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Limited company

In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company. Limited companies may be limited by guarantee; the former may be further divided in private companies. Who may become a member of a private limited company is restricted by law and by the company's rules. In contrast, anyone may buy shares in a public limited company. Limited companies can be found in most countries, although the detailed rules governing them vary widely, it is common for a distinction to be made between the publicly tradable companies of the plc type, the "private" types of company This is a company that does not have share capital, but is guaranteed by its members, who agree to pay a fixed amount in the event of the company's liquidation. Charitable organisations are incorporated using this form of limited liability. Another example is the Financial Conduct Authority. In Australia, only an unlisted public company can be limited by guarantee.

Has shareholders with limited liability and its shares may not be offered to the general public. Shareholders of private companies limited by shares are bound to offer the shares to their fellow shareholders prior to selling them to a third party. A public limited company can be publicly traded on a stock exchange. S. Corporation and the German Aktiengesellschaft; the private company equivalent in Australia is the Proprietary Limited company. An Australian company with only Limited or Ltd after its name is a public company, such as a company listed on the ASX. Australia does not have a direct equivalent to the plc. A shareholder in a limited company, in the event of its becoming insolvent would be liable to contribute the amount remaining unpaid on the shares. "Paid" here relates to the amount paid to the company for the shares on first issue, should not be confused with amounts paid by one shareholder to another to transfer ownership of shares between them. A shareholder is thus afforded limited liability.

In Brazil, a limited company is registered as any other type of company. To register it, you must pay an accountant to research the name of your future business to check if it wasn't registered the accountant contacts the offices responsible for giving you the CNPJ, which are the commercial joint of the state and the IRS. After that the Ltda. or Lda. suffixes can be placed after the companies name or with Cia.: & Cia. Ltda. In Canada, a person wishing to register a limited company must file Articles of Incorporation with either their provincial government or the federal government. At the time of incorporation, a company must elect to use "Limited", "Incorporated" or "Corporation" as part of their name. In India, there are three types of limited company: a public limited company, a private limited company, a one-person company. A company's liability may be limited by shares, in which case the liability of the company's members is limited to the amount of the shares held by them, or it may be limited by guarantee, in which case the liability is limited to a predetermined amount the company's members have agreed to contribute if the company is dissolved with outstanding liabilities.

A private limited company is a limited company incorporated under the Companies Act 2013, with a minimum paid-up share capital of ₹1 lakh, with an article that restricts the transfer of its shares. A public limited company must have a paid-up share capital of at least ₹5 lakh, at least seven members. A one-person company is a private company with similar proprietorship and privileges to a private limited company, but with fewer requirements. Latest Updates: No Minimum Paid up Capital – Earlier the business organisations which wanted to take up a company as the preferred form of business organisation had to fulfil the requirement of minimum paid-up share capital of not less than ₹ 5 lakhs in case of public company and ₹1 lakh in case of private companies by way of Section 2 and 2 respectively. However, after in the recent Companies Amendment Act 2015, this requirement is scrapped, a company can go ahead with its incorporation without fulfilling this criterion. In Nigeria, there are two types of limited companies namely: a company limited by guarantee and a company limited by shares.

The company limited by shares is further divided into two namely a Private limited company and a Public limited company In Nigeria shareholders of limited companies are only liable for the amount of money they contributed to the company, All Nigerian companies regulated by the CAMC. In South Africa, the term "Proprietary Limited", abbreviated " Ltd", is used to refer to a private limited company. All South African companies are regulated by the CIPC; the registration of companies in the United Kingdom is done thro

2nd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division (United States)

The 2nd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division known as the 13th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the United States Army, a part of the 7th Infantry Division. The brigade was based at California for most of its history. Activated for service in World War I, the unit saw brief service in the conflict, but never fought as an entire unit. After the Korean War, it was reactivated as a brigade, was returned to the United States where it saw action in Operation Just Cause and Operation Golden Pheasant; the 2nd Brigade was sent to quell civil unrest resulting from the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. The brigade was deactivated in 1993; the 2nd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division was first constituted and activated in the regular army as the 13th Infantry Brigade on 6 December 1917 at Camp Wheeler, Georgia. One month it organized and prepared for deployment to Europe to participate in World War I as a part of the American Expeditionary Force, along with the rest of the division; the 13th Infantry Brigade was one of two brigades assigned to the division headquarters, the other being the 14th Infantry Brigade.

