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Limited partnership

A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners, a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner. The GPs are, in all major respects, in the same legal position as partners in a conventional firm: they have management control, share the right to use partnership property, share the profits of the firm in predefined proportions, have joint and several liability for the debts of the partnership; as in a general partnership, the GPs have actual authority, as agents of the firm, to bind the partnership in contracts with third parties that are in the ordinary course of the partnership's business. As with a general partnership, "an act of a general partner, not for carrying on in the ordinary course the limited partnership's activities or activities of the kind carried on by the limited partnership binds the limited partnership only if the act was authorized by all the other partners."

Like shareholders in a corporation, limited partners have limited liability. This means that the limited partners have no management authority, are not liable for the debts of the partnership; the limited partnership provides the limited partners a return on their investment, the nature and extent of, defined in the partnership agreement. General Partners thus bear more economic risk than do limited partners, in cases of financial loss, the GPs will be the ones which are liable. Limited partners are subject to the same alter-ego piercing theories as corporate shareholders. However, it is more difficult to pierce the limited partnership veil because limited partnerships do not have many formalities to maintain. So long as the partnership and the members do not co-mingle funds, it would be difficult to pierce the veil. Partnership interests are afforded a significant level of protection through the charging order mechanism; the charging order limits the creditor of a debtor-partner or a debtor-member to the debtor’s share of distributions, without conferring on the creditor any voting or management rights.

When the partnership is being constituted, or the composition of the firm is changing, limited partnerships are required to file documents with the relevant state registration office. Limited partners must explicitly disclose their status when dealing with other parties, so that such parties are on notice that the individual negotiating with them carries limited liability, it is customary that the documentation and electronic materials issued to the public by the firm will carry a clear statement identifying the legal nature of the firm and listing the partners separately as general and limited. Hence, unlike the GPs, the limited partners do not have inherent agency authority to bind the firm unless they are subsequently held out as agents. Limited partnerships are distinct from limited liability partnerships, in which all partners have limited liability. In some jurisdictions, the limited liability of the limited partners is contingent on their not participating in management; the societates publicanorum, which arose in Rome in the third century BC, may have arguably been the earliest form of limited partnership.

During the heyday of the Roman Empire, they were equivalent to today's corporations. Some had many investors, interests were publicly tradable. However, they required at least one partners with unlimited liability. According to Jairus Banaji, the Qirad and Mudaraba institutions in Islamic law and economic jurisprudence were similar to the modern limited partnership. In medieval Italy, a business organization known as the commenda appeared in the 10th century, used for financing maritime trade. In a commenda, the traveling trader of the ship had limited liability, was not held responsible if money was lost as long as the trader had not violated the rules of the contract. In contrast, his investment partners on land were exposed to risk. A commenda was not a common form for a long-term business venture as most long-term businesses were still expected to be secured against the assets of their individual proprietors; as an institution, the commenda is similar to the qirad but whether the qirad transformed into the commenda, or the two institutions evolved independently cannot be stated with certainty.

In the Mongol Empire, the contractual features of a Mongol-ortoq partnership resembled that of qirad and commenda arrangements, Mongol investors were not constrained using uncoined precious metals and tradable goods for partnership investments and executed money-lending. Moreover, Mongol elites formed trade partnerships with merchants from Italian cities, including Marco Polo’s family. Colbert's Ordinance and the Napoleonic Code reinforced the limited partnership concept in European law. In the United States, limited partnerships became available in the early 19th century, although a number of legal restrictions at the time made them unpopular for business ventures. Britain enacted its first limited partnership statute in 1907. For a list of types of corporation and other business types by country, see Types of business entity. In the United States, the limited partnership organization is most common among film production companies and real estate investment projects, or in types of businesses that focus on a single or limited-term project.

They are useful in "labor-capital" partnerships, where one or more finan

Colin Shields

Colin Shields is a former Scottish professional ice hockey forward who played most of his career in the United Kingdom's Elite Ice Hockey League. He is the EIHL's all-time leading point scorer. Shields started his career in North America and played for Cleveland Jr. Barons in the NAHL for two seasons, 1998–2000. Shields was a sixth-round pick for the Philadelphia Flyers in the 2000 NHL Entry Draft. Shields opted to attend and play for the University of Maine for three seasons, finishing as the top scorer for the 2003–04 season. For the 2004–05 season Shields was split between the San Diego Gulls, Atlantic City Boardwalk Bullies and Greenville Grrrowl of the ECHL, tallying 35 points in 62 games. For 2005–06, Shields moved back to his native United Kingdom for a spell with the Belfast Giants of the EIHL, where he played alongside former NHL star Theoren Fleury. 2006–07 saw a return to the ECHL, with 43 points in 57 games for the Fresno Falcons and Idaho Steelheads. Shields had a career year in 2007–08 for the Newcastle Vipers of the EIHL, scoring 73 points in 57 games.

