Limerick lace is a specific class of lace originating in Limerick, produced throughout the country. It evolved from the invention of a machine which made net in 1808; until John Heathcoat invented a net-making machine in Devon in 1815, handmade net was a expensive fabric. This meant cheap net became available to Irish lacemakers after 1823 when Heathcoat's patent expired. Limerick lace is a hybrid lace of embroidered needle lace or crocheted lace on a machine made net base, it is a'mixed lace' rather than a ‘true lace’, which would be hand made. Limerick lace comes in two forms: tambour lace, made by stretching a net over a frame like a tambourine and drawing threads through it with a hook, needlerun lace, made by using a needle to embroider on a net background; the lace was noted for its variety of delicate fillings, as many as 47 different ones being found in one collar. The Limerick lace industry was founded in 1829 by a native of Oxfordshire; the history of Limerick lace can be divided into two broad periods: the age of factory production 1829-c.1870 and the age of home and workshop production c.1870-1914.
In 1829, Walker brought over 24 girls to teach lace-making in Limerick, drawn to the area by the availability of cheap, skilled female labour, his business thrived. Charles Walker chose Limerick after touring various sites for the business. Limerick had a thriving Limerick glove industry, but at this time had a large population of unemployed women with a tradition of factory work. Limerick lace was produced in factories for the first forty years of its existence. Between the 1830s and 1860s, several lace factories operated in Limerick; the city’s second lace factory was established in 1835 by William Lloyd at Clare Street and in Abbey Court off Nicholas Street. In 1841, there were 400 girls working for him. In 1836, Leycester Greaves, a Cork man opened a factory in Limerick; these lace factories employed 2,000 women and girls. In the 1840s, Limerick lace making was introduced to a number of convents and convent-run institutions, both in Limerick and elsewhere. In 1850, lace making was introduced to the Good Shepherd Convent on Clare Street Limerick, but it was made in other religious houses based in the city, including the Presentation Convent in Sexton Street and the Mercy Convent at Mount Saint Vincent, on O’Connell Avenue.
Limerick lace was disseminated throughout Ireland by Catholic religious sisters, anxious to provide employment at the time of the Famine. They introduced it to several other convents, including religious houses in Youghal, Dunmore East and Kenmare. At the Good Shepherd Convent, the last lace making centre in Limerick, production ceased in 1990. In the 1860s and 1870s, the Limerick lace industry declined due to the market being flooded by machine made lace from chiefly from Nottingham. One reason for this period of decline was the realisation that design was necessary for beautiful lace. Following the Cork Industrial Exhibition of 1883, the President of Queen's College, wrote, ".. only well-designed and finely executed lace can hold its ground against machine lace."It was revived in the 1880s due to the work of Florence Vere O'Brien who established a Lace School in Limerick, which opened with eight pupils in May 1889. This ran until 1922. Another important promoter of Limerick lace during this period was Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Countess of Aberdeen who established the Irish Industries Association in 1886 to encourage the'Buy Irish' movement.
This was integral to reviving Limerick lace as a traditional craft. In 1904, Mrs Maude Kearney, a daughter of James Hodkinson, founder of the famous firm of specialists in church decoration in Henry Street, established a lace making business which she called the Thomond Lace Industry. Based in Thomondgate, Thomond Lace employed between fifty and eighty workers at the height of its success. After the Second World War, Limerick lace declined rapidly; those who are known to have worn Limerick lace were Queen Victoria, Edith Roosevelt and Countess Markievicz. When John F. Kennedy visited Limerick in 1963 he was presented with a lace christening robe; this christening robe was created in Clare Street, Limerick. Generations of churchmen wore Limerick lace and used lace to decorate their churches. Limerick Museum holds the largest collection of Limerick lace in the country. A collection is held in the Sisters of Mercy in Charleville, Co. Cork. Limerick lace is formed on a mesh using one or both of two techniques: Tambour – where chain stitch is created using a hook.
