2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Northwest Arkansas includes Fayetteville, Springdale and Bentonville, the third, fourth and tenth largest cities in Arkansas. These cities are located within Washington counties; as per the 2016 United States Census Bureau estimates, NWA is the 105th largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. and the 22nd fastest growing in the United States. The MSA covers 3,213.01 sq mi, located within the Boston Mountains and Springfield Plateau subsets of The Ozarks. Northwest Arkansas doubled in population between 1990 and 2010. Growth has been driven by the three Fortune 500 companies based in NWA: Walmart, Tyson Foods, J. B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc. as well as over 1,300 suppliers and vendors drawn to the region by these large businesses and NWA's business climate. The region has seen significant investment in amenities, including the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, the Walmart AMP, the NWA Razorback Regional Greenway. Constituent counties of the MSA include: Benton County Madison County Washington County Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County and home to the University of Arkansas.
As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 76,899. The city is the third most populous in Arkansas and serves as the county seat of Washington County. It's known for Dickson Street the most prominent entertainment district in the state of Arkansas, which itself contains the Walton Arts Center. Blocks from Dickson Street is the Fayetteville Historic Square, which hosts the nation's number one ranked Fayetteville's Farmer's Market. Fayetteville was ranked 8th on Forbes Magazine's Top 10 Best Places in America for Business and Careers in 2007. Business insider named Fayetteville the 2nd best place to live in the South in 2016. Springdale is a city in Benton Counties. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 73,123. Springdale is Arkansas's fourth-largest city, behind Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville. Springdale is the location of the headquarters of Tyson Foods Inc. the largest meat producing company in the world, has been dubbed the "Chicken Capital of the World" by several publications.
In 2008, the Wichita Wranglers of AA minor league baseball's Texas League moved to Springdale and play in Arvest Ballpark as the Northwest Arkansas Naturals. Rogers is a city in Benton County; as of the 2010 census, the city is the eighth most populous in the state, with a total population of 58,895. Rogers is famous as the location of the first Wal-Mart. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers 18th in the 25 best affordable suburbs in the South. In 2010, CNN Money magazine ranked Rogers as the 10th Best Place to Live in the United States. Two of the city's biggest attractions are the outdoor concert venue the Walmart AMP and the open air shopping mall the Pinnacle Hills Promenade; the city is the home town of American country music singer/songwriter Joe Nichols, Marty Perry, as well as David Noland. It is where comedian Will Rogers married Betty Blake. Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County. At the 2010 census, the population was 38,284, up from 20,308 in 2000 ranking it as the state's 10th largest city.
Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County and home to the headquarters of Walmart, the largest retailer in the world. Bentonville has the location of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. Founded by Sam Walton's daughter Alice Walton and designed by world-renowned architect Moshe Safdie, this museum is home to some of America's finest works of art. Southern Living magazine cited Bentonville as "the South's next cultural mecca." Northwest Arkansas is located in the Southern United States. It is within the Upper South, characterized by the Ozarks; the southern part of NWA is a high and dissected plateau, full of sparsely populated oak-hickory forest, separating the region from the Arkansas River Valley to the south. NWA is located within the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau within the U. S. Interior Highlands, the largest mountainous region between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains. Although the topography varies within the region, the Ozark geology is present throughout. At Fayetteville, the geology splits between the Boston Mountains to the south and the Springfield Plateau to the north.
The Ouachita orogeny exposed the older limestones of the Springfield Plateau, resulting in a softer terrain, while the Boston Mountains retained steep, sharp grade changes. The Ozarks are covered by an oak-hickory-pine forest, with large portions of protected forestland remaining NWA. 25% of this forest has been cleared for development and agricultural uses. Most of NWA is within the White River watershed, with the western portions being contained within the Illinois River watershed. Within NWA, the White River is impounded at several locations, the most important of, at Beaver Dam, forming the 13,700 acres Beaver Lake; this reservoir was created in the 1960s for flood control and energy production uses. It serves as the water supply for most of NWA, with Beaver Water District treating potable water and selling it directly to the four largest NWA municipalities; the Illinois River watershed is a sensitive watershed, the subject of controversy within the area for many years. The phosphorus load of the Illinois has been subject of controversy resulting in litigation between Oklahoma and Arkansas reaching the United States Supreme Court in 1992.
