Aurelian was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war, he defeated the Goths, Juthungi and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273; the following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west. He was responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, the abandonment of the province of Dacia, his successes were instrumental in ending the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or "Restorer of the World". Although Domitian was the first emperor who had demanded to be hailed as dominus et deus, these titles never occurred in written form on official documents until the reign of Aurelian. Aurelian was born on 9 September, most in 214 AD, although 215 AD is possible; the ancient sources do not agree on his place of birth, although he was accepted as being a native of Illyricum but, another common belief was that he was born in Greece.
Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior is the preferred location, created by Aurelian as Emperor when he abandoned the old trans-Danubian territory of Dacia. The academic consensus is that he was of humble birth and that his father was a peasant-farmer who took his Roman nomen from his landlord, a senator of the clan Aurelius. Saunders suggests that his family might in fact have been of Roman settler origin and of much higher social status. Using the evidence of the ancient sources, it was at one time suggested that Aurelian's mother was a freedwoman of a member of the clan Aurelius and that she herself was a priestess of the Sun-God in her native village; these two propositions, together with the tradition that the clan Aurelius had been entrusted with the maintenance of that deity's cult in Rome, inspired the notion that this could explain the devotion to the sun-god that Aurelian was to manifest as Emperor - see below. However, it seems that this pleasant extrapolation of dubious facts is now accepted as being no more than just that.
It is accepted that Aurelian joined the army in 235 AD at around age twenty. It is generally assumed that, as a member of the lowest rank of society—albeit a citizen—he would have enlisted in the ranks of the legions. Saunders suggests that his career is more understood if it is assumed that his family was of Roman settler origins with a tradition of military service and that he enlisted as an equestrian; this would have opened up for him the tres militia—the three steps of the equestrian military career—one of the routes to higher equestrian office in the Imperial Service. This could be a more expeditious route to senior military and procuratorial offices than that pursued by ex-rankers, although not less laborious. However, Saunders's conjecture as to Aurelian's early career is not supported by any evidence other than his nomen which could indicate Italian settler ancestry—although this is contested—and his rise to the highest ranks, more understood if he did not have to start from the bottom.
His suggestion has not been taken up by other academic authorities. Whatever his origins, Aurelian must have built up a solid reputation for military competence during the tumultuous mid-decades of the century. To be sure, the exploits detailed in the Historia Augusta vita Divi Aureliani, while not always impossible, are not supported by any independent evidence and one at least is demonstrably an invention typical of that author. However, he was associated with Gallienus's cavalry army and shone as an officer of that corps d'élite because, when he emerged in a reliable context in the early part of the reign of Claudius II, he seems to have been its commander, his successes as a cavalry commander made him a member of emperor Gallienus' entourage. In 268, Aurelian and his cavalry participated in general Claudius' victory over the Goths at the Battle of Naissus; that year Gallienus traveled to Italy and fought Aureolus, his former general and now usurper for the throne. Driving Aureolus back into Mediolanum, Gallienus promptly besieged his adversary in the city.
However, while the siege was ongoing the Emperor was assassinated. One source says Aurelian, present at the siege and supported general Claudius for the purple—which is plausible. Aurelian was married to Ulpia Severina. Like Aurelian she was from Dacia, they are known to have had a daughter together. Claudius was acclaimed Emperor by the soldiers outside Mediolanum; the new Emperor ordered the senate to deify Gallienus. Next, he began to distance himself from those responsible for his predecessor's assassination, ordering the execution of those directly involved. Aureolus was still besieged in Mediolanum and sought reconciliation with the new emperor, but Claudius had no sympathy for a potential rival; the emperor had Aureolus killed and one source implicates Aurelian in the deed even signing the warrant for his death himself. During the reign of Claudius, Aurelian was promoted rapidly: he was given command of the elite Dalmatian cavalry, was soon promoted to overall Magister equitum the head of the army after the Emperor – and the Emperor Claudius' own position before his acclamation.