Needlerun – where stitches are darned onto the ground using a needle. Sometimes applique was used, including net appliqued onto net; the types of lace made in the first factory at this time were fichus, blond lace trimming and grey lace, traced by tambour workers and filled by runners. In the 1840s the types of lace in production were floss work, satin stitch, two-stitch and moss work, however the introduction of machine-made lace was impacting the quality of the running work. Limerick lace is still produced on a small commercial bases by individual lace makers such as Eileen Browne. A number of classes are held both within Limerick and throughout the country in an attempt to revive the practice. In 2014, the Limerick Archives published a comprehensive history on Limerick lace called Amazing Lace, written by Dr Matthew Potter and edited by Jacqui Hayes. Hybrid - a conference and a series of exhibitions dedicated to Limerick lace were held in 2016, it was a collaboration between Limerick Archives and L
Limerick is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city; the city lies on the River Shannon, with the historic core of the city located on King's Island, bounded by the Shannon and the Abbey River. Limerick is located at the head of the Shannon Estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 94,192, Limerick is the third most populous urban area in the state, the fourth most populous city on the island of Ireland; the Limerick City Metropolitan District had a population of 104,952. On 1 June 2014 following the merger of Limerick City and County Council a new Metropolitan District of Limerick was formed within the united council which extended the city area; the Metropolitan District includes the city urban area and extends outwards towards Patrickswell in the west and Castleconnell in the east. The City Metropolitan Area however excludes city suburbs located within County Clare.
Limerick is one of the constituent cities of the Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor which has a population of 1 million people. It is located at a strategic position on the River Shannon with four main crossing points near the city centre. To the south of the city is the Golden Vale, an area of rich pastureland. Much of the city's industry was based on this rich agricultural hinterland and it is noted for Limerick Ham. Luimneach referred to the general area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary known as Loch Luimnigh; the earliest settlement in the city, Inis Sibhtonn, was the original name for King's Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. This island was called Inis an Ghaill Duibh, "The Dark- Foreigner's Island"; the name is recorded in Viking sources as Hlymrekr. The city dates from 812, the earliest probable settlement. Antiquity's map-maker, produced in 150 the earliest map of Ireland, showing a place called "Regia" at the same site as King's Island. History records an important battle involving Cormac mac Airt in 221 and a visit by St. Patrick in 434 to baptise an Eóganachta king, Carthann the Fair.
Saint Munchin, the first bishop of Limerick died in 652, indicating the city was a place of some note. In 812 the Vikings sailed up the Shannon and pillaged the city, burned the monastery of Mungret but were forced to flee when the Irish attacked and killed many of their number; the Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as King John's Castle and St Mary's Cathedral. In early medieval times Limerick was at the centre of the Kingdom of Thomond which corresponds to the present day County Clare, the Kingdom included North Kerry and parts of South Offaly. One of the kingdom's most notable kings was ancestor of the O'Brien Clan of Dalcassians; the word Thomond is synonymous with the region and is retained in place names such as Thomondgate, Thomond Bridge & Thomond Park. Limerick in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was called the most beautiful city in Ireland; the English-born judge Luke Gernon, a resident of Limerick, wrote in 1620 that at his first sight of the city he had been amazed at its magnificence: "lofty buildings of marble, like the Colleges in Oxford".
During the civil wars of the 17th century the city played a pivotal role, besieged by Oliver Cromwell in 1651 and twice by the Williamites in the 1690s. The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland, fought between supporters of the Catholic King James II and the Protestant King William of Orange; the treaty offered toleration to Catholicism and full legal rights to Catholics that swore an oath of loyalty to William III and Mary II. The Treaty was of national significance as it ensured closer British and Protestant dominance over Ireland; the articles of the Treaty protecting Catholic rights were not passed by the Protestant Irish Parliament which rather updated the Penal Laws against Catholics which had major implications for Irish history. Reputedly the Treaty was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses; this stone is now displayed on a pedestal at Clancy Strand. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City.
This turbulent period earned the city its motto: Urbs antiqua fuit studisque asperrima belli. The peace times that followed the turmoil of the late 17th Century allowed the city to prosper through trade in the late 18th century. During this time Limerick Port established itself as one of Ireland's major commercial ports exporting agricultural produce from one of Ireland's most fertile areas, the Golden Vale, to Britain and America; this increase in trade and wealth amongst the city's merchant classes saw a rapid expansion of the city as Georgian Limerick began to take shape. This gave the city its present-day look including the extensive terraced streets of fine Georgian townhouses which remain in the city centre today; the Waterford and Limerick Railway linked the city to the Dublin–Cork railway line in 1848 and to Waterford in 1853. The opening of a number of secondary railways in the subsequent decades developed Limerick as a regional centre of communications. However, the economic downturn in the European conflicts of the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras, following the Act of Union 1800, the impact of the Great Irish Famine of 1848 caused much of the 19th Century to be a more
Limerick is a small township in Hastings County, Canada, near Limerick Lake. It is located 80 kilometres north of Belleville between Madoc and Bancroft and served by Ontario Highway 62 and County Road 620; the Township is bordered by the Town of Bancroft, Township of Wollaston and the joined Townships of Tudor and Cashel. The township is forested, as is the shoreline of the Limerick Lake, the main industry in the township being forestry and logging; the population of Limerick Township is approx. 300 full-year residents, another 1000 seasonal residents. It was named after the city of Limerick in Ireland; the township of Limerick comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities such as Martins Landing, Ormsby, St. Ola, Steenburg Lake.