The Environmental Protection Agency has classified the Illino
Ryan Mallett is an American football quarterback, a free agent. He was drafted by the New England Patriots in the third round of the 2011 NFL Draft, has played for the Houston Texans and Baltimore Ravens, he played college football at Arkansas. Mallett graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana and was ranked as the #2 quarterback and #4 overall player in the nation by Rivals.com. He was the Gatorade Player of the Year in Texas in 2006. Mallett participated in the U. S. Army All-American Bowl in 2007 and won the Glenn Davis Army Award as the best player on the West team, he chose to play at Michigan over Alabama, Florida State and Texas. High school statistics Mallett made his first appearance at Michigan in the second game of the 2007 season against Oregon, he entered the game for the injured Chad Henne in the third quarter and completed 6 of 17 passes for 49 yards and one interception. Mallett started the next week against Notre Dame and led the Wolverines to a 38-0 victory by throwing 3 touchdown passes, going 7/15 for 90 yards.
Mallett started his first Big Ten conference game against Penn State the following week. He went 16/29 with one interception, he scored on a 10-yard rush in the first quarter. Henne returned to start the Wolverines' next three games. In those games, Mallett had limited playing time completing 4/10 for 30 yards. Mallett's next start was against Minnesota, he went 11/20 with 233 yards and no interceptions. Mallett played extensively the next week in a loss against Wisconsin, he threw 3 touchdown went 11/36 with 245 yards and two interceptions. In the fourth quarter, Mallett threw a 97-yard touchdown pass to Mario Manningham, the longest pass completion in Michigan history. Mallett played little in the next week's game against Ohio State, he completed one of them for eight yards. Overall, he finished the 2007 season with 892 passing yards, seven passing touchdowns, five interceptions. Mallett's place at Michigan was in question after new head coach Rich Rodriguez was hired to replace retiring coach Lloyd Carr because of the style of offense Rodriguez ran at West Virginia.
Rodriguez chose to overhaul Michigan's offense and installed a "spread" read option offensive scheme, which did not fit Mallett's skills as a drop-back, pocket quarterback. Rodriguez unsuccessfully courted Terrelle Pryor to run Michigan's offense. Mallett and his family maintain he was open to staying at Michigan had Rodriguez been open to utilizing his skill set as a pro style passer. On January 14, 2008, Mallett enrolled at the University of Arkansas, where he was ineligible to play during the 2008 season due to NCAA transfer policies. In 2009 as a redshirt sophomore, Mallett began his career as an Arkansas Razorback, under the direction of head coach Bobby Petrino. Prior to the 2009 season, Mallett was named by ESPN's Bruce Feldman as one of college football's top 10 newcomers of the year, citing his arm strength as a major determining factor. In subsequent interviews, when Mallett was questioned about how far he could throw the football, he said farther than 80 yards. On March 1, 2009, he was arrested on charges of public intoxication.
He pleaded guilty to the misdemeanor charge on April 3, 2009 and paid $155 in court costs and fees. Mallett was punished by Coach Petrino with early wake up calls, extra running, early curfews. Mallett earned the starting job in the Razorbacks' first game against Missouri State, going 17-of-22 for 309 yards and a touchdown. Two weeks Mallett passed for 408 yards and five touchdowns against Georgia in a losing effort; the passing yardage and touchdowns were single game school records. Ryan threw for more than 250 yards in three of Arkansas' next five games, with nine touchdowns against three interceptions. Impressive victories over Texas A&M and Auburn were coupled with tough losses to Alabama and Ole Miss, a loss to Florida. After a dismal 3-4 start, Mallett led Arkansas to three consecutive victories over Eastern Michigan, South Carolina, Troy. Over those three games, he completed 83.1% of his passes, had a quarterback rating of 165.05, third-best in the nation. The victory over Troy pushed Arkansas' record to 6-4 and secured the Hogs' bowl eligibility, with games against Mississippi State and LSU remaining.
