First Lady of the United States
The First Lady of the United States is the title held by the hostess of the White House the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the President's term in office. Although the First Lady's role has never been codified or defined, she figures prominently in the political and social life of the nation. Since the early 20th century, the First Lady has been assisted by official staff, now known as the Office of the First Lady and headquartered in the East Wing of the White House. Melania Trump is the current First Lady of the United States, as wife of 45th president, Donald Trump. While the title was not in general use until much Martha Washington, the wife of George Washington, the first U. S. President, is considered to be the inaugural First Lady of the United States. During her lifetime, she was referred to as "Lady Washington". Since the 1790s, the role of First Lady has changed considerably, it has come to include involvement in political campaigns, management of the White House, championship of social causes, representation of the president at official and ceremonial occasions.
Because first ladies now publish their memoirs, which are viewed as potential sources of additional information about their husbands' administrations, because the public is interested in these independent women in their own right, first ladies remain a focus of attention long after their husbands' terms of office have ended. Additionally, over the years individual first ladies have held influence in a range of sectors, from fashion to public opinion on policy. Should a president be unmarried, or a widower, the president asks a relative or friend to act as White House hostess. There are four living former first ladies: wife of Jimmy Carter; as of 2019, the only former First Lady who has run for or held public office is Hillary Clinton. The use of the title First Lady to describe the spouse or hostess of an executive began in the United States. In the early days of the republic, there was not a accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as "Lady", "Mrs. President" and "Mrs. Presidentress".
One of the earliest uses of the term "First Lady" was applied to her in an 1838 newspaper article that appeared in the St. Johnsbury Caledonian, the author, "Mrs. Sigourney", discussing how Martha Washington had not changed after her husband George became president, she wrote. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion". Dolley Madison was referred to as "First Lady" in 1849 at her funeral in a eulogy delivered by President Zachary Taylor. Sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D. C. social circles. One of the earliest known written examples comes from November 3, 1863, diary entry of William Howard Russell, in which he referred to gossip about "the First Lady in the Land", referring to Mary Todd Lincoln; the title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as "the First Lady of the Land" while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B.
Hayes. The frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes' activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, popularized the title further. By the 1930s, it was in wide use. Use of the title spread from the United States to other nations; when Edith Wilson took control of her husband's schedule in 1919 after he had a debilitating stroke, one Republican senator labeled her "the Presidentress who had fulfilled the dream of the suffragettes by changing her title from First Lady to Acting First Man."The wife of the Vice President of the United States is sometimes referred to as the Second Lady of the United States, but this title is much less common. Several women who were not presidents' wives have served as First Lady, as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the First Lady herself. In these cases, the position has been filled by a female relative or friend of the president, such as Jefferson's daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph, Jackson's daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson and his wife's niece Emily Donelson, Taylor's daughter Mary Elizabeth Bliss, Benjamin Harrison's daughter Mary Harrison McKee, Buchanan's niece Harriet Lane, Cleveland's sister Rose Cleveland.
The position of the First Lady carries only ceremonial duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a visible position in American society; the role of the First Lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, the hostess of the White House, she organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president. Lisa Burns identifies four successive main themes of the first ladyship: as public woman. Martha Washington hosted many affairs of state at the national capital. This
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
The Cross Hall is a broad hallway on the first floor in the White House, the official residence of the President of the United States. It runs east to west connecting the State Dining Room with the East Room; the room is used for receiving lines following a State Arrival Ceremony on the South Lawn, or a procession of the President and a visiting head of state and their spouses. The space measures just under 18 by 80 feet, it allows access to the elevator vestibule, Entrance Hall, East Room, Blue Room, Green Room, Red Room, State Dining Room. The Grand Staircase is visible from an opening directly across from the Green Room; the current architectural appearance dates to the 1952 Truman reconstruction, which recreated much of the 1902 renovation by the firm of McKim and White. The Truman reconstruction replaced the golden-hued Joliet stone floors and pilasters with a cool gray marble. Plaster walls divided by a dado and painted cream and gold were replaced with marble. McKim employed Roman doric columns based directly on the work of the sixteenth-century Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola for the screen separating the cross hall and entrance hall.
