American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Lincoln the Lawyer
The statue was dedicated by Taft on July 3,1927. It was moved to the entrance of Carle Park on December 4,1927. Taft requested a different placement, facing southeast, and the statue was moved about 20 feet north to the present site in December 1955. It was restored in 2003, and added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 10,2004, Lincoln had ridden as a circuit lawyer on the 8th Judicial Circuit through Urbana from 1837-1848. The statue was paid for by a bequest of Mrs. J. O. Cunningham who, the bequest of $10,000 was funded by the sale of her house on nearby Green Street. This amount was less than half of Tafts usual commission for work in bronze and he had been raised in nearby Champaign. Lincoln the Lawyer, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System
Knob Creek Farm
Knob Creek Farm has been a noncontinuous section of the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park since 2001, prior to that date it was privately owned. From 1811 to 1816, it was the homestead of the future President of the United States Abraham Lincoln. The site consists of four buildings, two of which are historical in nature, the total acreage of Knob Creek Farm is 228 acres, of which the Lincolns lived on 30 acres. Lincolns father Thomas Lincoln did not actually own the farm, he leased the land by the Old Cumberland Trail in hopes of regaining the Sinking Spring Farm and it was on this site that Lincolns brother, was born and died. Lincoln himself almost died at the farm as well, nearly drowning at the adjacent Knob Creek until neighbor, the cabin the Lincolns lived in was destroyed in the 19th century. The two historical buildings at the location are the Lincoln Tavern and the Gollaher Cabin, the Tavern was built in 1933 at the cost of $4,200, the 1.5 floor structure was constructed of logs and concrete in an asymmetrical plan.
The Gollaher Cabin was built around the year 1800, and moved to its present location to reflect what the Lincoln cabin would look like and it is the cabin Austin Gollahers family lived in during Lincolns stay at Knob Creek Farm. The tavern was built to cash in on the booming tourist trade came to LaRue County to see sites connected with Lincoln. It was originally a hall that served liquor, but when LaRue County became dry, it was converted to a museum and gift shop. During the 1980s,20,000 annually visited the complex, the farm was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 16,1988, due to its role in tourism in LaRue County and for its connections with Abraham Lincoln. More detail on the history and specifics of the site are covered in a 2006 NPS report, Lincoln Boyhood Home NRHP Nomination Form. Young Lincolns Playmate Saved Him From Drowning
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum documents the life of the 16th U. S. President, Abraham Lincoln, and the course of the American Civil War. Combining traditional scholarship with 21st-century showmanship techniques, the ranks as one of the most visited presidential libraries. Its library, in addition to housing a collection on Lincoln, houses the collection of the Illinois State Historical Library. The library and museum is located in the capital of Springfield, and is overseen by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. It is not affiliated with the U. S. National Archives, past exhibits have dealt with the Civil War and Stephen A. Douglas. As of February 2014, a collection of Annie Leibovitzs photography, one of the museums permanent exhibits, Campaign of 1860, includes modern-style television updates on the campaigns progress from the late Meet the Press anchor Tim Russert. Another of the permanent exhibits, The Civil War in Four Minutes, in addition to its exhibits, the Lincoln Museum runs two special effects theater shows, Lincolns Eyes and Ghosts of the Library.
The Lincoln Presidential Library is a library which houses books and artifacts related to Lincolns life. While the library is open to the public, its collection is non-circulating. A reading room, named the Steve Neal Reading Room in honor of Illinois historical journalist Steve Neal, is open to the public, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is administered by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Richard Norton Smith served as the museums Founding Executive Director, dr. Thomas Schwartz served as the museums Interim Executive Director when Smith departed in March 2006, and until Rick Beard was appointed in October 2006. However, Beard was fired in October 2008 after he was charged with shoplifting at Springfield stores, mackevich formerly served as the Executive Director of the national Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission. Mackevich was active as a broadcast journalist and talk show host on Chicago public radio, mackevichs objectives were to raise money, make the museum more attractive, and attract more international interest.
She resigned in 2015 and Governor Bruce Rauner named Nadine OLeary to serve as Acting Director, in July 2016, Governor Bruce Rauner appointed Alan Lowe as Executive Director of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Museum and Library. Lowe served as Director of the George W. Bush Presidential Museum, as First Lady of Illinois, Lura Lynn Ryan became a major fundraiser and the Librarys first chairwoman. She launched the fundraising for the library by raising $250,000, Ryan organized a program in which Illinois schoolchildren collected pennies for the construction of the presidential library, which raised $47,000 dollars. She served on the commission from 2001 to 2010, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in Springfield, Illinois, in the historic downtown section, near many other Lincoln cultural sites. The presidential library opened on October 14,2004, and the museum opened on April 19,2005, until 1970, Fords Theatre in Washington, D. C. was designated as the Lincoln Museum
Abraham Lincoln (1912 statue)
Abraham Lincoln – known as The Gettysburg Lincoln – is a bronze statue of President Abraham Lincoln by Daniel Chester French, located on the grounds of the Nebraska State Capitol. The monument was commissioned by the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Association of Lincoln, the statue was cast in bronze by Jno. Its architectural setting was created by Frenchs longtime collaborator Henry Bacon, the 8.67 ft statue stands upon a 6 ft granite base and before a 20 ft granite stele, on which is inscribed the text of Lincolns Gettysburg Address. C. The Gettysburg Lincoln from Smithsonian Institution Research Information System
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the end of the National Mall in Washington. Dedicated in 1922, it is one of several built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations and it has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15,1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day, in 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Since 2010, approximately 6 million people visit the memorial annually, the first public memorial to Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D. C. was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after Lincolns assassination. Demands for a national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincolns death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president, an American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument.