San Ramon, California
San Ramon is a city in Contra Costa County, United States, located 34 miles east of San Francisco, within the San Ramon Valley. San Ramon's population was estimated as 75,931 in 2017 by the US Census Bureau, making it the 4th largest city in Contra Costa County, behind Richmond and Antioch. San Ramon is home to the headquarters of Chevron, 24 Hour Fitness, the West Coast headquarters of AT&T, the Global Software Center of General Electric, as well as the San Ramon Medical Center. Major annual events include the Art and Wind Festival on Memorial Day weekend and the Run for Education in October. On April 24, 2001, San Ramon received the title Tree City USA. San Ramon is adjacent to the north and Dublin, California, to the south. Unincorporated county lands border San Ramon to the east and west, it is located around 500 feet above sea level. Mount Diablo flanks the city to the northeast and is prominently visible from all parts of the city; the Las Trampas Regional Wilderness borders San Ramon's extreme northwest, at the northern end of Bollinger Canyon.
The smaller Bishop Ranch Regional Preserve straddles San Ramon's western border, located between Interstate 680 and the Alameda County line. The topography of San Ramon is varied, featuring a mix of the rolling hills of the Diablo Range and the flatter basin of the San Ramon Valley; the city is predominantly urban and residential with many new housing developments, however much of the land around the city's perimeter regions remains undeveloped, is covered by grasslands and oak tree orchards. During the drier months the grasses are golden. San Ramon's weather typifies a Mediterranean climate and moderate. Summers are warm and dry, while winters are mild and rather short, its weather is similar to the adjacent cities of Danville and Pleasanton. Fog can be infrequent but occurs in the western reaches of the city, at the eastern mouth of Crow Canyon, through which marine weather patterns funnel in from the San Francisco Bay via Castro Valley, it burns off by mid-to-late morning. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 58 °F and a minimum of 36 °F.
Average July temperatures are a maximum of 90 °F and a minimum of 56 °F. January is the wettest month, averaging 5.20 inches of precipitation and followed by March, is the second wettest month averaging 4.15 inches of precipitation. July is the driest month, with an average of only 0.06 inches of precipitation. Snow is rare except for Mount Diablo, but hail occurs a few times in the winter; the lands now occupied by the City of San Ramon were inhabited by Seunen people, an Ohlone/Costanoan group who built their homes near creeks. Sometime around 1797 they were taken by Mission San José for use as grazing land. In 1834, they were part of the Rancho San Ramon land grant to José María Amador. In 1964, Pacific Air Lines Flight 773 crashed near San Ramon after both pilots were shot by a passenger; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Ramon had a population of 72,148. The population density was 3,991.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Ramon was 38,639 White, 2,043 African American, 205 Native American, 25,713 Asian, 156 Pacific Islander, 1,536 from other races, 3,856 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,250 persons. The Census reported that 72,073 people lived in households, 52 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 23 were institutionalized. There were 25,284 households, out of which 11,988 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 16,318 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,997 had a female householder with no husband present, 850 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,067 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 187 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 4,682 households were made up of individuals and 1,105 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85. There were 19,165 families; the population was spread out with 21,351 people under the age of 18, 3,557 people aged 18 to 24, 22,798 people aged 25 to 44, 18,815 people aged 45 to 64, 5,627 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males.
There were 26,222 housing units at an average density of 1,450.6 per square mile, of which 25,284 were occupied and 18,056 of them were owner-occupied, 7,228 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 54,705 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 17,368 people lived in rental housing units. The median income for a household in the city was $119,297, the median income for a family was $132,339. Males had a median income of $97,475 versus $70,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $50,736. About 2.0% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 44,722 people, 16,944 households, 12,148 families residing in the
A limerick is a form of verse humorous and rude, in five-line, predominantly anapestic meter with a strict rhyme scheme of AABBA, in which the first and fifth line rhyme, while the third and fourth lines are shorter and share a different rhyme. The following example is a limerick of unknown origin: The form appeared in England in the early years of the 18th century, it was popularized by Edward Lear in the 19th century. Gershon Legman, who compiled the largest and most scholarly anthology, held that the true limerick as a folk form is always obscene, cites similar opinions by Arnold Bennett and George Bernard Shaw, describing the clean limerick as a "periodic fad and object of magazine contests rising above mediocrity". From a folkloric point of view, the form is transgressive; the standard form of a limerick is a stanza of five lines, with the first and fifth rhyming with one another and having three feet of three syllables each. The defining "foot" of a limerick's meter is the anapaest, but catalexis and extra-syllable rhyme can make limericks appear amphibrachic.