The war against Aureolus and the concentration of forces in It
Battle of Actium
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over its dominions, he adopted the title of Princeps and some years was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in times; as Augustus, he retained the trappings of a restored Republican leader, but historians view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. The alliance among Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term in 38 BC.
However, the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the professed son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a major threat to his power. This occurred when Mark Antony, the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the de facto stepfather to Caesarion; such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal. Antony was perceived by Octavian and the majority of the Roman Senate as the leader of a separatist movement that threatened to break the unity of the Roman Republic. Octavian's prestige and, more the loyalty of his legions had been boosted by Julius Caesar's legacy of 44 BC, by which 19-year-old Octavian was adopted as Caesar's only son and the sole legitimate heir of his enormous wealth. Antony had been the most important and most successful senior officer in Caesar's army and, thanks to his military record, claimed a substantial share of the political support of Caesar's soldiers and veterans.
Both Octavian and Antony had fought against their common enemies in the civil war that followed the assassination of Caesar. After years of loyal cooperation with Octavian, Antony started to act independently arousing his rival's suspicion that he was vying to become sole master of Rome; when he left Octavia Minor and moved to Alexandria to become Cleopatra's official partner, he led many Roman politicians to believe that he was trying to become the unchecked ruler of Egypt and other eastern kingdoms while still maintaining his command over the many Roman legions in the East. As a personal challenge to Octavian's prestige, Antony tried to get Caesarion accepted as a true heir of Caesar though the legacy did not mention him. Antony and Cleopatra formally elevated Caesarion 13, to power in 34 BC, giving him the vague but alarming title of "King of the Kings". Being a son of Caesar, such an entitlement was felt as a threat to Roman republican traditions, it was believed that Antony had once offered a diadem to Caesar.
Thereafter, Octavian started a propaganda war, denouncing Antony as an enemy of Rome, asserting that he was seeking to establish a personal monarchy over the entire Roman Empire on behalf of Caesarion, circumventing the Roman Senate. It was said that Antony intended to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria; as the Second Triumvirate formally expired on the last day of 33 BC, Antony wrote to the Senate that he did not wish to be reappointed. He hoped that he might be regarded by them as their champion against the ambition of Octavian, whom he presumed would not be willing to abandon his position in a similar manner; the causes of mutual dissatisfaction between the two had been accumulating. Antony complained that Octavian had exceeded his powers in deposing Lepidus, in taking over the countries held by Sextus Pompeius and in enlisting soldiers for himself without sending half to him. Octavian complained. During 32 BC one-third of the Senate and both consuls allied with Antony; the consuls had determined to conceal the extent of Antony's demands.
Gnaeus Ahenobarbus seems to have wished to keep quiet, but Gaius Sosius on 1 January made an elaborate speech in favor of Antony, would have proposed the confirmation of his act had it not been vetoed by a tribune. Octavian was not present, but at the next meeting made a reply of such a nature that both consuls left Rome to join Antony. After staying with his allies at Samos, Antony moved to Athens, his land forces, in Armenia, came down to the coast of Asia and embarked under L. Canidius Crassus. Octavian was not behind in his strategic preparations. Military operations began in 31 BC, when his general Agrippa captured Methone, a Greek town allied to Antony. However, by the publication of Antony's will, put into his hands by the traitor Plancus and by letting it be known in Rome what preparations were going on at Samos and how Antony was acting as the agent of Cleopatra, Octavian p
Oescus, or Palatiolon Palatiolum, was an ancient town along the Danube river, in Moesia, northwest of the modern Bulgarian city of Pleven, near the village of Gigen. It is a Daco-Moesian toponym. Ptolemy calls it a Triballian town, but it became Roman. For a short time, it was linked by a bridge with the ancient city of Sucidava; the city seems to have at one point reached a size of 280,000 m² and a population of 100,000. The Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy described Ulpia Oescus as a city of the Triballi, an independent Ancient Thracian tribe which inhabited today’s Northwest Bulgaria; the name of the Roman town comes from the river Oescus. It meant "water" in the local Thracian dialect. Under Roman rule, Oescus was an important settlement and military post, protecting the Danubian Limes road to Trimontium, modern-day Plovdiv; the city was connected to the rest of the Roman empire by three roads: Via Egnatia-Danube: Heraclea Lyncestis – Ceramiae – Stobi – Astibos – Tranupara – Pautalia – Aelea – Serdica – Oescus.