Serving within the brigade were the 34th Infantry Regiment and the 55th Infantry Regiment, bringing the total strength of the brigade to around 8,000 men. Most of the brigade sailed to Europe aboard the SS Leviathan. During its time in France, the brigade did not participate as a whole in any engagements, though its infantry and reconnaissance elements did engage German forces. On 11 October 1918 7th Division first came under shelling attacks. At Saint-Mihiel the units came under chemical attack. Elements of the 7th probed up toward Prény near the Moselle River, capturing positions and driving German forces out of the region, it was around this time that the division first received its shoulder sleeve insignia, which the 13th Brigade wore as a part of the division. In early November, the 13th Brigade began readying itself for an attack on the Hindenburg Line with the division, part of the Second Army; the division launched a reconnaissance in force on the Voëvre Plain, but before it could begin a full assault, the Allies signed an Armistice ending hostilities.

After 33 days on the front lines, the 7th Division suffered 1,988 casualties. It was awarded one campaign streamer for Lorraine; the brigade performed occupation duties for the next year as it began preparations to return to the continental United States. The 13th Brigade returned to the United States in late 1919, demobilized at Camp George G. Meade, Maryland until 1921. On 22 September of that year, the Headquarters Company, 7th Division was inactivated, the 13th and 14th Brigades deactivated with it. On 1 July 1940, the 7th Infantry Division was reactivated at Camp Ord, California Under the command of Major General Joseph W. Stilwell; the Headquarters element, 13th and 14th Brigades did not reactivate and the division was instead centered around three infantry regiments. The 13th Brigade was not activated for the duration of the war and its headquarters formation was not used to form a new unit. In the wake of the Korean War, between 1953 and 1971, the 7th Infantry Division defended the Korean Demilitarized Zone.

Its main garrison was South Korea. During these occupation duties, the division saw a complete reorganization in compliance with the Reorganization Objective Army Divisions plan. In 1963, the division's former headquarters company grew into the 1st Brigade, 7th Infantry Division while the 13th Infantry Brigade became the 2nd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division; the 14th Infantry Brigade redesignated at 7th Infantry Division. These renamed formations retained all of the lineage and campaign credits of their previous designations. On 2 April 1971, the division and its brigades returned to the United States and inactivated at Fort Lewis, Washington. In October 1974 the 7th and two brigades reactivated at Fort Ord; the unit did not see any action in Vietnam or during the post war era, but was tasked to keep a close watch on South American developments. It trained at Fort Ord, Camp Roberts, Fort Hunter Liggett. On 1 October 1985 the division redesignated as the 7th Infantry Division, organized again as a light infantry division.

It was the first US division specially designed as such. The various battalions of the 17th, 31st, 32nd Regiments moved from the division, replaced by battalions from other regiments, including battalions from the 21st Infantry Regiment, the 27th Infantry Regiment, the 9th Infantry Regiment; the 27th Infantry and the 9th Infantry Regiment participated in Operation Golden Pheasant in Honduras. In 1989 the 2nd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division participated in Operation Just Cause in Panama. In 1991 the Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended the closing of Fort Ord due to the escalating cost of living on the Central California coastline. By 1994, the garrison was closed and the Division was assigned to relocate to Fort Lewis, Washington; the 2nd Brigade, to include its Headquarters and Headquarters Company along with the 3rd Brigade's 3rd Battalion 17th Infantry Regiment and other assigned military police companies participated in one final mission in the United States before inactivation.