This led to a two-year contract with the Belfast Giants. Shields served as captain of the Giants, replacing George Awada, ruled out with injury. On 7 April 2011, it was announced that Shields had left the Giants to sign for Morzine-Avoriaz in France. On 22 March 2012, it was announced that Shields had signed to play the 2012–13 season for the Sheffield Steelers in the EIHL, he announced his retirement effective the end of the 2018–19 season on 26 March 2019. Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Profetens Ummah

Profetens Ummah is a Salafi-jihadist Islamist organisation based in Norway. Since its emergence in late 2011 the group has become notorious for its vocal demonstrations, as well as statements praising Islamic terrorism. Other Muslims in Norway have referred to the group as a Khariji sect. Several Norwegian politicians and commentators have condemned the group for its anti-democratic and violent message. Inspired by late Al-Qaeda ideologue Anwar al-Awlaki, Profetens Ummah has pledged support for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Several Norwegian foreign fighters for ISIL in the Syrian Civil War have a background of involvement with the group; the group first started emerging publicly in early 2012, after being founded sometime in late 2011. Many members of the group had taken part in the 2008–09 Oslo riots. In September 2012, in connection to the worldwide Reactions to Innocence of Muslims the organization held a demonstration of around 150 people in front of the United States embassy in Oslo.

The views expressed by the demonstrators at the event were denounced as being "islamo-fascist". During the demonstrations, which included several ex-convicts, the speakers praised the late Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, whom a group spokesperson called "the most learned Muslim who has stood up for Islam". One month the group confirmed to have sent "several dozen" members to the Syrian Civil War as fighters, as well as having one member killed during the Battle of Aleppo. At the same time, the group warned of possible attacks against Norway. In October, the Norwegian Police Security Service confirmed; the monitoring was escalated following reports that several members of the group had gained hunting licenses and begun the process of acquiring firearms. A person with a valid hunting license in Norway may acquire up to six rifles or shotguns, if he is given clearance by police. Around the same time, the leader of the group Ubaydullah Hussain published a message on social media, confirming his intent of acquiring automatic weapons, at the same time launching a profanity-laden verbal assault on the Jews in Norway.

The day after, as a response, the Oslo police opened an official investigation into the statements as well as previous threats against two journalists. The police raided several locations associated with the group, arrested Hussain; as a result of these actions, Profetens Ummah in November of that year for the first time held a press conference in Oslo, where they orally attacked the police, the security services as well as the media. They stated that Norway was a dictatorship, that the press were involved in a witch-hunt on Islamists, that all Muslims worldwide should demonstrate in front of Norwegian embassies. In December the group confirmed that it was establishing ties with the now-banned British extremist group Islam4UK, posed pictures of its leaders posing together with Anjem Choudary. Subsequent to the press conference, the group saw a decline in activity. According to the news channel TV 2, this was due to extensive internal strife in the central leadership. One of the reasons was that some of the members, including leader Ubaydullah Hussain received public welfare while being unemployed, after the group publicly had claimed that public funds financed warfare against Islam.

Other members, such as Arfan Bhatti believed that receiving any assistance from the Kuffar, including welfare, is forbidden according to the Shari'ah law. Some have pointed to the late Al-Qaeda ideologue Anwar Al-Awlaki who encouraged this practice, stating that "Muslims should finance Jihad from the pockets of their enemies". Another source of the strife was that several members had secretly married women after meeting them on Facebook, only to initiate a Talaq after a few weeks, to marry another. Several women who had since left the group subsequently denounced the organization. Furthermore, the group's leader Hussain had married a Kurdish woman in secret, against her family's wishes and without prior consultation, in direct violation of the Islamic marital practices; this particular incident led to fury within the group. As female members withdrew, prominent member Egzon Avdyli publicly warned members against engaging in "Shia marriages". Mounting discontent with Hussains private life led to his resignation as leader in March 2013.

Further weakening of the group followed. By late 2015, most of the group's leadership was either killed in Syria; the group itself reported that it still had an "active core" of between 15 and 20 individuals in addition to an unknown number of sympathizers. The organization itself claims to be Salafist. On its website, it states that it rejects everything except the "pure salafist Islamic faith and teachings"; the largest Salafist organization in Norway, Islam Net, has rejected the group as Salafist and denounced it as a Khariji sect. This was echoed by commentator Mohammad Usman Rana; the Store norske leksikon encyclopedia describes the group as Salafi-jihadist. It has been described as Wahhabi-inspired. According to the Norwegian Police Security Service, then-leader Ubaydullah Hussain was a de facto member of ISIS in the period between August 2013 to December 8, 2015. In several media interviews, he publicly acknowledged to ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as "our leader". There have been no official estimates of membership of the organization.