Philippopolis – Oescus: Philippopolis ‐ Viamata – Sub Radice – Montemno – Ad Radices – Sostra – Melta – Doriones – Storgosia – Ad Putea – OescusThe Danube road: Singidunum – Viminacium – Ratiaria – Oescus – Novae – Durostorum – mouth of the Danube River. The Roman Fifth Macedonian Legion maintained its permanent military encampment at this site from 10 - 101 AD. Remains of the camp's defensive wall are still visible and areas to the east-northeast show signs of the presence of a necropolis from this period, containing epigraphic monuments of veterans; when the Danube defences were strengthened a second legion Legio IV Scythica was stationed here until 101 AD. In 102 Trajan granted the site the status of a colonia; the actual founding occurred in 106 by the settlement of veterans of the VI Macedonica and the Legio I Italica Legions, the earliest remains of Roman buildings have been dated to this period. The city was built on top of the legionary fortress; the site received Colonia Ulpia Oescensium.
In 167 Oescus received the unique additional privilege of being granted all Roman rights. In 190–191 the city dedicated a pagan temple to the goddess Fortuna, designated as protector of the city. There existed a temple of the Capitoline Triad; the city's economy included manufacturing of jewellery, bronze statuettes bronze brooches and other metal objects and vessels, ceramics and bone articles. It was home to one of the largest sculpture workshops in the region. After 271, the Legio V Macedonica returned, built a second fortress. An aqueduct was built to deliver fresh water from springs 20 kilometers away, a stone wall was constructed to protect the site from invaders and from the Danube floods. On 5 July 328 Emperor Constantine I opened and consecrated the Constantines's Bridge, the biggest and most famous stone bridge on the Danube; the crossing linked Oescus with Sucidava to the north and, measuring 2.5 km long by 5.7 meters wide, was the largest river bridge in ancient times. However, the span was only used for about 27 years.
In 411, the Huns destroyed Oescus, in 444 an attempt was made to resettle it as a Hun settlement, named Hunion. Emperor Justinian I rebuilt the city's fortress wall, in an attempt to re-establish Oescus as the stronghold of the Danube defense system, but all the efforts were stopped in late 585 and early 586 by the invasion of the Avars. A Bulgarian village existed on the site during the 10th–14th centuries. Oescus is one of the most continuously studied ancient cities of the Lower Danube. Archaeological excavations began at the site in 1904, carried out by Vaclav Dobruski; the fortified city has the shape of an irregular pentagon, with an initial area of 18 hectares. There exists a plan to excavate and reconstruct the site, with the goal of providing a complete impression of an ancient Roman commercial and military center. In 1948, the mosaic known popularly, it is on display, along with many other of the site's artifacts, at the Pleven Regional Historical Museum. Other artifacts from the site, such as a statue of the goddess Fortuna, are on view at the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia.
Archaeological surveys of the eastern extension of Oescus II indicate houses from the Principate period, some of which were quite massive and were decorated with mosaics that could be dated to the time of Septimius Severus. The ruins indicate the wealth of the Severan dynasties. There are a main gate, administrative buildings, a civil basilica, three public baths, wells, a preserved road, pagan temples, a necropolis, defensive walls, a forum. There exist ruins of Constantines's Bridge, but they can be seen only from the northern bank of the Danube. Oescus Island in Antarctica is named after Oescus. Dacian davae List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia Dacia Moesia Roman Dacia 3D Laser scanning and rendered movie
Gallienus known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 22 October 253 to spring 260 and alone from spring 260 to September 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces, his 15-year reign was the longest since the 19-year rule of Caracalla. Born into a wealthy and traditional senatorial family, Gallienus was the son of Valerian and Mariniana. Valerian became Emperor on 22 October 253 and had the Roman senate elevate Gallienus to the ranks of Caesar and Augustus. Valerian divided the empire between him and his son, with Valerian ruling the east and his son the west. Gallienus defeated the usurper Ingenuus in 258 and destroyed an Alemanni army at Mediolanum in 259; the defeat and capture of Valerian at Edessa in 260 by the Sasanian Empire threw the Roman Empire into the chaos of civil war. Control of the whole empire passed to Gallienus, he defeated the eastern usurpers Macrianus Major Mussius Aemilianus in 261–262 but failed to stop the formation of the breakaway Gallic Empire under general Postumus.