The first line traditionally introduces a person and a place, with the place appearing at the end of the first line and establishing the rhyme scheme for the second and fifth lines. In early limericks, the last line was essentially a repeat of the first line, although this is no longer customary. Within the genre, ordinary speech stress is distorted in the first line, may be regarded as a feature of the form: "There was a young man from the coast. Exploitation of geographical names exotic ones, is common, has been seen as invoking memories of geography lessons in order to subvert the decorum taught in the schoolroom; the most prized limericks incorporate a kind of twist, which may be revealed in the final line or lie in the way the rhymes are intentionally tortured, or both. Many limericks show some form of internal rhyme, alliteration or assonance, or some element of word play. Verses in limerick form are sometimes combined with a refrain to form a limerick song, a traditional humorous drinking song with obscene verses.
David Abercrombie, a phonetician, takes a different view of the limerick, one which seems to accord better with the form. It is this: Lines one and five have three feet, to say three stressed syllables, while lines three and four have two stressed syllables; the number and placement of the unstressed syllables is rather flexible. There is at least one unstressed syllable between the stresses but there may be more – as long as there are not so many as to make it impossible to keep the equal spacing of the stresses; the origin of the name limerick for this type of poem is debated. The name is taken to be a reference to the City or County of Limerick in Ireland sometimes to the Maigue Poets, may derive from an earlier form of nonsense verse parlour game that traditionally included a refrain that included "Will you come to Limerick?"Until the first known usage in England was from 1898 and in the United States from 1902, but in recent years several earlier examples have been documented, the earliest being an 1880 reference, in a Saint John, New Brunswick newspaper, to an well-known tune, Tune: Won't you come to Limerick.
The limerick form was popularized by Edward Lear in his first Book of Nonsense and a work, More Nonsense, Rhymes, etc.. Lear wrote 212 limericks considered nonsense literature, it was customary at the time for limericks to accompany an absurd illustration of the same subject, for the final line of the limerick to be a variant of the first line ending in the same word, but with slight differences that create a nonsensical, circular effect. The humour is not in the "punch line" ending but rather in the tension between its lack; the following is an example of one of Edward Lear's limericks. Lear's limericks were typeset in three or four lines, according to the space available under the accompanying picture; the limerick form is so well known. The following example is of unknown origin: Other parodies deliberately break the rhyme scheme, like the following example, attributed to W. S. Gilbert: Comedian John Clarke has parodied Lear's style: The British wordplay and recreational mathematics expert Leigh Mercer devised the following mathematical limerick: 12 + 144 + 20 + 3 4 7 + = 9 2 + 0 This is read as follows: Chastushka Clerihew Double dactyl Lecherous Limericks, a book of limericks by Isaac Asimov Light verse Nonsense literature Quintain "The Negotiation Limerick File", a song by Beastie Boys rapped in the form of a limerick There on
Earl of Limerick
Earl of Limerick is a title, created twice in the Peerage of Ireland, associated first with the Dongan family with the Pery family. The earldom was created for the first time in 1686 for Sir William Dongan, 4th Baronet, with remainder, failing male issue of his own, to his brothers Robert and Thomas and the heirs male of their bodies, he was made Viscount Dungan, of Clane in the County of Kildare, at the same time in the Peerage of Ireland and with similar remainder. His only son Walter Dungan, Viscount Dungan, was killed at the Battle of the Boyne and Lord Limerick was succeeded according to the special remainders by his brother Thomas Dongan, the second Earl, he was Governor of New York from 1683 to 1688. All three titles became extinct on his death in 1715; the Dungan Baronetcy, of Castletown in the County of Kildare, was created in the Baronetage of Ireland in 1623 for Walter Dungan. The title was created for the second time in 1803 in favour of 1st Viscount Limerick, he was the son of the Right Reverend William Pery, Bishop of Limerick from 1784 to 1794.
In 1790 the latter was raised to the Peerage of Ireland as Baron Glentworth, of Mallow in the County of Cork. He was succeeded by the second Baron, he represented Limerick City in the Irish House of Commons and was a supporter of the Union with Great Britain. On 29 December 1800 he was created Viscount Limerick, of the City of Limerick, on 11 February 1803 he was further honoured when he was made Earl of Limerick, of the County of Limerick. Both titles were in the Peerage of Ireland. Lord Limerick sat in the House of Lords as one of the 28 original Irish Representative Peers from 1800 to 1844. In 1815 he was created Baron Foxford, of Stackpole Court in the County of Limerick, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, his great-grandson, the third Earl, was a Conservative politician and served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard from 1889 to 1892 and from 1895 to 1896. He was succeeded by the fourth Earl, he was succeeded by his half-brother, the fifth Earl. He was a soldier and served as President of the Medical Research Council between 1952 and 1960.
