A nunatak is an exposed rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within an ice field or glacier. They are called glacial islands. Examples are natural pyramidal peaks; when rounded by glacial action, smaller rock promontories may be referred to as rognons. The word has been used in English since the 1870s; the term is used in areas where a permanent ice sheet is present and the nunataks protrude above the sheet. Nunataks present identifiable landmark reference points in glaciers or ice caps and are named. While some nunataks are isolated, sometimes they form dense clusters, such as Queen Louise Land in Greenland. Nunataks are angular and jagged, which hampers the formation of glacial ice on their tops, although snow can accumulate on them, they contrast with the softer contours of the glacially eroded land after a glacier retreats. Nunataks are the only places where plant life can survive on ice sheets or ice caps. Lifeforms on nunataks are isolated by the surrounding ice or glacier, providing unique habitats.
Fell Glacial landform – Landform created by the action of glaciers Media related to Nunataks at Wikimedia Commons Nunatak survival of the high Alpine plant Eritrichium nanum
Pike County, Missouri
Pike County is a county on the eastern border of the U. S. state of Missouri, bounded by the Mississippi River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,516, its county seat is Bowling Green. Its namesake was a region from where many early migrants came; the county was organized December 14, 1818, named for explorer Zebulon Pike. The folksong "Sweet Betsy from Pike" is thought to be associated with Pike County, Missouri. Pike County is said to be the home of Momo; the first reported sightings in the 1970s were traced to various locations throughout the county. The history of Pike County is complicated by the fact that at its establishment in 1818, it included today's boundaries plus all counties north of it, plus the counties bordering all of them on the west, in total over 6 or 7 times larger than its current size, thus covering the northeast border area of today's State of Missouri. Pike county and the counties north of it were reduced in size by the creation of Ralls and subsequent new counties including Marion, Clark, Knox, Shelby,and Monroe.
The county was first settled by migrants from the Upper South. Some, though not all, were sympathetic to the Confederate cause in decades. After the end of the post-Civil-War Reconstruction era, some of the county's inhabitants enforced Jim Crow laws and racial segregation in the county to maintain what has been labeled by some as "white supremacy"; this occurred despite the fact that key US/Unionist military operations to control "Confederate" upstarts were launched from Pike County and had bases there. In a violent period near the turn of the 20th century, five African Americans were tragically lynched in Pike County between 1891 and 1914. Among those were Curtin and Sam Young, who were both lynched as alleged murder suspects on June 6, 1898 in Clarksville, a small town on the Mississippi River. Pike tied with Howard County, Missouri for the highest number of lynchings of African Americans in the state during this historical period. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 685 square miles, of which 670 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
Ralls County Pike County, Illinois Calhoun County, Illinois Lincoln County Montgomery County Audrain County U. S. Route 54 U. S. Route 61 Route 79 Route 161 Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2010, there were 18,516 people, 6,451 households, 4,476 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 7,493 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.44% White, 9.17% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.92% from other races, 1.04% from two or more races. 1.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 24.6% were of American, 24.5% German, 8.9% English and 8.5% Irish ancestry. There were 6,451 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.40% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 119.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 123.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,373, the median income for a family was $39,059. Males had a median income of $28,528 versus $19,426 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,462. 15.50% of the population and 11.90% of families were below the poverty line. 20.20% of those under the age of 18 and 15.20% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boncl R-X School District – Louisiana Boncl Elementary School Bowling Green R-I School District – Bowling Green Bowling Green Elementary School Frankford Elementary School Bowling Green Middle School Bowling Green High School Louisiana R-II School District – Louisiana Louisiana Elementary School Louisiana Middle School Louisiana High School Pike County R-III School District – Clarksville Clopton Elementary School Clopton High School Pike County Christian School – Curryville – Baptist St. Clement School – Bowling Green – Roman Catholic Bowling Green Free Public Library Clarksville Public Library Louisiana Public Library The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the county level in Pike County, with Republicans holding many of the elected positions, with exceptions as stated below.
Note that, per the tables below, Republican Pike County voters prevailed in Missouri gubernatorial elections of 2016 and 2004, came close to a tie for dominance in 2012, followed by a clear overtaking of county politics in 2016, in contrast with a tradition of nominal Democratic party affiliations of county-level officials. Pike County is a part of Missouri’s 40th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Jim Hansen. Pike County is a part of Missouri’s 18th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Brian Munzlinger. Pike County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Repre
Hannibal is a city in Marion and Ralls counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. Interstate 72 and U. S. Routes 24, 36, 61 intersect in the city, located along the Mississippi River 100 miles northwest of St. Louis and 100 miles west of Springfield, Illinois. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 17,606; the bulk of the city is in Marion County, with a tiny sliver in the south extending into Ralls County. Hannibal is not the county seat. There is one in Palmyra, the county seat, located more in the center of the county; this is the principal city of the Hannibal, Missouri micropolitan area, which consists of both Marion and Ralls counties. The site of Hannibal was long occupied by various cultures of indigenous Native American tribes; the river community is best known as the 19th-century boyhood home of author Samuel Langhorne Clemens. The settings of Twain's novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn are inspired by this town. Numerous historical sites are associated with places depicted in his fiction.