Aureolus, another usurper, proclaimed himself emperor in Mediolanum in 268 but was defeated outside the city by Gallienus and besieged inside. While the siege was ongoing, Gallienus was stabbed to death by the officer Cecropius as part of a conspiracy; the exact birth date of Gallienus is unknown. The 6th-century Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218, he was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana, who may have been of senatorial rank the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus, his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria. Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne, she was the mother of three princes: Valerian II, who died in 258. When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and Augustus, he was designated Consul Ordinarius for 254.
As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a century earlier and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. Division of the empire had become necessary due to its sheer size and the numerous threats it faced, it facilitated negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate directly with the emperor. Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine area, though he certainly visited the Danube area and Illyricum in the years from 253 to 258. According to Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he was energetic and successful in preventing invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, despite the weakness caused by Valerian's march on Italy against Aemilianus in 253. According to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there, a victory in Roman Dacia might be dated to that period; the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time.
In 255 or 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. During his Danube sojourn, he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II Caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I. Sometime between 258 and 260, while Valerian was distracted with the ongoing invasion of Shapur I in the East, Gallienus was preoccupied with his problems in the West, governor of at least one of the Pannonian provinces, took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II had died on the Danube, most in 258. Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus and Postumus. In any case, Gallienus reacted with great speed, he left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne, under the supervision of Albanus and the military leadership of Postumus. He hastily crossed the Balkans, taking with him the new cavalry corps under the command of Aureolus and defeated Ingenuus at Mursa or Sirmium.
The victory must be attributed to the cavalry and its brilliant commander. Ingenuus was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium. A major invasion by the Alemanni and other Germanic tribes occurred between 258 and 260 due to the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting Gallienus in the campaign against Ingenuus. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul, some reaching as far as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco; the Alemanni invaded through Agri Decumates followed by the Juthungi. After devastating Germania Superior and Raetia (parts
Constanța known as Tomis, is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania. It was founded around 600 BC; the city is located on the Black Sea coast. It is the largest city in the region of Dobruja; as of the 2011 census, Constanța has a population of 283,872, making it the fifth most populous city in Romania. The Constanța metropolitan area includes 14 localities within 30 km of the city, with a total population of 425,916 inhabitants, it is one of the largest metropolitan areas in Romania; the Port of Constanța has a length of about 30 km. It is the largest port on the Black Sea, one of the largest ports in Europe. According to Jordanes, the foundation of the city was ascribed to Tomyris the queen of the Massagetae: "After achieving this victory and winning so much booty from her enemies, Queen Tomyris crossed over into that part of Moesia, now called Lesser Scythia - a name borrowed from Great Scythia -, built on the Moesian shore of the Black Sea the city of Tomi, named after herself."
In 29 BC the Romans captured the region from the Odryses, annexed it as far as the Danube, under the name of Limes Scythicus. In AD 8, the Roman poet Ovid was banished here by Augustus and it was where he spent the remaining eight years of his life, he laments his exile in Tomis in his poems: Epistulae ex Ponto. Tomis was "by his account a town located in a war-stricken cultural wasteland on the remotest margins of the empire". A statue of Ovid stands in front of the History Museum. A number of inscriptions found in the city and its vicinity show that Constanța lies where Tomis once stood; some of these are now preserved in the British Museum in London. The city was afterwards included in the Province of Moesia, from the time of Diocletian, in Scythia Minor, of which it was the metropolis. After the 5th century, Tomis fell under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire. During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Tomis was besieged by the Avars in the winter of 597/598. Tomis was renamed to Constantiana in honour of Constantia, the half-sister of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great.
