Team of Rivals
Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln is a 2005 book by Pulitzer Prize-winning American historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, published by Simon & Schuster. The book is a biographical portrait of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln and some of the men who served with him in his cabinet from 1861 to 1865. Three of his Cabinet members had run against Lincoln in the 1860 election: Attorney General Edward Bates, Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase and Secretary of State William H. Seward; the book focuses on Lincoln's successful attempts to reconcile conflicting personalities and political factions on the path to abolition and victory in the American Civil War. Goodwin's sixth book, Team of Rivals was well received by critics and won the 2006 Lincoln Prize and the inaugural Book Prize for American History of the New-York Historical Society. US President Barack Obama cited it as one of his favorite books and was said to have used it as a model for constructing his own cabinet. In 2012, a Steven Spielberg film based on the book was released to critical acclaim.
Team of Rivals is the sixth book by American historian Doris Kearns Goodwin. In 1995, Goodwin was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History for her book No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II, a similar study of personalities in the Roosevelt White House. Goodwin spent ten years on the writing of Team of Rivals, she stated that she had been inspired to tell the stories of the four men together when realizing that the cabinet members had written extensive diaries and letters that might provide a "new angle" in Lincoln studies. During Goodwin's work on Team of Rivals, a plagiarism scandal erupted over unmarked quotations in Goodwin's 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys. Goodwin stated that in dealing with the scandal, during which she had to apologize and make an out-of-court settlement to author Lynne McTaggart, she found Lincoln a consolation his philosophy "not to waste precious energies on recriminations about the past". In a 2012 interview, Goodwin cited early 20th-century muckraker Ida Tarbell on the pleasures of writing about Lincoln: "Somebody asked her, why do so many people write about Lincoln?
And she said. And I think somehow that's been true for me." The book begins with an introduction where Goodwin explains how she plans to illuminate Lincoln's life: "In my own effort to illuminate the character and career of Abraham Lincoln, I have coupled the account of his life with the stories of the remarkable men who were his rivals for the 1860 Republican presidential nomination—New York senator William H. Seward, Ohio governor Salmon P. Chase, Missouri's distinguished elder statesman Edward Bates." The book is organised in two parts: Part 1 called "The Rivals" and Part 2 called "Master Among Men". The first part of the book chronicles the rise of Lincoln and each of his political rivals' journeys and how Lincoln ended up with the Presidency and ends with the inauguration of Lincoln in 1861. In the second part, Goodwin describes Lincoln's years as President of the Union through the civil war and till his eventual assassination in 1865; the first chapter of Team of Rivals portrays four major contenders for the 1860 Republican presidential nomination on May 18, 1860, awaiting the results of the national convention by telegraph: New York Senator and former governor William H. Seward considered the frontrunner.
S. Representative from Illinois. Goodwin describes how each candidate rose to national political prominence: Seward through a long alliance with New York political boss Thurlow Weed, Chase through his early advocacy of the abolition of slavery, Bates through a speech opposing President James K. Polk at the 1847 River and Harbor Convention, Lincoln through a series of debates with Democratic rival Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Illinois Senate election. At the Chicago Republican Convention of 1860, Seward was the favourite, as he was the most recognised political figure and had a majority of pledges. Seward's detractors who thought that he was too radical on slavery and too liberal on immigration, were worried that if the opposition could not be united behind one man, he would be elected as the candidate - "Murat Halstead of the Cincinnati Commercial telegraphed the same message to his paper at the same time, reporting that "every one of the forty thousand men in attendance upon the Chicago Convention will testify that at midnight of Thursday–Friday night, the universal impression was that Seward's success was certain."
However, it was a concern that if Seward was elected as candidate, he would not be able to carry all the Northern States in the elections because of his abolitionist views against slavery and that would mean a Democratic win in the election. Edward Bates could not represent the middle-line of the republican party: "He was much too conservative for liberal Republicans, who might welcome him into their party but would never accord him chief command of an army in which he had never enlisted. At the same time, the letter he had written to prove his credentials to the Republicans had diminished the previous enthusiasm of conservatives and former Know Nothings" Salmon Chase's candidature was hampered by attacks from Ohio politicians like Judge McLean or Ben Wade and could not mount a serious challenge. Lincoln emerged as the more palatable choice for these important delegates. Lincoln was the victor at the 1860 convention through a superior political operation and by making
Doris Kearns Goodwin
Doris Helen Kearns Goodwin is an American biographer and political commentator. Goodwin has written biographies of several U. S. presidents, including Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. Goodwin's book No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II won the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1995. Doris Helen Kearns was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Helen Witt and Michael Francis Aloysius Kearns, she has Jene Kearns. Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, she grew up in New York where she graduated from South Side High School. She attended Colby College in Maine, where she was a member of Delta Delta Delta and Phi Beta Kappa, was graduated magna cum laude in 1964 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, she was awarded a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship in 1964 to pursue doctoral studies. In 1968, she earned a Ph. D. in government from Harvard University, with a thesis titled "Prayer and Reapportionment: An Analysis of the Relationship between the Congress and the Court."