In 1993 the division was slated to move to Fort Lewis, WA and inactivate as part of the post-Cold War drawdown of the US Army, but the 2nd and 3rd Brigades of the 7th inactivated at Ft. Ord in 1993; the 1st Brigade relocated to Ft. Lewis and was reflagged as the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd

John Davis (cricketer)

Francis John Davis is a former Welsh cricketer. Davis was a right-handed batsman, he was born in Glamorgan. Davis was educated at Blundell's School in Devon, he made his first-class debut for Glamorgan against the touring Indians in 1959. Studying at St John's College, Oxford, it was for Oxford University that he made his next first-class appearance for in 1963, against Gloucestershire, he made 13 further first-class appearances for the university, the last of which came against Cambridge University in that same season. In his 14 first-class matches for the university, he scored 363 runs at an average of 21.35, with his only innings of note, a score of 63, came against Northamptonshire. Predominantly a bowler, Davis took 34 wickets for the university, at a bowling average of 30.00, with best figures of 5/67. These figures, his only five wicket haul for the university, came against Cambridge University. After concluding his studies, Davis returned to playing for Glamorgan in 1963, making 13 further infrequent first-class appearances for the county, with his final appearance coming against Middlesex in the 1967 County Championship.

Davis scored 189 runs in his 14 first-class matches for Glamorgan, which came at an average of 11.11, with a high score of 28*. With the ball, he took 18 wickets at an average of 37.44, with best figures of 5/72. His best figures came against Warwickshire in 1966; this innings was notable for 7 of the 8 wickets to fall going to Davis and his brother Roger. Davis left Glamorgan at the end of the 1967 season to pursue a career in teaching, he did however appear for Glamorgan in 2 List A matches in 1970, against Northamptonshire and Essex in the John Player League. In the first of these against Northamptonshire, Davis took the wicket of Mushtaq Mohammad for the cost of 28 runs from 8 overs. In the second of these, he bowled 5 wicket-less overs for the cost of 25 runs, while with the bat he scored 4 runs before being dismissed by West Indian Keith Boyce. Davis appeared for Hertfordshire, making his debut for the county in the 1977 Minor Counties Championship against Norfolk, he played Minor counties cricket for Hertfordshire in 1977 and 1978, making a total of 7 further appearances.

John Davis at ESPNcricinfo John Davis at CricketArchive

Mario Bellini

Mario Bellini is an Italian architect and designer. He graduated from the Milan Polytechnic - Faculty of Architecture in 1959 and began working as an architect himself in the early 1960s, he is the winner among others of 8 Compasso d’Oro and prestigious architecture awards including the Medaglia d’Oro conferred on him by the President of the Italian Republic. Like many other Italian architects, his activities range from architecture and urban planning to product and furniture design, his career as a product and furniture designer began in 1963, from 1963 to 1991 he was chief design consultant for Olivetti. For many years he designed furnishing products and systems for B&B Italia and Cassina, TV sets for Brionvega, hi-fi systems and electric organs for Yamaha. For five years he worked as an automobile design consultant with Renault. In 1972 he was commissioned to design and build the prototype of the Kar-a-Sutra mobile environment for the exhibition “Italy: the New Domestic Landscape” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

He has designed for Fiat and Lancia, lamps for Artemide and Flos, office furniture for Vitra. Other firms for whom he has designed and/or continues to design products include Acerbis, Driade, Castilia, Kartell, Marcatrè, Meritalia and Poltrona Frau, his early international success grew during the first two decades in the design sector, reached its peak in 1987 with a personal retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art of New York. At the time the museum included 25 of his works in its Permanent Collection, including a remarkable set of Olivetti machines as well as the furniture for B&B and Cassina - such as the famous "Cab" chair - and the innovative office chairs designed for Vitra. MBA's headquarters of 1,500 square metres in Milan were designed by Mario Bellini himself in the early 1990s, today an average of 30 to 35 architects. In 1999, MBA obtained ISO 9001 quality certification. Since the ‘80s, he has been successful in the field of architecture in Europe, the United States and the Arab Emirates.