The earliest known usage of this name was "Κωνστάντια" in 950. The city lay at the seaward end of the Great Wall of Trajan, has evidently been surrounded by fortifications of its own. After successively becoming part of the Bulgarian Empire for over 500 years, of the independent principality of Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici and of Wallachia under Mircea I of Wallachia, Constanța fell under the Ottoman rule around 1419. A railroad linking Constanța to Cernavodă was opened in 1860. In spite of damage done by railway contractors there are considerable remains of ancient masonry walls, etc. An impressive public building, thought to have been a port building, has been excavated, contains the substantial remains of one of the longest mosaic pavements in the world. In 1878, after the Romanian War of Independence, Constanța and the rest of Northern Dobruja were ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Romania; the city became Romania's main transit point for much of Romania's exports. The Constanța Casino, both a historic monument and a modern symbol of the city, was the first building constructed on the shore of the Black Sea after Dobruja came under Romanian administration, with the cornerstone being laid in 1880.
On October 22, 1916, the Central Powers occupied Constanța. According to the Treaty of Bucharest of May 1918, article X.b. Constanța remained under the joint control of the Central Powers. Allied troops liberated the city in 1918 after the successful offensive on the Macedonian Front knocked Bulgaria out of the war. In the interwar years, the city became Romania's main commercial hub, so that by the 1930s over half of the national exports were going through the port. During World War II, when Romania joined the Axis powers, Constanța was one of the country's main targets for the Allied bombers. While the town was left undamaged, the port suffered extensive damage, recovering only in the early 1950s. Constanța is the administrative center of the county with the same name and the largest city in the EU Southeastern development region of Romania; the city is located on the Black Sea coast. Mamaia, an administrative district of Constanța, is the largest and most modern resort on the Romanian coast.
Mineral springs in the surrounding area and sea bathing attract many visitors in the summer. Constanța is one of the warmest cities in Romania, it has a humid subtropical climate, with semi-arid influences. There are four distinct seasons during the year. Summer is hot and sunny with a July and August average of 23 °C. Most summer days see a gentle breeze refreshing the daytime temperatures. Nights are somewhat muggy because of the heat stored by the sea. Autumn starts in mid or late September with sunny days. September can be warmer than June, owing to the warmth accumulated by the Black Sea during the summer; the first frost occurs on average in mid November. Winter is milder than other cities in southern Romania. Snow is not abundant but the weather can be windy and unpleasant. Winter arrives m
Legio V Macedonica
Legio quinta Macedonica was a Roman legion. It was originally levied in 43 BC by consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Octavian, it was based in the Balkan provinces of Macedonia and Dacia. In the Notitia Dignitatum records from beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Dacia, with detachments stationed in the east and Egypt; the last known evidence shows the legion, or detachments from it, stationed in Egypt in the seventh century one or two years before the Islamic conquest of Egypt. It is assumed that the legion fought in this war and was destroyed, although it is uncertain whether detachments or the whole legion were in Egypt, there is no further evidence of the legion's eventual fate, its symbol was the bull. The Legio V was one of the original twenty-eight legions raised by Octavian. There are two other fifth legions recorded: the V Urbana, it is possible. The legion participated in the Battle of Actium, it moved to Macedonia, where it stayed from 30 BC to AD 6, gaining its cognomen, before moving to Oescus.
