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Limes Saxoniae

The Limes Saxoniae known as the Limes Saxonicus or Sachsenwall, was an unfortified limes or border between the Saxons and the Slavic Obotrites, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein. After Charlemagne had removed Saxons from some of their lands and given it to the Obotrites, he managed to conquer the Saxons in the Saxon Wars. In 811 he signed the Treaty of Heiligen with the neighbouring Danes and may at the same time have reached a border agreement with the Polabian Slavs in the east; this border should not be thought of as a fortified line, but rather a defined line running through the middle of the border zone, an area of bog and thick forest, difficult to pass through. According to Adam of Bremen's description in the Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum about 1075, it ran from the Elbe river near Boizenburg northwards along the Bille river to the mouth of the Schwentine at the Kiel Fjord and the Baltic Sea, it was breached several times by the Slavic Obotrites and Mieszko II Lambert of Poland.

The Limes was dissolved during the first phase of the Ostsiedlung, when Count Henry of Badewide campaigned in Wagrian lands in 1138/39 and the Slavic population was Germanized by German Saxon, settlers. Matthias Hardt: "Hesse, Elbe and the Frontiers of the Carolingian Empire." In: Walther Pool / Ian N. Wood / Helmut Reimitz: The Transformation of Frontiers from Late Antiquity to the Carolingians; the Transformation of the Roman World 10. Leiden-Boston-Köln 2001, S. 219–232, ISBN 90-04-11115-8. Matthias Hardt: "Limes Saxoniae." In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, Bd. 18, Landschaftsrecht – Loxstedt. Berlin-New York 2001, S. 442–446, ISBN 3-11-016950-9. Günther Bock: "Böhmische Dörfer“ in Stormarn? – Verlauf und Bedeutung des Limes Saxoniae zwischen Bille und Trave." In: Ders.: Studien zur Geschichte Stormarns im Mittelalter. Neumünster 1996, S. 25–70, ISBN 978-3-529-07124-9

Prem Vivah

Prem Vivah is a 1979 Hindi-language Indian feature film directed by Basu Chatterjee and produced by Ramraj Nahta, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Bindiya Goswami, Utpal Dutt and Asha Parekh Asha Parekh plays an unmarried woman in her 30s, past what society considered the marriageable age. Her younger sister played by Bindiya Goswami has a fiancee Mithun Chakraborty, she feels guilty that she is about to have a happy married life, while her older sister will be all alone by herself. She sets out to find a husband for her; when she sees her sister admire Utpal Dutt on television, she brings him into their lives. Utpal Dutt falls for Bindiya Goswami and isn't aware that Asha Parekh has fallen in love with him. How Bindiya untangles herself from this situation and gets Utpal Dutt and Asha Parekh together forms the rest of the story. Asha Parekh Bindiya Goswami Deven Verma Harish Bhimani Keshav Date Mithun Chakraborty Neelima Pinchoo Kapoor Tun Tun Utpal Dutt Director – Basu Chatterjee Producer – Ramraj Nahta Screenplay – Basu Chatterjee CinematographerA. K. Bir Editor – V. N. Mayekar Costumes Designer – Leena Daru, Mani Rabadi Choreographer – Oscar, Vijay Music DirectorLaxmikant-Pyarelal LyricistAnand Bakshi Playback Singers – Lata Mangeshkar, Amit Kumar, Anuradha Paudwal, Kishore Kumar, Shailendra Singh All lyrics are written by Anand Bakshi.

Prem Vivah on IMDb

Hellenistic astrology

Hellenistic astrology is a tradition of horoscopic astrology, developed and practiced in the late Hellenistic period in and around the Mediterranean region in Egypt. The texts and technical terminology of this tradition of astrology were written in Greek; the tradition originated sometime around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE, was practiced until the 6th or 7th century CE. This type of astrology is referred to as "Hellenistic astrology" because it was developed in the late Hellenistic period, although it continued to be practiced for several centuries after the end of what historians classify as the Hellenistic era; the origins of much of the astrology that would develop in Asia and the Middle East are found among the ancient Babylonians and their system of celestial omens that began to be compiled around the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE. This system spread either directly or indirectly through the Babylonians to other areas such as China and Greece where it merged with preexisting indigenous forms of astrology.