His eldest son, the sixth Earl, was a successful businessman. Lord Limerick served as Under-Secretary of State of Trade from 1972 to 1974 in the Conservative administration of Edward Heath; as of 2014 the titles are held by his son, the seventh Earl, who succeeded in 2003. Another member of the Pery family was Edmund Pery, 1st Viscount Pery, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons from 1771 to 1785, he was the elder brother of the first Baron Glentworth. The heir to the earldom uses the title Viscount Glentworth; the family seat was Dromore Castle, near County Limerick. Sir Walter Dongan, 1st Baronet Sir John Dongan, 2nd Baronet Sir Walter Dongan, 3rd Baronet Sir William Dongan, 4th Baronet William Dongan, 1st Earl of Limerick Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick William Cecil Pery, 1st Baron Glentworth Edmund Henry Pery, 2nd Baron Glentworth Edmund Henry Pery, 1st Earl of Limerick William Henry Tennison Pery, 2nd Earl of Limerick William Hale John Charles Pery, 3rd Earl of Limerick William Henry Edmund de Vere Sheaffe Pery, 4th Earl of Limerick Edmond Colquhoun Pery, 5th Earl of Limerick Patrick Edmund Pery, 6th Earl of Limerick Edmund Christopher Pery, 7th Earl of Limerick The heir apparent is the present holder's son Felix Edmund Pery, Viscount Glentworth.
Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Edmund Henry Pery, 1st Earl of Limerick
Limerick Generating Station
The Limerick Generating Station in Pennsylvania is located next to the Schuylkill River in Limerick Township, Montgomery County, northwest of Philadelphia. The facility has two General Electric boiling water reactor units, cooled by natural draft cooling towers; the two units are capable of producing over 1,200 megawatts of power, which combined would provide electricity to over 2 million households. Exelon Corporation operates this facility. With the exception of refueling outages, Limerick Generating Station always operates at 100% power; the plant is connected to the grid by several 500kv transmission lines. For critical standby power, Exelon depends on eight Fairbanks Morse Opposed Piston 38D 8 1/8 Emergency Diesel Generator sets that each deliver 3000 kilowatts of power and are capable of achieving rated speed within ten seconds of start; the cooling towers for the Limerick Generating Station can be seen for miles away in parts of Montgomery and Berks counties. On clear days the cooling towers for the Limerick Generating Station can be seen from the One Liberty Observation Deck in Philadelphia.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles, concerned with exposure to, inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity. The 2010 U. S. population within 10 miles of Limerick was 252,197, an increase of 18.7 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U. S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U. S. population within 50 miles was 8,027,924, an increase of 6.1 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Philadelphia; the site was chosen and plans to build the station were announced in 1969, by the Philadelphia Electric Company. It is located one mile south of Sanatoga, PA. Community protests by the Keystone Alliance and other delays pushed the start of construction by the Bechtel Power Corporation to June 1974. Limerick Unit 1 first attained criticality on December 22, 1984 and was certified for commercial operation on February 1, 1986.
Limerick Unit 2 attained criticality on August 1, 1989, commercial operation began on January 8, 1990. President George W. Bush visited the Limerick Generating Station in May 2006 to discuss nuclear power and its role in the Advanced Energy Initiative, which he announced at the 2006 State of the Union Address, he toured the facility, including a trip to the control room of the plant. On October 20, 2014, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted extensions for Limerick Units 1 and 2 for another 20 years; the units now are licensed to operate until 2049 respectively. Unit 2 of the station was scrammed from 100 % power to a shutdown on June 2016, at 9 am; the reactor was shut down due to an electrical fault, causing the stopping of the recirculation pumps. The steam bypass valves that lead to the main condenser were opened and Limerick went through a normal hot shutdown process; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Limerick was 1 in 18,868, according to an NRC study published in August 2010.
Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, government regulators announced the plant would undergo further evaluations for seismic activity risk. A quarry is located nearby which does blasting. Nuclear power Fricks Locks Historic District List of largest power stations in the United States Largest nuclear power plants in the United States DoE Page Nuclear Tourist page on this site. NRC page. Includes many more than the "Future" list below. Www.exeloncorp.com