In 62, some vexillationes of the Fifth fought under Lucius Caesennius Paetus in Armenia against the Parthian Empire. After the defeat of the Battle of Rhandeia, the whole V Macedonica, together with III Gallica, VI Ferrata, X Fretensis under the command of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, was sent to the east to fight in the victorious war against the Parthians; the Fifth was still in the East when the Great Jewish Revolt in Iudaea Province began in 66. Nero gave the V Macedonica, the X Fretensis and the XV Apollinaris to Titus Flavius Vespasianus to counter the revolt. In 67, in Galilee, the city of Sepphoris surrendered peacefully to the Roman army, the V Macedonica conquered Mount Gerizim, the chief sanctuary of the Samaritans. In the Year of the Four Emperors, 68, the legion stayed inactive in Emmaus, where several tombstones of soldiers of the V Macedonica remain. After the proclamation of Vespasian as Emperor and the end of the war under his son Titus, the V Macedonica left Iudaea and returned to Oescus.
In 96, the emperor Hadrian served the legion as tribunus militum. In 101, the legion moved to Dacia. After the war ended in 106, the legion remained in Troesmis, near the Danube Delta since 107. A centurion of the legion, Calventius Viator, rose to prominence and was promoted to commander of the emperor's horse guards, the equites singulares Augusti. Based on a Roman inscription discovered near Betar, Hadrian removed the V Macedonica from Dacia and sent it to Provincia Iudaea, or what is Judea, along with the Eleventh Claudian Legion, in order to put down an insurrection that broke out in the 16th year of his reign as Roman Emperor, while Tineius Rufus was governor of the province, which became known as the Jewish Revolt under Bar Kokhba; when Emperor Lucius Verus started his campaign against the Parthians, the legion moved to the east, but was returned in Dacia Porolissensis, with a basecamp in Potaissa. The northern frontier was a hot border of the Empire. At the beginning of the reign of Commodus, the V Macedonica and the XIII Gemina defeated once again the Iazyges, under the usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus.
The Fifth supported Septimius Severus, in his fight for the purple. In 185 or 187, the legion was awarded of the title Pia Constans or Pia Fidelis, after defeating a mercenary army in Dacia. While staying in Potaissa for most of the 3rd century, V Macedonica fought several times, earning honors. Valerian gave the Fifth the name III Pia III Fidelis. A vexillatio fought against Victorinus; the legion returned to Oescus in 274. It guarded the province in centuries, becoming a comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Orientis, it became part of the Byzantine army. The cavalry unit created by Gallienus was definitively detached by Diocletian, become part of his comitatus; this unit was sent to Mesopotamia, where it fought against the Sassanid Empire in 296, to Memphis, where it remained until becoming part of the Byzantine army. Legio V Macedonica is mentioned again in the Notitia Dignitatum, stationed in Dacia Ripensis, with detachments in the Oriental Field Army and in Egypt. Legio V Macedonica is again mentioned in both Antaeapolis and Heliopolis in inscriptions, which seem to have been detachments of the units in Memphis.
The last inscription provides the date of 635 or 636, indicating that at least part of the Legion was in Egypt until just before the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs began in 637. This would make Legio V Macedonica the longest-lived Roman Legion known to history, spanning 680 years from 43 BC to 637 AD. List of Roman legions livius.org account E. Ritterling, Legio, RE XII, col. 1572-5 Rumen Ivanov, Lixa Legionis V Macedonicae aus Oescus, ZPE 80, 1990, p. 131-136 D. Barag, S. Qedar, A Countermark of the Legio Quinta Scytica from the Jewish War, INJ 13, pp. 66–69. S. Gerson, A New Countermark of the Fifth Legion, INR 1
Moldova the Republic of Moldova, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia became autonomous and the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly; the decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR.
On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994; the strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP, its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad. Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and aspires to join the European Union.
The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Prince Dragoș named the river after hunting an aurochs: following the chase, the prince's exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river; the dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the name of the current Republic of Moldova was spelled "Moldavia". After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use Moldova; the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece. In 2010 N. K. Anisjutkin discovered Oldowan flint tools at Bayraki.
During the Neolithic stone-age era, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted from 5500 to 2750 BC, practised agriculture, raised livestock and made intricately-designed pottery. In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, Byzantine Empires. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Avars, Magyars, Cumans and Tatars. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain. Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The Bolohoveni, a Vlach population, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century. The chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev. Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. On the border between Halych and the