Projects built Milan Convention Centre, Europe’s largest convention centre, 2008-2012Museum of Islamic Arts at Louvre Museum, Paris, 2005-2012 Museum of the City of Bologna, Italy, 2004-2012 Urban redevelopment “Verona Forum”, Italy, 2004–2011 Radical refurbishment of the Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt, Germany, 2007–2011 National Gallery of Victoria extension and redevelopment, Australia, 1996–2003 Essen International Fair Extension, Germany, 1998–2001 Natuzzi Americas Headquarters, High Point, North Carolina, USA, 1996–1998 Arsoa Co./Cosmetics- Headquarters, Japan, 1996–1998 New fair district of the Milan Trade Fair, 1987–1997 Risonare Vivre Club Complex, Japan, 1989–1992 Tokyo Design Center, Japan, 1988–1992 Yokohama Business Park, Japan, 1987–1991 Villa Erba Exhibition and Congress Centre, Cernobbio, 1986–1990 Thermoelectric power plant of Cassano d’Adda-Office building, 1985–1990Projects under construction Architectural project of a large Scientific-Technological Park at Erzelli Hill, Italy, 2005 Extension and redevelopment of the Pinacoteca di Brera Milan, 2009 New Cultural Centre of Turin, 2001 Among the best architectural creations New Museum of the city of Berlin, Germany, 2008 Sheikh Zayed National Museum International Competition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2007 European Patent Office, L’Aja, Holland, 2004 Cittanova 2000, Italy, 2003 Redevelopment of the City Centre of Tian Jin, China, 2003 Banca CR Firenze-New H.

Q. Italy, 2003 New International Trade Fair of Milan – Rho/Pero, Milan, 2002 Multifunctional Complex “MAB. Zeil Project”, Germany, 2002 Stolitza Towers, Moscow, 1996 Dubai Creek Complex, United Arab Emirates, 1994 Goshikidai Marine Resort, Japan, 1993 Avid art lover and collector, he has been responsible for the exhibition design of many art exhibitions, among which: "The Treasure of St. Marco in Venice", Grand Palais and the major museums around the world, 1984–87 "Italian Art in the 20th Century", Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1989 "The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo; the Representation of Architecture", Palazzo Grassi, Venice in Paris and Berlin, 1994–95 "The Triumphs of Baroque. Architecture in Europe 1600-1750", Stupinigi Hunting Palace, Turin. A designer at the Court of Queen Victoria", Milan, 2001 “Annisettanta. Il decennio lungo del secolo breve”, Triennale, 2007–2008 “Magnificenza e Progetto” Palazzo Reale, Milan, 2008–2009 In 1987, the Museum of Modern Art in New York organised the exhibition “Mario Bellini: designer”, the first great retrospective on a living artist In 1996, the Royal Institute of British Architects held an exhibition of Bellini’s work as an architect In 2000, the Municipal Gallery of Contemporary Art of Trento, Italy held a personal show “Mario Bellini: a path between architecture and cars” In December 2003, the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne reopened with a major exhibition on his work.

Fiell, Charlotte & Peter. Industrial Design A-Z. London: Taschen. Bellini Studios website

Laminaria hyperborea

Laminaria hyperborea is a species of large brown alga, a kelp in the family Laminariaceae known by the common names of tangle and cuvie. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean. A variety, Laminaria hyperborea f. cucullata is known from more wave sheltered areas in Scandinavia. Laminaria hyperborea is a leathery seaweed, up to 360 cm long; the holdfast is cone-shaped, with branched rhizoids, looking rather like a bird's foot. The stipe is circular in cross section, thick at the base and tapering upwards. Older stipes are covered with epiphytic red algae; the laminate blade is divided into linear segments and is yellowish brown with large digitate segments. It has been recorded as surviving for 15 years. Laminaria hyperborea can be distinguished from the rather similar L. digitata by being paler in colour and having a longer stipe which snaps when it is bent sharply. Laminaria ochroleuca is similar but is more yellow in colour and does not have the rough stipe found in L. hyperborea.

