Gerald Joseph Gerry Mulligan was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist and arranger. Mulligans pianoless quartet of the early 1950s with trumpeter Chet Baker is still regarded as one of the more important cool jazz groups, Mulligan was a skilled pianist and played several other reed instruments. Several of his compositions, such as Walkin Shoes and Five Brothers, have become jazz standards, Gerry Mulligan was born in Queens Village, New York, the son of George and Louise Mulligan. His father was a Wilmington, Delaware native of Irish descent, his mother a Philadelphia native of half Irish, Gerry was the last of four sons, Phil and Gerry. George Mulligans career as an engineer necessitated frequent moves through numerous cities, when Gerry was less than a year old, the family moved to Marion, where his father accepted a job with the Marion Power Shovel Company. With the demands of a home and four young boys to raise, Mulligans mother hired an African-American nanny named Lily Rose. Black musicians sometimes came through town, and because many motels would not take them, the young Mulligan occasionally met such musicians staying at Roses home.
The familys moves continued with stops in southern New Jersey, Chicago and Kalamazoo, when the school moved into a new building and established music courses, Mulligan decided to play clarinet in the schools nascent orchestra. When Gerry Mulligan was 14, his family moved to Detroit and to Reading, while in Reading, Mulligan began studying clarinet with dance-band musician Sammy Correnti, who encouraged Mulligans interest in arranging. Mulligan began playing professionally in dance bands in Philadelphia, an hour. The Mulligan family next moved to Philadelphia, where Gerry attended the West Philadelphia Catholic High School for Boys and organized a big band. When Mulligan was sixteen, he approached Johnny Warrington at local radio station WCAU about writing arrangements for the house band. Warrington was impressed and began buying Mulligans arrangements, Mulligan dropped out of high school during his senior year to pursue work with a touring band. He contacted bandleader Tommy Tucker when Tucker was visiting Philadelphias Earle Theatre, while Tucker did not need an additional reedman, he was looking for an arranger and Mulligan was hired at $100 a week to do two or three arrangements a week.
At the conclusion of Mulligans three-month contract, Tucker told Mulligan that he should move on to another band that was a little less tame. Mulligan went back to Philadelphia and began writing for Elliot Lawrence, Mulligan moved to New York City in January 1946 and joined the arranging staff on Gene Krupas bebop-tinged band. Notable arrangements of Mulligans work with Krupa include Birdhouse, Disc Jockey Jump, Mulligan next began arranging for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra, occasionally sitting in as a member of the reed section. Thornhills arranging staff included Gil Evans, whom Mulligan had met while working with the Krupa band
Music of India
The music of India includes multiple varieties of Indian classical music, folk music and Indian pop. Indias classical music tradition, including Hindustani music and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia, Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life. The basic concepts of music includes shruti, alankar, raga. Its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called shrutis, not all equal, the Hindustani music tradition diverged from Carnatic music around the 13th-14th centuries CE. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic times where the hymns in Sama Veda, developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India but in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Classical genres are dhrupad, khyal and sadra, the present of Carnatic music can be traced to the 14th - 15th centuries AD and thereafter. It originated in South India during the rule of Vijayanagar Empire, like Hindustani music, it is melodic, with improvised variations, but tends to have more fixed compositions.
It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Neraval and, in the case of advanced students, Tala. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, there are about 7.2 million ragas in Carnatic Music, with around 300 still in use today. Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its eight-week-long Music Season, Carnatic music has served as the foundation for most music in South India, including folk music, festival music and has extended its influence to film music in the past 100–150 years or so. Light classical or semi-classical, among others, Dadra, Chaiti and Tappa, Rabindra Sangeet, known as Tagore songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in India, Sangeet means music, Rabindra Sangeet means music of Rabindra. Rabindra Sangeet used Indian classical music and traditional music as sources. Rabindranath Tagore was a figure in Indian music.
Many singers in West Bengal and Bangladesh base their careers on the singing of Tagore musical masterpieces. The national anthem of India and national anthem of Bangladesh are Rabindra Sangeets, bihu is the festival of New Year of Assam falling on mid April. This is a festival of nature and mother earth where the first day is for the cows, second day is for the man. Bihu dances and songs accompanied by drums and wind instruments are essential part of this festival
'S Make It
S Make It is a recording by the hard bop Art Blakey jazz ensemble. It was recorded in Los Angeles in 1964 and issued on the Limelight label, following the departure of stars from his 1961 to 1964 band, Freddie Hubbard, Wayne Shorter and Cedar Walton, it includes previous Blakey alumni and newer players. This was trombonist Curtis Fullers last recording as a member of the group. The album was re-released on Verve in 2004, jeffery S. McMillan has called the release one of Blakeys most underrated works and that it exemplifies his 1964-1965 work. In a review in the December 1965 issue of Black World, the track is describes as a diabolical concept. David Rickert calls the album a fine Messengers album and an example of the drummers consistently satisfying work. Russ Musto referred to the release as a return to a soulful sound. Ken Dryden stated in his Allmusic review that Its a shame that this was the recording by this particular lineup of the Jazz Messengers
John Birks Dizzy Gillespie was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader and singer. AllMusics Scott Yanow wrote, Dizzy Gillespies contributions to jazz were huge, Gillespie was a trumpet virtuoso and improviser, building on the virtuoso style of Roy Eldridge but adding layers of harmonic complexity previously unheard in jazz. His beret and horn-rimmed spectacles, his singing, his bent horn, pouched cheeks. In the 1940s Gillespie, with Charlie Parker, became a figure in the development of bebop. He taught and influenced other musicians, including trumpeters Miles Davis, Jon Faddis, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Morgan, Chuck Mangione. Gillespie was born in Cheraw, South Carolina, the youngest of nine children of James, James was a local bandleader, so instruments were made available to the children. Gillespie started to play the piano at the age of four, Gillespies father died when he was only ten years old. Gillespie taught himself how to play the trombone as well as the trumpet by the age of twelve, from the night he heard his idol, Roy Eldridge, play on the radio, he dreamed of becoming a jazz musician.
He received a scholarship to the Laurinburg Institute in North Carolina which he attended for two years before accompanying his family when they moved to Philadelphia. Teddy Hills band was where Gillespie made his first recording, King Porter Stomp, Willis was not immediately friendly but Gillespie was attracted anyway. The two finally married on May 9,1940 and they remained married until his death in 1993. Gillespie stayed with Teddy Hills band for a year, left, in 1939, Gillespie joined Cab Calloways orchestra, with which he recorded one of his earliest compositions, the instrumental Pickin the Cabbage, in 1940. After a notorious altercation between the two men, Calloway fired Gillespie in late 1941, the incident is recounted by Gillespie, along with fellow Calloway band members Milt Hinton and Jonah Jones, in Jean Bachs 1997 film, The Spitball Story. Calloway did not approve of Gillespies mischievous humor, nor of his approach to soloing, according to Jones. Finally, their grudge for each other erupted over a thrown spitball, Calloway never thought highly of Gillespie, because he didnt view Gillespie as a good musician.
Once during a rehearsal, a member of the band threw a spitball, already in a foul mood, Calloway decided to blame this on Gillespie. In order to clear his name, Gillespie didn’t take the blame, Calloway had minor cuts on the thigh and wrist. After the two men were separated, Calloway fired Gillespie, a few days later, Gillespie tried to apologize to Calloway, but he was dismissed
Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of piano and. The trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie wrote, The piano is the basis of modern harmony and this little guy came out of Chicago, Earl Hines. He changed the style of the piano and you can find the roots of Bud Powell, Herbie Hancock, all the guys who came after that. If it hadnt been for Earl Hines blazing the path for the generation to come. There were individual variations but the style of, the modern piano came from Earl Hines. The pianist Lennie Tristano said, Earl Hines is the one of us capable of creating real jazz. Horace Silver said, He has a unique style. No one can get that sound, no other pianist, Erroll Garner said, When you talk about greatness, you talk about Art Tatum and Earl Hines. Count Basie said that Hines was the greatest piano player in the world, Hines was born in Duquesne, Pennsylvania,12 miles from the center of Pittsburgh, in 1903.
His father, Joseph Hines, played cornet and was the leader of the Eureka Brass Band in Pittsburgh, Hines intended to follow his father on cornet, but blowing hurt him behind the ears, whereas the piano did not. The young Hines took lessons in playing classical piano, by the age of eleven he was playing the organ in his Baptist church. He had an ear and a good memory and could replay songs after hearing them in theaters and park concerts. That astonished a lot of people and theyd ask where I heard these numbers, Hines said that he was playing piano around Pittsburgh before the word jazz was even invented. With his fathers approval, Hines left home at the age of 17 to take a job playing piano with Lois Deppe and His Symphonian Serenaders in the Liederhaus and he got his board, two meals a day, and $15 a week. Deppe, a well-known baritone concert artist who sang both classical and popular songs, used the young Hines as his concert accompanist and took him on his trips to New York. In 1921 Hines and Deppe became the first African Americans to perform on radio, Hiness first recordings were accompanying Deppe – four sides recorded for Gennett Records in 1923, still in the very early days of sound recording.
Only two of these were issued, one of which was a Hines composition, Congaine, a keen snappy foxtrot, which featured a solo by Hines