The group's closed Facebook group had 641 members. Participants at events and demonstrations have ranged from 40 to 150. Most of the leadership of the group have long criminal backgrounds with multiple arrests or c

Ron Griggs

Ron Griggs is an American politician and a Republican member of the New Mexico Senate representing District 34 since his December 11, 2012. He was elected to the seat in the November 6, 2012 general election but was appointed by Governor Susana Martinez to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Vernon Asbill days before the term ended. Griggs was the mayor of Alamogordo and owner of the Alamogordo Title Company. Griggs attended New Mexico State University Alamogordo and earned his BBA from New Mexico State University; when District 34 Senator Vernon Asbill retired and left the seat open, Griggs ran in the June 5, 2012 Republican Primary, winning with 1,783 votes and won the November 6, 2012 General election with 9,647 votes against Democratic nominee Ellen Wedum, who had run for a New Mexico House of Representatives seat in 2006, 2008, 2010. Griggs announced he would run for reelection on February 29, 2016. In his reelection announcement, Griggs emphasized job creation and his success in obtaining capital funding for roads, public infrastructure, other projects in his district.

Official page at the New Mexico Legislature Profile at Vote Smart Ron Griggs at Ballotpedia Ron Griggs at the National Institute on Money in State Politics

Sam Selvon

Samuel "Sam" Selvon was a Trinidad-born writer. His 1956 novel The Lonely Londoners is groundbreaking in its use of creolised English, or "nation language", for narrative as well as dialogue. Samuel Dickson Selvon was born in San Fernando in the south of Trinidad, the sixth of seven children, his parents were Indian: his father was a first-generation Christian Tamil immigrant from Madras and his mother was a Christian Anglo-Indian. His maternal grandfather was Scottish and his maternal grandmother was Indian, he was educated at San Fernando, before leaving at the age of 15 to work. He was a wireless operator with the local branch of the Royal Naval Reserve from 1940 to 1945 during the Second World War. Thereafter, he moved north to Port of Spain, from 1945 to 1950, worked for the Trinidad Guardian as a reporter and for a time on its literary page. In this period, he began writing stories and descriptive pieces under a variety of pseudonyms including Michael Wentworth, Ack-Ack, Big Buffer. Much of this early writing is to be found in Foreday Morning.

Selvon moved to London, England, in the 1950s, where he worked as a clerk for the Indian Embassy, while writing in his spare time. His short stories and poetry appeared in various publications, including the London Magazine, New Statesman, The Nation. In London he worked with the BBC, producing two television scripts, Anansi the Spiderman, Home Sweet India. Selvon was a fellow in creative writing at the University of Dundee from 1975 until 1977. In the late 1970s Selvon moved to Alberta and found a job teaching creative writing as a visiting professor at the University of Victoria; when that job ended, he took a job as a janitor at the University of Calgary in Alberta for a few months before becoming writer-in-residence there. He was ignored by the Canadian literary establishment, with his works receiving no reviews during his residency. On a return trip to Trinidad Selvon died of respiratory failure due to extensive bronchopneumonia and chronic lung disease on 16 April 1994 at Piarco International Airport.

Selvon married twice: in 1947 to Draupadi Persaud, with whom he had one daughter, in 1963 to Althea Daroux, with whom he had two sons and a daughter. Selvon is best known for his novels The Lonely Moses Ascending, his novel A Brighter Sun, detailing the construction of the Churchill-Roosevelt Highway in Trinidad through the eyes of young Indian worker Tiger, was a popular choice on the CXC English Literature syllabus for many years. Other notable works include the collection of stories Ways of Sunlight, Turn Again Tiger and Those Who Eat the Cascadura. During the 1960s and 1970s, Selvon converted several of his novels and stories into radio scripts, broadcast by the BBC, which were collected in Eldorado West One and Highway in the Sun; the Lonely Londoners, like most of Selvon's work, focuses on the migration of West Indians to Britain in the 1950s and 1960s, tells in anecdotal form, the daily experience of settlers from Africa and the Caribbean. Selvon illustrates the panoply of different subcultures that exist within London, as with any major city, due to class and racial boundaries.