Subscriptions for the project were insufficient, the first five bills, proposed in the years 1901,1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill, introduced on December 13,1910, the Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and U. S. President William H. Taft was chosen as the commissions president. Progress continued at a pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commissions choice of design. There were questions regarding the commissions plan, many thought that architect Henry Bacons Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincolns humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine, the site too did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be too swampy or too inaccessible. Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth, the Potomac Park site had already been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.
With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway, on February 12,1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed steadily according to schedule, some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be 10 feet tall, was enlarged to 19 feet to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial is a United States Presidential Memorial, a National Historic Landmark District in present-day Lincoln City, Indiana. It preserves the site where Abraham Lincoln lived with his family from 1816 to 1830. During that time, he grew from a 7-year-old boy to a 21-year-old man and his mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and at least 27 other settlers were buried here in the Pioneer Cemetery. His sister Sarah Lincoln Grigsby was buried in the nearby Little Pigeon Baptist Church cemetery, included in the park is the Lincoln Living Historical Farm. The Lincoln Boyhood Home was named a National Historic Landmark in 1960, in 2005 the site was visited by 147,443 people. On site is a center, featuring a 15-minute orientation film about Lincolns time in Indiana. The site is located ten minutes off the Interstate 64/U. S. 231 junction and near the new U. S.231 Route, the centerpiece of the memorial is a one-story limestone ashlar memorial building completed in 1945 that features five sculpted panels portraying different phases of Lincolns life.
The building has an entrance fee and it has a small theater featuring a 16-minute film about Lincolns life in Indiana. The museum features exhibits and artifacts related to Lincolns life. A private gallery displays Lincoln-related artwork, including portraits and lithographs of Lincoln. The park holds an oil portrait of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, done by an artist long after her death, a chapel and meeting hall can be rented for public weddings and other gatherings. Nearby is the site of the original Lincoln cabin, the sandstone foundation clearly outlines the boundary of the house and is visible to visitors, discovered through a professional archeological excavation, it is now preserved and protected by a wall. A very short distance from the cabin site stands the replica farm house. Park rangers in full period clothing work the 1820s-style farm, making it a living history site, visitors can talk with them, take classes and learn more about the many activities and items at the farm. The Living Historical Farm is open seasonally, from mid-spring to early fall, it cultivates crops, raises livestock, Abrahams father Thomas Lincoln had lost two previous homes in Kentucky, one at the Sinking Spring Farm where Lincoln was born, in part through problems with land titles.
Because Kentucky had not had proper land surveys in its years, many residents were forced off their farms after surveys were completed. The Lincolns were one family, after Thomas had built some economic and social success in Kentucky
Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site
The Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site is an 86-acre history park located eight miles south of Charleston, Illinois, U. S. near the town of Lerna. Its centerpiece is a replica of the log cabin built and occupied by Thomas Lincoln, the farmstead is operated by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Abraham Lincolns birth mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, died in 1818 while the family lived in southern Indiana, in 1819, Lincolns father Thomas Lincoln married Sarah Bush Lincoln of Kentucky. In 1830, Thomas and Sarahs newly combined family migrated west from Indiana into central Illinois. After a wretched winter in 1830–1831 at a campsite west of Decatur, young Abraham, now an adult, left the family to start his own homestead, wandering generally southeastward and Sarah eventually settled in Coles County. By 1845, the cabin was home to as many as 18 members of the Lincoln and Johnston families, Abraham Lincoln, now a rising state legislator and lawyer, provided financial help to his parents but did not visit them as often as he could.
As a lawyer, he was in Charleston, site of the Coles County courthouse, quite frequently, though he remembered his stepmother fondly, Lincoln was not very close to his father, he did not visit even when Thomas Lincoln was terminally ill in 1851. Their meeting occurred at the frame house of prominent Farmington citizen Reuben Moore. They visited Thomas Lincolns grave at nearby Shiloh Cemetery, Sarah was fond of her stepson and had always believed he would be successful. This was to be their last visit, Lincoln never returned to Illinois alive, Sarah Bush Lincoln lived in the Goosenest Prairie cabin until her death in 1869. Sarah Lincoln was buried with Thomas in Shiloh Cemetery, in 1893, the original Thomas Lincoln log cabin was disassembled and shipped northward to serve as an exhibit at the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. The original cabin was lost after the Exposition, and may have used as firewood. However, the cabin had been photographed many times, and a replica was built from the photographs.
It is surrounded by a subsistence farmstead similar to the senior Lincolns actual farm, is the feature of the main site. The farm includes heirloom crops and cattle breeds similar or identical to those used at the time, the Reuben Moore Home, occupied by a branch of the family starting in 1856, was the place of Abraham and Sarah Bush Lincolns final meeting. It is located about 1 mile north of the main Goosenest Prairie site in what is now the village of Farmington. The Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site is interpreted to the mid-1840s, the main site includes the cornfields, small orchards and outbuildings that would be found on a farm of the period. The crops and livestock are all of historic heirloom varieties, a great many additional activities occur during the annual Fall Harvest Frolic
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin