House" – 3:04 "No More Doggin'" – 3:09 "Evening" – 5:02 "Train Kept A-Rollin'" – 2:46 "Leading Me On" – 2:18 "The Boogie Twist Part II" – 4:58 "Cha Shooky Doo" – 2:12 Colin James - vocals, guitars Johnny Ferreira - tenor saxophone Rich Lataille - alto saxophone Bob Enos - trumpet Chuck Leavell - organ, piano Reese Wynans - piano Norm Fisher - bass John Rossi - drums Doug James - baritone sax Carl Querfurth - trombone Roomful of Blues - horn section Rhode Island Boys Choir - background vocals Colin James and the Little Big Band
Sir George Ivan Morrison OBE, better known as Van Morrison, is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter and record producer. His professional career began as a teenager in the late 1950s playing a variety of instruments including guitar, harmonica and saxophone for various Irish showbands, covering the popular hits of that time. Van Morrison rose to prominence in the mid-1960s as the lead singer of the Northern Irish R&B band Them, with whom he recorded the garage band classic "Gloria", his solo career began under the pop-hit oriented guidance of Bert Berns with the release of the hit single "Brown Eyed Girl" in 1967. After Berns's death, Warner Bros. Records bought out his contract and allowed him three sessions to record Astral Weeks. Though this album garnered high praise, it was a poor seller. Moondance established Morrison as a major artist, he built on his reputation throughout the 1970s with a series of acclaimed albums and live performances, he continues to record and tour, producing albums and live performances that sell well and are warmly received, sometimes collaborating with other artists, such as Georgie Fame and The Chieftains.
Much of Morrison's music is structured around the conventions of soul music and R&B, such as the popular singles "Brown Eyed Girl", "Jackie Wilson Said", "Domino" and "Wild Night". An equal part of his catalogue consists of lengthy, loosely connected, spiritually inspired musical journeys that show the influence of Celtic tradition and stream-of-consciousness narrative, such as the album Astral Weeks and the lesser known Veedon Fleece and Common One; the two strains together are sometimes referred to as "Celtic soul". He has received two Grammy Awards, the 1994 Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music, the 2017 Americana Music Lifetime Achievement Award for Songwriting and has been inducted into both the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 2016, he was knighted for services to tourism in Northern Ireland, he is known by the nickname Van the Man to his fans. George Ivan "Van" Morrison was born on 31 August 1945, at 125 Hyndford Street, Belfast, Northern Ireland, as the only child of George Morrison, a shipyard electrician, Violet Stitt Morrison, a singer and tap dancer in her youth.
Morrison's family were working class Protestants descended from the Ulster Scots population that settled in Belfast. From 1950 to 1956, who began to be known as "Van" during this time, attended Elmgrove Primary School, his father had what was at the time one of the largest record collections in Ulster and the young Morrison grew up listening to artists such as Jelly Roll Morton, Ray Charles, Lead Belly, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee and Solomon Burke. Those guys were the inspiration. If it wasn't for that kind of music, I couldn't do what I'm doing now."His father's record collection exposed him to various musical genres, such as the blues of Muddy Waters. When Lonnie Donegan had a hit with "Rock Island Line", written by Huddie Ledbetter, Morrison felt he was familiar with and able to connect with skiffle music as he had been hearing Lead Belly before that. Morrison's father bought him his first acoustic guitar when he was eleven, he learned to play rudimentary chords from the song book The Carter Family Style, edited by Alan Lomax.
In 1957, at the age of twelve, Morrison formed his first band, a skiffle group, "The Sputniks", named after the satellite, Sputnik 1, launched earlier that year by the Soviets. In 1958, the band played at some of the local cinemas, Morrison took the lead, contributing most of the singing and arranging. Other short-lived groups followed – at fourteen, he formed Midnight Special, another modified skiffle band and played at a school concert; when he heard Jimmy Giuffre playing saxophone on "The Train and The River", he talked his father into buying him a saxophone, took lessons in tenor sax and music reading. Now playing the saxophone, Morrison joined with various local bands, including one called Deanie Sands and the Javelins, with whom he played guitar and shared singing; the line-up of the band was lead vocalist Deanie Sands, guitarist George Jones, drummer and vocalist Roy Kane. The four main musicians of the Javelins, with the addition of Wesley Black as pianist, became known as the Monarchs.