In many ways, his books are the precursors to works such as White Teeth by Zadie Smith and The Buddha of Suburbia by Hanif Kureishi. Selvon explained: "When I wrote the novel that became The Lonely Londoners, I tried to recapture a certain quality in West Indian everyday life. I had in store a number of wonderful anecdotes and could put them into focus, but I had difficulty starting the novel in straight English; the people I wanted to describe were entertaining people indeed, but I could not move. At that stage, I had written most of the dialogues in dialect. I started both narrative and dialogue in dialect and the novel just shot along." Selvon's papers are now at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin, USA. These consist of holograph manuscripts, book proofs, manuscript notebooks, correspondence. Drafts for six of his 11 novels are present, along with supporting correspondence and items relating to his career. Selvon was awarded two Guggenheim Fellowships, an honorary doctorate from Warwick University in 1989, in 1985 the honorary degree of DLitt by the University of the West Indies.

In 1969 he was awarded the Trinidad & Tobago Hummingbird Medal Gold for Literature, in 1994 he was given another national award, the Chaconia Medal Gold for Literature. In 2012 he was honoured with a NALIS Lifetime Achievement Literary Award for his contributions to Trinidad and Tobago's literature.20 May 2018, on what would have been his 95th birthday, he was honored with a Google Doodle. A Brighter Sun A Meap Story An Island is a World The Lonely Londoners Ways of Sunlight, short stories Turn Again Tiger I Hear Thunder The Housing Lark The Plains of Caroni Those Who Eat the Cascadura Moses Ascending Moses Migrating Foreday Morning Eldorado West One, collected one-act plays Highway in the Sun and Other Plays Pressure, co-written with Horace Ové Critical works on Selvon include: Susheila Nasta, Critical Perspectives on Sam Selvon, Washington: Three Continents Press, 1988. Clement Wyck, Sam Selvon's dialectal style and fictional strategy. Margaret Paul Joseph, "Caliban in Exile: The Outsider in Caribbean Fiction", Greenwood Press

Remington Ranch, Texas

Remington Ranch is a master planned community located in unincorporated Harris County, Texas. The development, with 2,100 single-family houses, is located between Interstate 45 and the Hardy Toll Road, it is north of Greenspoint Mall and in proximity to George Bush Intercontinental Airport. In 2003 Dickson Partners, a Houston developer, purchased a 510-acre plot of land from Houston investors; the majority of the purchased land belonged to three families from Houston who, since the 1950s, had owned the land. Dickson intended to develop a new community on that site; as of 2003 the houses were expected to be priced below $200,000. The price range of the houses was planned to be from the $80,000s to the $180,000s. KB Home, one developer, bought 143 acres from Dickson and planned to develop 900 houses priced from $80,000 to $130,000; the remaining single family acreage was to be developed by Newmark Homes and Parkside Homes into 1,200 houses. Two separate parcels of land, with a total of 51 acres of land, were to be used for commercial and other non-single family uses.

Edminster Hinshaw Russ & Associates provided Remington Ranch's land planning and engineering. Mark Powell, vice president of Dickson Partners, said that the access to George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Greenspoint Mall, the Hardy Toll Road, Interstate 45 motivated the company to develop the Remington Ranch property. In 2003 the company was negotiating with the school district in regards to the possibility of selling land for the development of a future elementary or middle school. Powell cited the location in the Spring Independent School District as a factor in purchasing the land. House construction was scheduled to begin in June 2004. Housing sales began in April 2004; the $65 million Remington Ranch development was scheduled to be sold out by 2008. By 2006 the homes offered were priced from the $80,000s to the $150,000s. By 2008 K. Hovanian Homes became a house builder in Remington Ranch. By 2009 Remington Ranch had a high foreclosure rate; the development was scheduled to include a recreation center with an Olympic-sized swimming pool and a playground area.

The plans included the establishment of neighborhood parks. The development has a splash park and a barbecue area. Remington Ranch is zoned to the Spring Independent School District. Most residents are zoned to Milton Cooper Elementary School, while some are zoned to R. J. Hoyland Elementary School. All residents are zoned to Dekaney High School. In February 2017 the district proposed redrawing the attendance boundaries of its middle schools. According to the proposed 2017-2018 middle school map, Remington Ranch will be reassigned from Bammel Middle School to Dueitt Middle School in the Spring census-designated place; when Remington Ranch first opened, it was zoned to Clark Primary and Elementary School and Westfield High School. Cooper opened in 2005; the community was rezoned to Dekaney after Dekaney's opening in August 2007. Hoyland was completed in the summer of 2009. Students have the option to attend Carl Wunsche Sr. High School, a career academy in the district, instead of their home school