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Lincoln's Birthday

Lincoln's Birthday is a legal, public holiday in some U. S. states, observed on the anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth on February 12, 1809 in Hodgenville, Kentucky. Connecticut, Indiana, Texas, California and New York observe the holiday. In other states, Lincoln's birthday is not celebrated separately, as a stand-alone holiday. Instead Lincoln's Birthday is combined with a celebration of President George Washington's birthday and celebrated either as Washington's Birthday or as Presidents' Day on the third Monday in February, concurrent with the federal holiday; the earliest known observance of Lincoln's birthday occurred in Buffalo, New York, in either 1873 or 1874. Julius Francis, a Buffalo druggist, made it his life's mission to honor the slain president, he petitioned Congress to establish Lincoln's birthday as a legal holiday. The day is marked by traditional wreath-laying ceremonies at Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.

C. The latter has been the site of a ceremony since the Memorial was dedicated. Since that event in 1922, observances continue to be organized by the Lincoln Birthday National Commemorative Committee and by the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. A wreath is laid on behalf of the President of the United States, a custom carried out at the grave sites of all deceased U. S. presidents on their birthdays. Lincoln's tomb is in Illinois. On February 12, 2009, the annual wreath-laying ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial commemorated Lincoln's 200th birthday in grand fashion. An extended ceremony, organized by the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission and with help from MOLLUS, featured musical performances from four-time Grammy-nominated singer Michael Feinstein and the U. S. Marine Corps Band; the morning celebration featured remarks by Illinois Sen. Dick Durbin; as part of Lincoln's birthday bicentennial, the U. S. Mint released four new Lincoln cents; the commemorative coins have new designs on the reverse showing stages of his life.

The first went into circulation on September 12, 2009. The standard portrait of Lincoln's head remains on the front; the new designs include a log cabin representing his birthplace, Lincoln as a young man reading while sitting on a log that he was taking a break from splitting, Lincoln as a state legislator in front of the Illinois Capitol, the built dome of the U. S. Capitol. New Jersey stopped observing the holiday on May 23, 2005 with the enactment of the Public Employee Pension and Benefits Reform Act of 2008. Black History Month has its origin in 19th-century celebrations of Lincoln's Birthday by African-American communities in the United States. By the early 20th century, black communities were annually celebrating Lincoln's birthday in conjunction with the birthday of former slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass on February 14; the precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History announced that the second week of February would be "Negro History Week" to coincide with the traditional Black commemorations of both men's birthdays.

By the 1970s, "Negro History Week" had become "Black History Month". Black History Month has expanded further to Canada, where it is celebrated in February, to the United Kingdom, which celebrates it in October. Lincoln's Birthday was never a U. S. Federal Government holiday; the third Monday in February remains only "Washington's Birthday" in federal law. However, many state governments have renamed their Washington's Birthday state holiday as "Presidents' Day", "Washington and Lincoln Day", or other such designations which explicitly or implicitly celebrate Lincoln's birthday. Regardless of the official name and purpose and commemorations on or about the third Monday include honoring Lincoln. In Connecticut and Illinois, while Washington's Birthday is a federal holiday, Lincoln's Birthday is still a state holiday, falling on February 12 regardless of the day of the week. California still lists Lincoln's Birthday as a holiday, but as of 2009 no longer gives State employees a paid holiday on February 12.

However, it is considered state courts are closed. In the following states, the third Monday in February is an official state holiday and known as: Using "president" Presidents' Day in Hawaii, New Mexico, North Dakota, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas and Washington President's Day in Alaska, Maryland, Nebraska, New Hampshire, West Virginia and Wyoming Presidents Day in Michigan, New Jersey and Oregon Washington's Birthday/President's Day in Maine Lincoln/Washington/Presidents' Day in ArizonaWashington and Lincoln Washington and Lincoln Day in Utah Washington–Lincoln Day in Colorado and Ohio Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday in Indiana Lincoln's and Washington's Birthday in Montana Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday in MinnesotaWashington alone George Washington Day in VirginiaWashington and another person George Washington/Thomas Jefferson Birthday in Alabama George Washington's Birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day in ArkansasUnspecified "The third Monday in February" in California.

Several states honor presidents with official state holidays that do not fall on the third Monday of February. In New Mexico, Presidents' Day, at least as a state-gove

Charles de Salis (bishop)

Charles Fane de Salis, MA, DD, was Bishop of Taunton from 1911 to 1930. Born in Fringford, Oxfordshire on 18 or 9 March 1860 into an clerical family, he was educated at Eton and Exeter College, Oxford. William Fane de Salis was an uncle, Lord Bishop Foster a great-grandfather, John Francis Charles, 7th Count de Salis-Soglio was a first cousin once removed, his names Charles and Fane were derived from his ancestor 1st Viscount Fane. Ordained in 1883 he was Curate at St. Michael's, Vicar of Milverton East Brent and Prebendary of Coombe before a 19-year stint, commencing in 1911, as Archdeacon of Taunton and Suffragan Bishop of Taunton, he is commemorated in a memorial on the west wall of Wells Cathedral. He was the fourth and youngest son of Rev. Count Henry Jerome Augustine Fane de Salis, of Portnall Park. A JP, sometime chairman of Egham's Holloway Sanatorium, of the Old Windsor Board of Guardians. Henry was Rector of Fringford, Oxfordshire from 1852 until 1872 when he inherited Portnall Park, Virginia Water, Surrey from his brother-in-law, Colonel Thomas-Chaloner Bisse-Challoner.