Hannibal draws both international tourists. The Mark Twain Boyhood Home & Museum marked its 100th anniversary in 2012 and has had visitors from all 50 states and some 60 countries. Most Hannibal residents enjoy the visitors, the town at large benefits from tourism revenue. After the Louisiana Territory was acquired by the United States in 1803, European-American settlers began to enter the area; the town was named after Hannibal Creek. The name is derived from the hero of ancient Carthage in actual Tunisia, Hannibal. Although the city grew with a population of 30 by 1830, its access to the Mississippi River and railroad transportation fueled growth to 2,020 by 1850, it annexed the town of South Hannibal in 1843. Hannibal gained "city" status by 1845. Hannibal was Missouri's third-largest city when the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was organized in 1846 by John M. Clemens and associates, it was built to connect to St. Joseph, Missouri in the west the state's second-largest city; this railroad was the westernmost line.
It transported mail for delivery to the first outpost of the Pony Express. The city has since served as a regional marketing center for livestock and grain as well as other products produced locally, such as cement and shoes. Cement for the Empire State Building and Panama Canal was manufactured at the Atlas Portland Cement Company in the nearby unincorporated company town of Ilasco; the Mark Twain Memorial Lighthouse was constructed in 1933 as a public works project under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it has been lit on ceremonial occasions at three separate times by Presidents Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton. Rockcliffe Mansion, a private house on a knoll in Hannibal, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2011, the Mark Twain Boyhood Home and Museum released Mark Twain: Words & Music, a CD featuring entertainers who recount Mark Twain's life in spoken word and song. Several songs were written for the project and refer to Hannibal, including "Huck Finn Blues" by Brad Paisley and "Run Mississippi" by Rhonda Vincent.
Other artists include Jimmy Buffett as Huckleberry Finn, Clint Eastwood as Twain, Garrison Keillor as the narrator of the project. Hannibal is next to Illinois. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.21 square miles, of which 15.74 square miles is land and 0.47 square miles is water. Hannibal's climate is humid continental, with hot, humid summers; the Hannibal Micropolitan Statistical Area is composed of Ralls counties. As of the census of 2010, there were 17,916 people, 7,117 households, 4,400 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,138.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,021 housing units at an average density of 509.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.8% White, 7.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 7,117 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.2% were non-families.
31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 37.3 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,757 people, 7,017 households, 4,554 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,215.3 people per square mile. There were 7,886 housing units at an average density of 539.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 90.61% White, 6.57% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 1.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.13% of the population. 25.9% were of American, 23.8% German, 10.9% Irish and 10.0% English ances
The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology; the Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene is divided into four stages or ages, the Gelasian, Middle Pleistocene and Upper Pleistocene. In addition to this international subdivision, various regional subdivisions are used. Before a change confirmed in 2009 by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the time boundary between the Pleistocene and the preceding Pliocene was regarded as being at 1.806 million years Before Present, as opposed to the accepted 2.588 million years BP: publications from the preceding years may use either definition of the period. Charles Lyell introduced the term "Pleistocene" in 1839 to describe strata in Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still living today.
This distinguished it from the older Pliocene epoch, which Lyell had thought to be the youngest fossil rock layer. He constructed the name "Pleistocene" from the Greek πλεῖστος, pleīstos, "most", καινός, kainós, "new"; the Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million to 11,700 years BP with the end date expressed in radiocarbon years as 10,000 carbon-14 years BP. It covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell; the end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC. The end of the Younger Dryas is the official start of the current Holocene Epoch. Although it is considered an epoch, the Holocene is not different from previous interglacial intervals within the Pleistocene, it was not until after the development of radiocarbon dating, that Pleistocene archaeological excavations shifted to stratified caves and rock-shelters as opposed to open-air river-terrace sites. In 2009 the International Union of Geological Sciences confirmed a change in time period for the Pleistocene, changing the start date from 1.806 to 2.588 million years BP, accepted the base of the Gelasian as the base of the Pleistocene, namely the base of the Monte San Nicola GSSP.