Morrison attended Orangefield Boys Secondary School. As a member of a working-class community, it was expected he would get a regular full-time job, so after several short apprenticeship positions, he settled into a job as a window cleaner—later alluded to in his songs "Cleaning Windows" and "Saint Dominic's Preview". However, he had been developing his musical interests from an early age and continued playing with the Monarchs part-time. Young Morrison played with the Harry Mack Showband, the Great Eight, with his older workplace friend, Geordie Sproule, whom he named as one of his biggest influences. At age 17, Morrison toured Europe for the first time with the Monarchs, now calling themselves the International Monarchs; this Irish showband, with Morrison playing saxophone and harp, in addition to back-up duty on bass and drums, toured steamy clubs and US Army bases in Scotland and Germany, of
James Hutchinson (musician)
James "Hutch" Hutchinson is an American session bassist best known for his work with Bonnie Raitt. Though his work takes him nearly everywhere he resides in Studio City, Los Angeles, CA and Haiku-Pauwela, Hawaii. James Hutchinson was born in Lynn and grew up in Cambridge and Somerville, Massachusetts. Hutchinson has worked on hundreds of recordings with artists as diverse as Willie Nelson, Joe Cocker, Ryan Adams, Bryan Adams, Jackson Browne, Charles Brown, Al Green, B. B. King, Earl King, The Neville Brothers, The Doobie Brothers, Ringo Starr, Ziggy Marley and many more, he attended some classes at Berklee College of Music in the late 1960s. He always practiced various instruments as a child. After seeing Wilson Pickett's band, at age 12, he focused on the bass, his talent and drive allowed him the opportunity to play in a variety of New England bands throughout High School. With his mother's blessing, he moved to San Francisco after completing high school, he met John Cipollina of Quicksilver Messenger Service and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead.
He participated in many sessions at Mickey's Ranch. Hutchinson joined Copperhead, he recorded an album with them in 1973 on Columbia Records. He played in Link Wray's band with Copperhead drummer, David Weber, performed with both Wray and Cipollina. While living in Guatemala, Hutchinson worked in a multitude of Central American studios, he and violinist Sid Page formed. After bringing the band to Austin, Texasthey won Jazz Group of the year at the Austin Music Awards in 1977. In Austin in 1975 he was introduced to The Meters by a mutual friend, he got a call from Charles and Art Neville about playing with their new band. He moved to New Orleans and joined The Neville Brothers Band. While playing with the Neville Brothers on the Rolling Stones 1981 Tattoo You tour he started a friendship with keyboardist Ian McLagan who introduced him to Bonnie Raitt in 1982, he moved to Los Angeles in 1983 and joined her band after her previous bassist left right before a tour. He has been playing and recording with her since, contributing to every recording of hers since Nine Lives.
In 1992, while working in the studio with Bryan Adams in Paris, Hutchinson was invited by producer Don Was and Mick Jagger, to head to Ron Wood's farm and studio in County Kildare, Ireland, to play and work on demos for the Voodoo Lounge record which he did as reported in a New York Post article "New Bass Hit for The Rolling Stones?" In 2006, Hutchinson was featured along with drummer Jim Keltner on the Jerry Lee Lewis recording Last Man Standing. He that year played shows with Bonnie Raitt opening for The Rolling Stones at the MGM Grand Las Vegas, in Los Angeles at Dodger Stadium and in Vancouver BC, Canada at The BC Dome. In 2008, Hutchinson participated in the production of the album Psalngs, the debut release of Canadian musician John Lefebvre, he in 2008 worked on Blues recordings by Mike Zito, Walter Trout and Maria Muldaur as well as working with slack key guitarist Barry Flanagan of the Hawaiian pop band HAPA and touring in March of that year with Steve Kimock and Friends featuring Jerry Garcia Band keyboardist Melvin Seals.
On Dec. 29th and New Year's Eve 2008, Hutchinson played with Bill Kreutzmann and Papa Mali at Charley's in Paia, Maui and at the Pauwela Cannery in Haiku, Hi. respectively. On Monday Feb 2, 2009, Hutchinson performed as bassist and co-music director at The Surf Ballroom in Clear Lake, Iowa with an all star band featuring Rolling Stones keyboard player Chuck Leavell, Stones sax man Bobby Keys, drummer Kenny Aronoff and Buddy Holly/Bob Wills guitarist Tommy Allsup at The Rock and Roll hall Of Fame's "50 Winter's Later" concert in tribute to Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and The Big Bopper 50 years to the day of their last concert. During the summer of 2009, Hutchinson joined BK3, a band led by Grateful Dead drummer Bill Kreutzmann, completed a tour with them. In the summer of 2009 and through the fall of that year, Hutchinson toured with Bonnie Raitt and Taj Mahal playing with both artists on The BonTaj Roulet tour. On New Year's Eve 2009/2010, he performed with Willie Nelson and his sons Lukas and Micah, along with special guest Alanis Morissette at Charley's in Paia, Maui Hi.