The range is the northeast Atlantic Ocean, from Scandinavia south to Spain and the Canary Islands, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Laminaria hyperborea grows on rocks in the sublittoral zone at depths down to about 10 m in turbid waters and down to 30 m where the water is clear, it tends to be the dominant species in a narrow zone near low-water at spring tides. It predominates in deeper waters on stable substrates in eave exposed areas while Saccharina latissima tends to be dominant in sheltered areas or those with less stable substrates. Down to about 15 m the growth may be dense and may be referred to as a "kelp forest" but at greater depths there is a more open community and these areas have been referred to as "parks". In young individuals of L. hyperborea, the annual growth consists of the enlargement of the blade. This maximises the photosynthetic opportunity while the plant's low stature causes it to be overshadowed. In years, more growth takes place in the stipe and holdfast. A new frond grows annually in the spring from the top of the stipe.

The old frond is sloughed off after much of its nutrient content has been transferred to the new growth. Laminaria hyperborea can liberate upward of a million zoospores from sori on the surface of the blade during the course of a few weeks during the winter; these have flagella and settle after about 24 hours before developing into microscopic gametophytes which become fertile in about 10 days. Male gametophytes release large quantities of motile sperm stimulated to do so by the release of female gametes by the female gametophytes in the vicinity; the fertilised zygotes germinate into young sporophytes. Sexual reproduction is dependent on a minimum quantity of blue light. Kelp beds provide a nursery area for a biodiverse habitat; the grazing behaviour of sea urchins the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, restricts the development of new growth of L. hyperborea. If the urchins become too numerous, whole areas dominated by kelp may become "urchin barrens", denuded of kelp and supporting a much less biodiverse community based on encrusting coralline algae.

Laminaria hyperborea is host to a diverse community of invertebrates. In one study in Norway, up to 238 species of benthic macrofauna were found associated with it, with a density of 8000 individuals per kelp plant; the blades were the part of the plant least populated by invertebrates. They were however covered by a bacterial biofilm in which Planctomycetes and Alphaproteobacteria were found all year long and other bacteria occurred seasonally; the stipes, being rough, provided good anchor points for Palmaria palmata and several other species of red algae. The resulting epiphytic growth was home to a range of species of gastropods and other invertebrates. Depending upon the season and density of the L. hyperborea bed, the total number of these animals varied. The holdfasts offered a sheltered refuge and housed a large number of mobile macrofauna, a community, quite different from that on the stipes. In a study undertaken on the north east coast of Britain, 61 different species of nematode were found living in the holdfasts of L. hyperborea.

The majority of these were omnivores feeding on deposits or herbivores feeding on the epiphytic algae growing on the kelp. In another study comparing the macrofauna resident in the holfasts of L. hyperborea round the coasts of Britain, it was found that, except for the suspension feeders, there was an inverse relationship between the richness of the flora and the pollution, as measured by the heavy metal content of the water, its clarity. The calorific values and biomass of L. hyperborea have been studied with regard to its possible use as a fuel. A study found that it could produce annual increases in biomass of 16.5 and 8.0 metric tons of organic matter per hectare at depths of 3 and 9 metres respectively. Alginates can be extracted from L. hyperborea. In France, Ireland and Norway, stipes cast up on beaches are collected for this purpose and in Norway some kelp is harvested by trawling; because of its ability to absorb and retain water, L. hyperborea has been used in wound dressings to prevent adhesions.

It has been used to help dilate the cervix during childbirth. Laminaria hyperborea can be used for human consumption. For example, it is used to make vegetarian imitation caviar

Carol Cartwright

Carol A. Cartwright is an American academic administrator and former president of Bowling Green State University, she became interim president in July 2008, president on January 6, 2009, retired in June, 2011. During her time as President, the University reversed a trend of declining enrollment caused by the Great Recession and saw one of the largest Fall Freshman class in its history, she served as the 10th president and first woman president of Kent State University. Cartwright was the vice chancellor for Academic Affairs at the University of California at Davis and dean for undergraduate programs and vice provost at The Pennsylvania State University. In 2010 Dr. Cartwright was elected as vice chair to NPR. Dr. Cartwright earned master's and doctoral degrees from the University of Pittsburgh and her bachelor's degree from the University of Wisconsin–Whitewater