The IUGS has yet to approve a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, for the upper Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75° 06' N 42° 18' W; the lower boundary of the Pleistocene Series is formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils: Discoaster pentaradiatus and Discoaster surculus; the Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The name Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice age; the revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the start date of the Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma, results in the inclusion of all the recent repeated glaciations within the Pleistocene. The modern continents were at their present positions during the Pleistocene, the plates upon which they sit having moved no more than 100 km relative to each other since the beginning of the period.
According to Mark Lynas, the Pleistocene's overall climate could be characterized as a continuous El Niño with trade winds in the south Pacific weakening or heading east, warm air rising near Peru, warm water spreading from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, other El Niño markers. Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places, it is estimated. In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the glacial sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America, several hundred in Eurasia; the mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C. Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500 to 3,000 metres thick, resulting in temporary sea-level drops of 100 metres or more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions.
The effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene; the Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Tasmania; the current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Ruwenzori Range in east and central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one; the Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest. The Fenno-Scandian ice sheet rested including much of Great Britain. Scattered domes stretched across Siberi
Jefferson City, Missouri
Jefferson City the city of Jefferson and informally Jeff, is the capital of the U. S. state of Missouri and the 15th most populous city in the state. It is the county seat of Cole County and the principal city of the Jefferson City Metropolitan Statistical Area, the second-most-populous metropolitan area in Mid-Missouri and fifth-largest in the state. Most of the city is with a small northern section extending into Callaway County. Jefferson City is named for the third president of the United States; the city won a 2013 essay contest sponsored by Rand McNally, was named "Most Beautiful Small Town"Jefferson City is on the northern edge of the Ozark Plateau on the southern side of the Missouri River in a region known as Mid-Missouri. It is 30 miles south of Columbia and sits at the western edge of the Missouri Rhineland, one of the major wine-producing regions of the Midwest; the city is dominated by the domed Capitol, which rises from a bluff overlooking the Missouri River to the north. Many of Jefferson City's primary employers are in manufacturing industries.
Jefferson City is home to Lincoln University, a public black land-grant university founded in 1866 by the 62nd Regiment of U. S. Colored Troops with support from the 65th Regiment of U. S. Colored Troops. In pre-Columbian times, this region was home of an ancient people known only as the "Mound Builders", having been replaced by Osage Native Americans. In the late 17th century, frontiersmen started to inhabit the area, including Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, Louis Jolliet, Jacques Marquette, Robert de LaSalle, Daniel Boone, with the latter having the greatest influence on the region. Daniel Boone's son, Daniel Morgan Boone, would lay out Jefferson City in the early 19th century; when the Missouri Territory was organized in 1812, St. Louis was Missouri's seat of government, St. Charles would serve as the next capital. However, in the middle of the state, Jefferson City was chosen as the new capital in 1821, when Thomas Jefferson was still living; the village first was called "Lohman's Landing", when the legislature decided to relocate there, they proposed the name "Missouriopolis" before settling on the city of "Jefferson" to honor Thomas Jefferson.
Over the years, the city became to be most referred to as "Jefferson City" and the name stuck. For years, this village was little more than a trading post located in the wilderness about midway between St. Louis and Kansas City. In 1825, the settlement was incorporated as a city and a year the Missouri legislature first met in Jefferson City. Jefferson City was chosen as the site of a state prison; this prison, named the Missouri State Penitentiary, opened in 1836. This prison was home to multiple infamous Americans, including former heavyweight champion Sonny Liston, assassin James Earl Ray, bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd. During the Civil War, Jefferson City was occupied by Union troops and the elected state legislature was driven from Jefferson City by Union General Nathaniel Lyon; some of the legislators reconvened in Neosho and passed an ordinance of secession. Missouri was claimed by the Union, as was neighboring state Kentucky. Missourians were divided and many people in the state—especially in St. Louis—supported the Union, while other areas were pro-Confederate along the Missouri River between Jefferson City and Kansas City.
German immigrants created vineyards in small towns on either side of the Missouri River on the north from the city east to Marthasville, located outside of St. Louis. Known as the "Missouri Rhineland" for its vineyards and first established by German immigrants in the mid-1800s, this region has become part of Missouri's agricultural and tourist economy. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.58 square miles, of which 35.95 square miles is land and 1.63 square miles is water. Jefferson City has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the city borders on having a humid subtropical climate but falls just short due to January having a mean temperature of 30 °F, below the 32 °F isothern. Thunderstorms are common in both the summer. Light snow is common during the winter, although about half of wintertime precipitation falls as rain; as of the census of 2010, there were 43,079 people, 17,278 households, 9,969 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,198.3 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 18,852 housing units at an average density of 524.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.0% White, 16.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 17,278 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.3% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.9% of residents under the age of 18, 10.3% between the ages of 18 and 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 37.5 years.
The gender makeup of
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use