It came to Greece as early as the middle of the 4th century BCE, around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE after the Alexandrian conquests this Babylonian astrology was mixed with the Egyptian tradition of Decanic astrology to create horoscopic astrology. This system is labeled as "horoscopic astrology" because, unlike the previous traditions, it employed the use of the ascendant, otherwise known as the horoskopos in Greek, the twelve celestial houses which are derived from it; the focus on the natal chart of the individual, as derived from the position of the planets and stars at the time of birth, represents the most significant contribution and shift of emphasis, made during the Hellenistic tradition of astrology. This new form of astrology spread across the ancient world into Europe, the Middle East. Additionally, some authors such as Vettius Valens and Paulus Alexandrinus took into account the Monomoiria, or individual degrees of a horoscope; this complex system of astrology was developed to such an extent that traditions made few fundamental changes to the core of the system, many of the same components of horoscopic astrology that were developed during the Hellenistic period are still in use by astrologers in modern times.

Several Hellenistic astrologers ascribe its creation to a mythical sage named Hermes Trismegistus. Hermes is said to have written several major texts which formed the basis of the art or its evolution from the system of astrology, inherited from the Babylonians and the Egyptians. Several authors cite Hermes as being the first to outline the houses and their meaning, thus the houses are thought to date back to the beginning of the Hellenistic tradition and indeed they are one of the major defining factors which separate Hellenistic astrology and other forms of horoscopic astrology from Babylonian astrology and other traditions in different parts of the world; this system of horoscopic astrology was passed to another mythical figure named Asclepius to whom some of the Hermetic writings are addressed. According to Firmicus Maternus, the system was subsequently handed down to an Egyptian pharaoh named Nechepso and his priest Petosiris, they are said to have written several major textbooks which explicated the system and it is from this text that many of the Hellenistic astrologers draw from and cite directly.

This system formed the basis of all forms of horoscopic astrology. In 525 BCE Egypt was conquered by the Persians so there is to have been some Mesopotamian influence on Egyptian astrology. Arguing in favour of this, Barton gives an example of what appears to be Mesopotamian influence on the zodiac, which included two signs – the Balance and the Scorpion, as evidenced in the Dendera Zodiac. After the occupation by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE, Egypt came under Greek influence; the city of Alexandria was founded by Alexander after the conquest and during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, the scholars of Alexandria were prolific writers. It was in'Alexandrian Egypt' that Babylonian astrology was mixed with the Egyptian tradition of Decanic astrology to create Horoscopic astrology; this contained the Babylonian zodiac with its system of planetary exaltations, the triplicities of the signs and the importance of eclipses. Along with this it incorporated the Egyptian concept of dividing the zodiac into thirty-six decans of ten degrees each, with an emphasis on the rising decan, the Greek system of planetary Gods, sign rulership and four elements.

The decans were a system of time measurement according to the constellations. They were led by the constellation Sothis or Sirius; the risings of the decans in the night were used to divide the night into ‘hours’. The rising of a constellation just before sunrise was considered the last hour of the night. Over the course of the year, each constellation rose just before sunrise for ten days; when they became part of the astrology of the Hellenistic Age, each decan was associated with ten degrees of the zodiac. Texts from the 2nd century BCE list predictions relating to the positions of planets in zodiac signs at the time of the rising of certain decans Sothis. Important in the development of horoscopic astrology was the astrologer and astronomer Ptolemy, who lived in Alexandria in Egypt. Ptolemy's work; the earliest Zodiac found in Egypt dates to the Dendera Zodiac. According to Firmicus Maternus, the system of horoscopic astrology was given early on to an Egyptian pharao