James Hoban's niches in the south wall were retained although their exterior trim was made less overt. Although Hoban had urn-shaped cast-iron stoves placed in them, the current niches contain busts of Presidents George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. During the Kennedy Administration restoration, interior decorator Stéphane Boudin arranged the furnishings to more resemble the cross hall at Malmaison. While a red carpet has traditionally been in the Cross Hall since the early 1960s, the carpet has, over time, become more detailed and the color has evolved; the current carpet, manufactured during the Clinton Administration, was designed to be more graphic, to appear attractively in television broadcasts. The red was made more saturated, the shade warmer, a gold border of laurel leaves and five-pointed stars, based directly on the carved stone border in the Grand Stairway, was woven into the carpet's border; the current appearance of the Cross Hall is the result of a renovation and refurbishing completed in 1997 by the Committee for the Preservation of the White House, the White House Office of the Curator, funded by the White House Endowment Trust.
A suite of upholstered gilded beech chairs and settées thought to have once belonged to James Monroe are arranged against the walls. The tradition of hanging presidential portraits in this hall dates to President Ulysses S. Grant; the Buchanan administration first began the tradition of keeping paintings of presidents for the White House collection. The Grants added to this collection, hung portraits of presidents from Washington to Lincoln in the Cross Hall behind a glass screen. At that time, visitors could come to the White House on weekdays, enter through the north doors, walk down the Cross Hall past the paintings to the East Room. With a note from a congressman, visitors could view the other "State Floor" rooms, such as the Red Room, where they could see the large Grant family portrait. Abbott, James A. A Frenchman in Camelot: The Decoration of the Kennedy White House by Stéphane Boudin. Boscobel Restoration Inc.: 1995. ISBN 0-9646659-0-5. Abbott James A. and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration.
Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85799-5. Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5. Leish, Kenneth; the White House. Newsweek Book Division: 1972. ISBN 0-88225-020-5. Monkman, Betty C; the White House: The Historic Furnishing & First Families. Abbeville Press: 2000. ISBN 0-7892-0624-2. Seale, William; the President's House. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 1986. ISBN 0-912308-28-1. Seale, The White House: The History of an American Idea. White House Historical Association: 1992, 2001. ISBN 0-912308-85-0. West, J. B. with Mary Lynn Kotz. Upstairs at the White House: My Life with the First Ladies. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan: 1973. SBN 698-10546-X. Wolff, Perry. A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy. Doubleday & Company: 1962; the White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001.
ISBN 0-912308-79-6. The Official website of the White House
State Dining Room of the White House
The State Dining Room is the larger of two dining rooms on the State Floor of the Executive Residence of the White House, the home of the President of the United States in Washington, D. C, it is used for receptions, larger formal dinners, state dinners for visiting heads of state on state visits. The room seats 140 and measures 48 by 36 feet. Office space, the State Dining Room received its name during the presidency of James Monroe, at which time it was first extensively furnished; the room was refurbished during several administrations in the early to mid 1800s, gasified in 1853. Doors were cut through the west wall in 1877; the State Dining Room underwent a major expansion and renovation in 1902, transforming it from a Victorian dining room into a "baronial" dining hall of the early 19th century—complete with stuffed animal heads on the walls and dark oak panelling. The room stayed in this form until the White House's complete reconstruction in 1952; the 1952 rebuilding of the White House retained much of the 1902 renovation, although much of the "baronial" furnishings were removed and the walls were painted celadon green.
Another major refurbishment from 1961 to 1963 changed the room further, more approximating an Empire style room with elements from a wide range of other periods. Incremental changes to the room were made throughout the 1970s and 1980s, with major refurbishments of the furnishings in 1998 and 2015; the northern third of what is now the State Dining Room was the western part of the Cross Hall. Two flights of stairs led from the State Floor to the Second Floor. A single, central stair led up to the Third Floor. Not completed when the White House was occupied in 1800, the Grand Stairs were finished by architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe in 1803 or shortly thereafter. To the south of the Grand Stair was a small room, designated by Hoban for use as a Cabinet Room or President's Library. President John Adams was the first president to occupy the White House; the White House was far too large for their needs, they had few furnishings with which to make it a home. The State Dining Room was temporarily partitioned in order to make it usable.
The southwest corner became a "levee room", where the public could meet and mingle with the president, while the northwest corner became a dining room. President Thomas Jefferson used the southwest corner of the State Dining Room as his primary office from 1801 to 1809; the room was sparsely furnished at this time, with chairs. He kept his gardening tools and an assortment of potted plants in the room; the floor was covered with canvas, painted green. In time, charts and globes. For seating, Jefferson moved 12 of the black-and-gold painted mahogany chairs from the dining room to the office. Jefferson's successor, James Madison, wanted the room to be a dining room. First Lady Dolley Madison worked with Jefferson's architect, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, to make some structural changes to the State Dining Room, which meant closing off two windows in the west wall. A large dining table, capable of seating at least 40, was placed in the room, surrounded by simple rush-bottomed chairs. A silver service and a blue-and-gold china service purchased from the Lowestoft Porcelain Factory in England were used for dining, a simple surtout de table was used as the centerpiece.
Other than the dining table, the largest piece of furniture in the room was a massive sideboard. The windows were uncurtained, walls papered. Paintings of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson were hung on the walls; the Washington image was a copy of the Lansdowne portrait, a full-length, life-size figure of the first President painted by Gilbert Stuart in 1796. The canvas flooring was removed, an ingrain carpet installed. Otherwise, the room remained only sparsely furnished; the White House was burned on August 24, 1814, by the British Army during the War of 1812. The Landsdowne copy was saved from destruction by doorman Jean Pierre Sioussat and White house gardener Tom Magraw, who cut it from its elaborate frame and spirited it away from the White House just minutes before British troops arrived; the White House was reconstructed in 1817, after which the Cabinet Room/Presidential Library was called the State Dining Room. The reconstruction added an extensive chimney breast to the fireplace in the room's west wall.
The State Dining Room was extensively furnished at this time. President James Monroe, rather than First Lady Elizabeth Monroe, was responsible for making decorative decisions for the White House. Monroe decided to have the walls of the State Dining Room covered in green silk. Two Italian Carrara marble mantels, featuring Neoclassical caryatids on either side, were bought by Monroe and installed over the two fireplaces in this room. One of Monroe's most important purchases were several ornamental ormolu pieces to furnish the State Dining Room; the surtout de table, crafted by Denière et Matelin in France, was 14 feet long when extended. The piece had seven sections, each 24 inches long, which could be removed or inserted as needed to adjust the length, it had a mirrored floor, garlands of fruit and flowers formed the rim. Seventeen bacchantes (personifications of the female servants of Bacchus, the ancie
Red Room (White House)
The Red Room is one of three state parlors on the State Floor in the White House, the home of the President of the United States in Washington, D. C. in the United States. The room has served as a parlor and music room, recent presidents have held small dinner parties in it, it has been traditionally decorated in shades of red. The room is 28 by 22.5 feet. It has six doors, which open into the Cross Hall, Blue Room, South Portico, State Dining Room. Benjamin Latrobe's 1803 drawing of the White House's first floor indicates that the Red Room served as "the President's Antichamber" for the president's "Library & Cabinet" next door in the location of the present State Dining Room. During the administration of John Adams, it served as a breakfast room. Jefferson kept a caged magpie in the room. During the James Madison administration, the antechamber became the "Yellow Drawing Room" and the scene of Dolley Madison's fashionable Wednesday night receptions. Dolley ordered a piano she wanted, along with red velvet curtains for the room.
The White House was gutted in 1814 when the British set fire to the structure during the Burning of Washington. It was reconstructed during the administration of President James Monroe, the door and window frames and doors themselves date to this era. Monroe purchased furnishings for the Red Room in the Empire style, as he had for the Blue Room, to furnish the rebuilt White House. Gilbert Stuart's portrait of George Washington hung in the Red Room, providing the colloquial name the "Washington Parlor." Stuart's 1804 portrait of Dolley Madison was hung here. The fireplace mantel was one of two purchased by President James Monroe in 1817. Carved of white marble in France in the Empire style, it and its partner were installed in the State Dining Room. In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt selected Charles Follen McKim of the New York architectural firm McKim, Mead & White to renovate the White House. McKim fashioned all new mantels for the State Dining Room, reused one of the 1817 mantels in the Red Room.