He had married, on 29 March 1853, daughter of the Rt.. Hon. Joseph Warner Henley, MP, of Waterperry House, Oxfordshire, by his wife Georgina, fourth daughter of John Fane of Wormsley, MP, by his wife Lady Elizabeth Parker, daughter of Thomas, 3rd Earl of Macclesfield. Rodolph, (born Fringford, 10 December 1854, died 26 November 1931. Sir Cecil, of Dawley Court, county Middlesex, his second but eldest surviving son Edmund lived his last 33 years at East Woodhay. Sir William. Admiral. Georgiana, she married, on 19 January 1888, Rev. Robert Abercromby Hamilton,. Oxon.. Berks. 1891–1910. MA, his address was Fairfield Lodge, Countess Wear, Devon. No issue. Bishop Charles married his second cousin, on 21 July 1896, Lady Mary Alice daughter of Thomas Augustus Wolstenholme Parker, 6th Earl of Macclesfield, by Lady Mary Frances, daughter of Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster, they had two daughters and a son who died in 1991

Slavic first palatalization

The Slavic first palatalization is a Proto-Slavic sound change that manifested as regressive palatalization of inherited Balto-Slavic velar consonants. An important tendency in Proto-Slavic - a tendency that operated throughout the Common Slavic period and was the direct cause of the first palatalization - was so-called intrasyllabic synharmony; such intrasyllabic synharmony was violated if a velar consonant occurred before a front vowel, because a velar is articulated in the region of soft palate, in the back part of the roof of the mouth, front vowels, of course, in the front part of the mouth. Speakers resolve this articulatory opposition by adapting the articulation of the velar consonant to the front vowel, relocating it to the region of the front soft palate - i.e.: it becomes palatalized. This phenomenon occurs commonly in the phonetic history of languages. Velar palatalization before front vowels has marked the evolution of all modern Romance languages. Inherited velars *k and *g change before Proto-Slavic front vowels *e/ē, *i/ī, before the palatal semivowel *j: *k > *kʲ > *č *g > *gʲ > *dž > *žThe Proto-Slavic velar fricative *x, absent in PIE and arose from PIE *s by means of the RUKI law or from word-initial PIE #sk-, changed in the same environment as: *x > *xʲ > *šCompare: PIE *wĺ̥kʷe'wolf!'

> PSl. *wilke > OCS vlьče, Pol. wilcze, SCr. vȗče PIE *gʷeneh₂'woman' > PSl. *ženā > OCS žena, Russ. Žená, Pol. żona PIE *múh₂s'mouse' > PSl. *mūsi > *mūxi > mūši > OCS myšь, Russ. Myš', Pol. myszThe effect of the first palatalization is evident on Germanic loanwords. Compare: Germanic *helmaz'helmet' > PSl. *xelmu > *šelmu > OCS šlěmъ, Russ. Šelóm, SCr. šljȅm Germanic *kinda'child, infant' > PSl. *kinda > *činda > OCS čędo, Russ čado, Old Pol. czędo Even though it is stated in the literature that the result of first palatalization were consonants */č/, */ž/, */š/, there is no certain evidence that that process was indeed finished by the 600 CE. There is some disagreement on whether Proto-Slavic velars became affricates before front vowels and before */j/. Many linguists think that the transition *kj > *č, *gj > *ž, *xj > *š occurred with the changes *sj > *š, *zj > *ž, i.e. together with changes otherwise known as the Common Slavic iotation. However, that change is in fact Common Slavic, obvious e.g. from the adaption of Romance toponyms in the Adriatic, to which Slavs subsequently spread well after the 5th century, when first regressive palatalization is dated.

Compare: Latin Arsia > SCr. Rȁša Latin Sanctus Cassiānus > SCr. SùkošanOn the other hand, from a purely phonetic viewpoint, it's hard to believe that velars might have been unpalatalized before *j by the time they palatalized before *e and *i; that being said, the first palatalization must have proceeded gradually: *k > *kj > *č' > *č *g > *gj > *dž' > *ž' > *žThe most economic interpretation is that there was no difference in Proto-Slavic of *k and *g before *j, before *e, *i, i.e. that the pronunciation was *kj, *gj. *j was lost after palatalized velars in Common Slavic period of iotation of other consonants. With that in mind, consonants */č/ and */ž/, which are reconstructed in the phonemic inventory of Proto-Slavic in the literature, were to be just phonologically predictable allophones of */k/, */g/, have remained such until conditions were met after the 600 CE for their appearance behind back vowels as well. *š which resulted by the application of RUKI law was an allophone of */s/ after *r, *u, *k, *i, but when *š emerged from Proto-Slavic *sj, the opposition between *š and *s became phonological, i.e. */š/ became phonemicized.

The results of the first palatalization were the same in all Slavic languages, which shows that it took place before the migration of Slavs into their historical settlements, that means before 500 CE. As mentioned, this palatalization operated on Germanic loanwords, which the proto-Slavs borrowed before or not long after the Huns disrupted the Gothic hegemony; this all shows. Further evidence on that date comes from the toponymy and the hydronymy of the upper Dnieper river, which Slavs colonized in the latter half of the 5th century. Before their arrival, that region was populated by Baltic speakers, the Baltic river names such as Vilkesà, Laukesà and Merkys yielded Russian equivalents Volčesa, Očesa, Lučesa, Mereč'; this shows. By the time Slavs reached the south of Greece and the Adriatic coastline, in the 6th and the 7th centuries, the first palatalization no longer operated; that can be seen from the fact that Slavic words were borrowed into Middle Greek in palatalized form, from the fact that Romance toponyms on the Adriatic undergo the second, not the first palatalization.

On the basis of this data, on the basis of the fact that for the sound change to be complete at least three generations are needed, i.e. c. 75 years, Arnošt Lemprecht concluded that the first Slavic palatalization operated from 400 to 475 CE, ±25 years. Ranko Matasović. Poredbenopovijesna gramatika hrvatskoga jezika. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska. ISBN 978-953-150-840-7. Milan Mihaljević. Slavensk