On Feb. 5th 2010, Hutchinson appeared with Doobie Brothers guitarist Pat Simmons, former Doobie Brothers vocalist/keyboardist Michael McDonald and Hawaiian guitarist, singer/songwriter John Cruz in Wailea, Maui at a CD release party for Maui singer Gail Swanson. Following that he completed a North American tour with the Hawaiian band Hapa, starting with them at Club Passim in Cambridge, Mass. on St. Partick's Day 2010 and finishing on April 17 that year at The Maui Arts and Cultural Center. On April 10, 2011, Hutchinson along with Maui residents Willie Nelson, Mick Fleetwood, Michael McDonald and Doobie Brother Pat Simmons performed together, along with Hawaiian artists Jack Johnson, Jake Shimabukuro, Cecilio & Kapono and many others on The Great Lawn of the Hawaiian Gardens in Honolulu at the benefit, Kokua For Japan; the concert and telethon raised $1.6 million for The American Red Cross and the survivors of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting nuclear disaster in Japan. Hutchinson appeared on the cover.
On August 13, 2013 Hutchinson was featured along with drummer Steve Gadd and guitarist Joe Caro at the Paia Jam in Paia, Hawaii. The following month Hutchinson once again returned to Hawaii to perform on September 13 with guitarist Eric McFadden and drummer Paul Marchetti at Charley's in Paia. In late October 2013, once again between legs of Bonnie Raitt's Slipstream tour
Sudden Stop is the second studio album by Canadian blues musician Colin James released in 1990 on Virgin Records. The album was recorded in Memphis, Tennessee; the album features guest appearances by The Memphis Horns and Bobby Whitlock. "Just Came Back" went up to #3 on North American rock stations. Sudden Stop earned James two Juno Awards for "Single of the Year" and "Male Vocalist of the Year". Sudden Stop was certified Platinum in Canada. By May 1998, the album had sold 194,430 units in Canada. "Just Came Back" – 4:56 "Keep On Loving Me Baby" – 3:40 "Show Me" – 3:24 "Give It Up" – 4:03 "Crazy Over You" – 5:11 "T for Trouble" – 4:20 "Cross My Heart – 3:18 "Just One Love" – 3:33 "If You Lean on Me" – 4:48 "Sudden Stop" – 5:52 Mastered by Greg Fulginiti Sudden Stop
National Steel (album)
National Steel is a blues album by Canadian musician Colin James, released in 1997. The album was recorded at Rat's Ass Studios and Mushroom Studios in Vancouver, British Columbia and mastered at MasterDisk in New York City. James teamed up with his longtime friend Colin Linden to record a predominantly acoustic album running the gamut from delta blues, to jug band and Chicago blues; the album covers songs written by some of the greatest bluesmen including Otis Redding, Robert Johnson, Muddy Waters and Willie Dixon. The CD liner notes offer a brief commentary by James on many of the tracks; the album is named after the resonator guitar made by the National guitar company pictured on the album's cover. National Steel earned James the 1998 Juno Award for "Best Blues Album". "Shout Baby Shout" – 3:15 "Rollin' Stone" – 3:21 "National Steel" – 4:52 "These Arms of Mine" – 4:44 "Going Up to the Country" – 4:11 "Fixin' to Die" – 4:28 "Somebody Have Mercy" – 3:32 "Postman's Sack" – 1:40 "Please Baby" – 3:41 "Ride & Roll" – 2:39 "I Live the Life I Love" – 3:39 "My Mind Is On Vacation" – 3:34 "Before the Dawn" – 4:24 "Kind-Hearted Woman" – 2:41 Colin James – vocals, guitars Colin Linden – acoustic and slide guitars, background vocals Norm Fisher – bass Chris "The Wrist" Norquist – drums and percussion Johnny Ferreira - tenor saxophone Campbell Ryga - alto saxophone James O'Mara - design, photography National Steel