The walls were hung with burgundy silk velvet. A late nineteenth century suite of stuffed Turkish-style furniture was upholstered in the same shade. Addition of a new attic story during the Coolidge administration placed great strain on the building's structure. By 1951 the house had become unsound and President Truman directed a major reconstruction; the building's interior was dismantled, with some of the architectural elements being numbered and stored. After a steel infrastructure was installed, those elements were restored in their original configuration; the Red Room reconstructed during this period. Installation of air conditioning in 1953 and 1954 required the ceiling height be reduced by 18" and a new plaster ceiling with a somewhat generic pattern of stars was installed. Having nearly no furniture original to the house, Truman hired the New York department store B. Altman's design department to oversee the refurnishing of the house. In the Red Room, a red silk damask in the same pattern as before the reconstruction was installed on the walls.
The Louis XVI style mantel clock is French, c. 1780–85, was a gift to the American nation in 1954 from President Vincent Auriol of France following completion of the Truman reconstruction of the house. Jacqueline Kennedy made extensive renovations to the White House in 1961 and 1962; when the Kennedy family first moved into the White House, the Red Room were arranged and decorated using existing items by Sister Parish, Mrs. Kennedy's long-time friend and interior decorator. Parish rearranged the Red Room, but did no refurbishment of it. By the middle of 1961, however, as the wider Kennedy renovation of the White House moved into high gear, Parish's Red Room decor was dismantled and she no longer played much of a role in the renovation; the Kennedy renovation was overseen by American antiques autodidact Henry Francis du Pont and French interior designer Stéphane Boudin and his company, Maison Jansen. Kennedy established an advisory Committee on Fine Arts made up of museum professionals as well as wealthy individuals interested in antiques.
Kennedy was an ardent admirer of French interior design, the Red Room was not only the first room to be redesigned during the Kennedy renovation but the room refurbished completely in a French style. But because the involvement of a French interior decorator was considered politically unpalatable to the American people, Boudin's role in redecorating the Red Room was not mentioned and the refurbishment was for many years attributed to Parish. Boudin, rather than du Pont, proved to have the greatest impact on the Red Room. About June 1961, Boudin proposed two alternative treatments for the walls; the more elaborate of these featured cerise silk upholstery for the walls, with a broad band of gold decorative "tape" around the inside of each panel. The second proposal omitted the decorative band. In August, du Pont agreed; the second proposal was approved by Kennedy Parish assisted by attempting to find a manufacturer who could not only duplicate the colors Boudin wanted but the various medallion patterns he proposed.
The New York textile manufacturer Bergamo was approached, but problems with design and cost forced Parish to utilize the Scalamandré firm instead. The wall covering was put in place in late 1961. Du Pont suggested the room be made over using Duncan Phyfe furniture, while Gerald Shea of the Committee on Fine Arts felt that American Empi
The Vermeil Room is located on the ground floor of the White House, the official residence of the President of the United States. The room houses a collection of silver-gilt or vermeil tableware, a 1956 bequest to the White House by Margaret Thompson Biddle. Portraits of American First Ladies hang in the room; the Vermeil Room was a staff work room used for storage and for the tasks of polishing silver. Theodore Roosevelt's 1902 renovation of the White House by architect Charles Follen McKim reconfigured the use of the house, finishing much of the ground floor for public use; when first furnished for public use the room was termed the Social Room, because it served as a lounge adjacent to a women's rest room. McKim panelled wainscot. On the west wall McKim installed a Colonial Revival mantel with paired Tuscan Doric columns and bas-relief medallions with American eagles similar to the one found in the Seal of the President of the United States; the mantel was flanked by a pair of built-in arched cupboards.