Mallett went on to throw for 313 yards and matched his career high of five touchdown passes in a 42-21 victory over Mississippi State. The following week, he threw for 227 yards and a touchdown in a 33-30 overtime loss to LSU in Baton Rouge. Ryan was named to the All-SEC 2nd Team squad by the coaches and the AP for his performance during the season, behind Florida QB Tim Tebow despite superior passing statistics; the Razorbacks finished the 2009 season with an 8-5 record and won the 2010 Liberty Bowl against East Carolina, 20-17 in overtime. Mallett was named the bowl game's Offensive MVP. Mallett owns sixteen school records, including most passing yards in a season, most consecutive passes without an INT, most passing yards in a game, most passing touchdowns in a game, only quarterback to pass for over 400 yards in a game, most pass plays of 25 or more yards in a season, most passing TD in a single season. Mallett chose to forgo entering the 2010 NFL Draft, return for his junior season at Arkansas.
Mallett was considered among the top five quarterbacks. It was announced on February 17 that Mallett had suffered a left foot injury in a change of dir
The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Ravens compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the team is headquartered in Owings Mills. The Ravens were established in 1996, after Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced plans to relocate the franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1995; as part of a settlement between the league and the city of Cleveland, Modell was required to leave the Browns' history and records in Cleveland for a replacement team and replacement personnel that would take control in 1999. In return, he was allowed to take his own personnel and team to Baltimore, where such personnel would form an expansion team; the Ravens have qualified for the NFL playoffs eleven times since 2000, with two Super Bowl victories, two AFC Championship titles, 15 playoff victories, four AFC Championship game appearances, five AFC North division titles, are the only team in the NFL to hold a perfect record in multiple Super Bowl appearances.
The Ravens organization was led by general manager Ozzie Newsome from 1996 until his retirement following the 2018 season, has had three head coaches: Ted Marchibroda, Brian Billick, John Harbaugh. With a record-breaking defensive unit in their 2000 season, the team established a reputation for relying on strong defensive play, led by players like middle linebacker Ray Lewis, until his retirement, was considered the "face of the franchise." The team is owned by Steve Bisciotti and valued at $2.5 billion, making the Ravens the 27th-most valuable sports franchise in the world. The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven. Chosen in a fan contest that drew 33,288 voters, the allusion honors Poe, who spent the early part of his career in Baltimore and is buried there; as the Baltimore Sun reported at the time, fans "liked the tie-in with the other birds in town, the Orioles, found it easy to visualize a tough, menacing black bird." After the controversial relocation of the Colts to Indianapolis, several attempts were made to bring an NFL team back to Baltimore.
In 1993, ahead of the 1995 league expansion, the city was considered a favorite, behind only St. Louis, to be granted one of two new franchises. League officials and team owners feared litigation due to conflicts between rival bidding groups if St. Louis was awarded a franchise, in October Charlotte, North Carolina was the first city chosen. Several weeks Baltimore's bid for a franchise—dubbed the Baltimore Bombers, in honor of the locally produced Martin B-26 Marauder bomber—had three ownership groups in place and a state financial package which included a proposed $200 million, rent-free stadium and permission to charge up to $80 million in personal seat license fees. Baltimore, was unexpectedly passed over in favor of Jacksonville, despite Jacksonville's minor TV market status and that the city had withdrawn from contention in the summer, only to return with then-Commissioner Paul Tagliabue's urging. Although league officials denied that any city had been favored, it was reported that Taglibue and his longtime friend Washington Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke had lobbied against Baltimore due to its proximity to Washington, D.
C. and that Taglibue had used the initial committee voting system to prevent the entire league ownership from voting on Baltimore's bid. This led to public outrage and the Baltimore Sun describing Taglibue as having an "Anybody But Baltimore" policy. Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer said afterward that Taglibue had led him on, praising Baltimore and the proposed owners while working behind-the-scenes to oppose Baltimore's bid. By May 1994, Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos had gathered a new group of investors, including author Tom Clancy, to bid on teams whose owners had expressed interest in relocating. Angelos found a potential partner in Georgia Frontiere, open to moving the Los Angeles Rams to Baltimore. Jack Kent Cooke opposed the move, intending to build the Redskins' new stadium in Laurel, close enough to Baltimore to cool outside interest in bringing in a new franchise; this led to heated arguments between Cooke and Angelos, who accused Cooke of being a "carpetbagger." The league persuaded Rams team president John Shaw to relocate to St. Louis instead, leading to a league-wide rumor that Tagliabue was again steering interest away from Baltimore, a claim which Tagliabue denied.