The Truman reconstruction of the White House in 1952 replaced the 1815 pine beams installed during the reconstruction of the house after its burning by the British in 1814. President Truman had the ancient beams sawn and installed as paneling in the Vermeil Room, China Room, Library; the style of wall paneling and bracketed molding installed during the Truman reconstruction were based on a Georgian period model, contemporary with the design of the White House exterior. They were left unpainted, showing their grain and knots, a look popular in the 1950s. Margaret Thompson Biddle's collection was significant and ranges from Renaissance to 19th-century French and English pieces; the collection includes work by English Regency silversmith Paul Storr and French Empire silversmiths Pierre-Philippe Thomire, Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot. First Lady Mamie Eisenhower had the collection displayed in the room's glass-enclosed vitrines. Biddle was the daughter of William Boyce Thompson and the wife of A. J. Drexel Biddle, Jr..
At first only displayed in the Vermeil Room in a museum like setting, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy on recommendation of her friend Rachel Lambert Mellon began using the collection for the display of flowers and fruit in the rooms on the state floor. During the Kennedy White House restoration, interior designer Stéphane Boudin proposed painting the room in a style used in 17th and 18th century England and Normandy. Boudin had used a similar treatment in the Blue Bedroom at Leeds Castle in England. Rather than attempting to putty and polish the rough sawn timbers he chose to highlight the porous texture of the paneling; the walls were first rubbed down with wire brushes to bring up the grain and create an "aged" surface. Next a solid coat of off-white paint was applied, and, followed by a "dragged" coating of blue paint; this was sealed using a bar of wax dabbed in pure dry blue pigment, the surface was distressed to tiny specks of white in the underlying base coat. The interior of the shelves displaying the vermeil were covered in white velvet.
One of two neoclassical caryatid mantels was installed. White damask drapes were made with off-white fringe trim. A finely patterned blue and white carpet was installed, a large center table was created with a custom dyed blue velvet cloth not delivered until the Johnson years. A gilded chandelier, making reference to the vermeil collection was installed; the result was a gallery room, not a sitting room. The White House: An Historic Guide shows an architectural cross-section with Boudin's blue Vermeil Room. In 1971 First Lady Pat Nixon, working with White House Curator Clement Conger, refurbished the Vermeil Room adopting a Federal style for the room's decoration; the Georgian cornices were replaced with period cornices. Several of the vitrines were closed up, the paneling was given many coats of putty to transform it to a smooth finish; the room was painted a soft green and drapery was designed by Edward Vason Jones in gold and blue with complex swags trimmed in bobbin tassels. A late 19th-century English crystal chandelier was installed and the room was furnished with two Federal style sofas, an Empire pier table between the windows on the south wall.
In 1991, during the George H. W. Bush administration, the room was repainted a soft yellow, the pier table was replaced with an empire-style sofa, the two federal-style sofas were replaced by a pair of lolling chairs; the striped gold-and-blue drapery was replaced with striped silk damask in cream. In 2006 the White House curator Bill Allman, First Lady Laura Bush, Bush family decorator Ken Blasingame and the Committee for the Preservation of the White House refurbished the room. Walls were painted in an enamel gloss finish in an ivory color with a tint of green described as Deauville. An 1829 center table in the late neoclassical style by Philadelphia cabinetmaker Anthony Gabriel Quervelle was placed in the room; the lolling chairs were reupholstered in patterned white silk damask, the c. 1815 sofa on the south wall is attributed to Duncan Phyfe and upholstered in a pink silk lampas. On each side of the sofa stand Boston work tables produced in the early 19th century to be the work of cabinetmakers John Seymour or Thomas Seymour.
Though an unmatched pair, each has a fabric sewing-bag. Windows were given new drapery – straight panels of patterned silk jacquard in olive and gold, topped by a single festooned swag and side jabots of the same patterned silk, trimmed in tassels; the carpet is a Turkish Hereke with a background of light green, produced about 1860. Abbott, James A.. Frenchman
Lincoln Sitting Room
The Lincoln Sitting Room is a small sitting room located next to the Lincoln Bedroom on the second floor of the White House. It was used as the White House telegraph room from 1865 to 1902, it is furnished in Victorian-style to match the bedroom. The overstuffed sofa and matching chair were furnishings in the Green Room; the Kennedy restoration in 1963 restored it to Victorian-style, it has been maintained in the same style since. The room became a favorite hide-away of President Richard Nixon who had it replicated in his presidential library; the Washington Post: "Lincoln Never Slept Here" White House Museum: The Lincoln Sitting Room