In response to anger in Baltimore, including Governor Schaefer's threat to announce over the loudspeakers Tagliabue's exact location in Camden Yards any time he attended a Baltimore Orioles game, Tagliabue remarked of Baltimore's financial package: "Maybe can open another museum with that money." Following this, Angelos made an unsuccessful $200 million bid to bring the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to Baltimore. Having failed to obtain a franchise via the expansion, the city, despite having "misgivings," turned to the possibility of obtaining the Cleveland Browns, whose owner Art Modell was financially struggling and at odds with the city of Cleveland over needed improvements to the team's stadium. Enticed by Baltimore's available funds for a first-class stadium and a promised yearly operating subsidy of $25 million, Modell announced on November 6, 1995 his intention to relocate the team from Cleveland to Baltimore the following year; the resulting controversy ended when representatives of Cleveland and the NFL reached a settlement on February 8, 1996.
Tagliabue promised the city of Cleveland that an NFL team would be located
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Lincoln County, Arkansas
Lincoln County is located between the Arkansas Timberlands and Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is within the Pine Bluff metro area, on the outer edge of the Central Arkansas region; the county is named for the 16th President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 65th county on March 28, 1871, Lincoln County has three incorporated cities, including Star City, the county seat and most populous city; the county contains 46 unincorporated communities and ghost towns, Cane Creek State Park at the confluence of Cane Creek and Bayou Bartholomew, nine listings on the National Register of Historic Places to preserve the history and culture of the county. Lincoln County occupies 572.17 square miles and contained a population of 14,134 people in 4,207 households as of the 2010 Census, ranking it 69th in size and 52nd in population among the state's 75 counties. The economy is based on agriculture and the two state prisons in the county. Poverty and unemployment rates steady. Household incomes are below state and national averages.
Politically, Lincoln County has transitioned from reliably Democratic to Republican since the election of Barack Obama. Lincoln County is served by two school districts, Star City School District and Dumas Public Schools. Higher education and healthcare are available in Pine Bluff to Monticello to the south. Although no Interstate highways serve Lincoln County, the county has access to two United States highways and eight Arkansas state highways. Lincoln County is served by one public owned/public use general aviation airport, Star City Municipal Airport, six community water systems provide potable water to customers in the county; the county was established in 1871 by the Arkansas General Assembly from parts of Arkansas, Desha and Jefferson. It was named for Abraham Lincoln during the Reconstruction Era, a period after the Civil War when Union sympathizers were installed in state offices of former Confederate states by the Republicans, irrelevant in Southern politics. County government was first permanently established in Star City, though the county had a second county seat at Varner from 1885-1912.
Lincoln County's geography is defined by two physiographic regions of Arkansas: the Arkansas Timberlands and the Arkansas Delta. These two regions are separated by Bayou Bartholomew, the world's longest bayou, which splits the county into eastern and western halves with significant differences in geography. In the east, the Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois; the western half is part of the Arkansas Timberlands, a portion of the Gulf Coastal Plain characterized by flat pine and cypress forests and silviculture rather than row agriculture. The county is the eighth-smallest in Arkansas, with a total area of 572.17 square miles, of which 561.20 square miles is land and 10.97 square miles is water. The county is located 68 miles southeast of Little Rock, 170 miles southwest of Memphis, 200 miles northwest of Jackson, Mississippi. Randolph County is surrounded by two Delta counties to the east, Arkansas County and Desha County, a Timberlands county to the west, Cleveland County.
Jefferson County to the north and Drew County are border counties similar to Lincoln County, with Bayou Bartholomew delineating a split geography. Lincoln County contains two protected areas. Cane Creek State Park is a 2,053-acre state park located on the border between the West Gulf Coastal Plain and Arkansas Delta, with a 1,675 acre lake at the center. Fishing and kayaking are available on the lake in addition to pavilions, a visitor center with gift shop on land; the park offers 29 RV/tent camping sites with water and electric hookups, is owned and operated by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Huff's Island Public Use Area is located on the Arkansas River in northeastern Lincoln County. Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the park does not have a boat ramp or camping, but offers day use, river bank access from March–September, four picnic sites; as of the 2000 census, there were 14,492 people, 4,265 households, 3,130 families residing in the county. The population density was 26 people per square mile.
There were 4,955 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 64.88% White, 32.92% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,265 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 14.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.20% under the age of 18, 12.40% from 18 to 24, 33.20% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 142.30 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 154.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,607, the median income for