In 1967, Kearns went to Washington, D. C. as a White House Fellow during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration. Johnson expressed interest in hiring the young intern as his Oval Office assistant, but after an article by Kearns appeared in The New Republic laying out a scenario for Johnson's removal from office over his conduct of the war in Vietnam, she was instead assigned to the Department of Labor. "The president discovered that I had been involved in the anti-Vietnam War movement and had written an article entitled,'How to Dump Lyndon Johnson'. I thought for sure he would kick me out of the program, but instead he said,'Oh, bring her down here for a year and if I can't win her over, no one can'." After Johnson decided not to run for reelection, he brought Kearns to the White House as a member of his staff, where she focused on domestic anti-poverty efforts. After Johnson left office in 1969, Kearns taught government at Harvard for 10 years, including a course on the American presidency. During this period, she assisted Johnson in drafting his memoirs.
Her first book Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream, which drew upon her conversations with the late president, was published in 1977, becoming a New York Times bestseller and provided a launching pad for her literary career. A sports journalist as well, Goodwin was the first female journalist to enter the Boston Red Sox locker room in 1979, she appeared in Ken Burns's 1994 documentary Baseball. Goodwin won the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for History for No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front During World War II. Goodwin received an honorary L. H. D. from Bates College in 1998. She was awarded an honorary doctorate from Westfield State College in 2008. Goodwin was on air talking to Tom Brokaw of NBC News during their 2000 Presidential Election Night Coverage when Brokaw made his announcement that NBC had in fact projected the state of Florida for George W. Bush making him president. Goodwin won the 2005 Lincoln Prize for Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, a book about Abraham Lincoln's presidential cabinet.
Part of the book was adapted by Tony Kushner into the screenplay for Steven Spielberg's 2012 film Lincoln. She is a member of the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission advisory board; the book won the inaugural American History Book Prize given by the New-York Historical Society. Goodwin was a member of the board of directors for Northwest Airlines. Goodwin is a frequent guest commentator on Meet the Press, appearing many times, as well as a regular guest on Charlie Rose, appearing a total of forty-eight times since 1994. Stephen King met with Goodwin while he was writing his novel 11/22/63, due to her being an assistant to Johnson, King used some of her ideas in the novel on what a worst-case scenario would be like if history had changed. In 2014, Kearns won the Andrew Carnegie Medal for Excellence in Nonfiction for The Bully Pulpit, it was a Los Angeles Times Book Prize finalist and a Christian Science Monitor 15 best nonfiction. In 2016, she appeared as herself in the fifth episode of American Horror Story: Roanoke.
In 2002, The Weekly Standard determined that her book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys used without attribution numerous phrases and sentences from three other books: Times to Remember, by Rose Kennedy. McTaggart remarked, "If somebody takes a third of somebody's book, what happened to me, they are lifting out the heart and guts of somebody else's individual expression." Goodwin had reached a "private settlement" with McTaggart over the issue. In an article she wrote for Time magazine, she said, "Though my footnotes cited Ms. McTaggart's work, I failed to provide quotation marks for phrases that I had taken verbatim... The larger question for those of us who write history is to understand how citation mistakes can happen." In its analysis of the controversy, Slate magazine criticized Goodwin for the aggrieved tone of her explanation, suggested Goodwin's worst offense was allowing the plagiarism to remain in future editions of the book after it was brought to her attention. Slate reported that there were multiple passages in Goodwi
Craig Lee Symonds is the Distinguished Visiting Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History for the academic years 2017-2019 at the U. S. Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, he is Professor Emeritus at the U. S. Naval Academy where he served as chairman of the history department, he is a distinguished historian of maritime history. His book Lincoln and His Admirals received the Lincoln Prize, his book Neptune: the Allied Invasion of Europe and the D-Day Landings was the 2015 recipient of the Samuel Eliot Morison Award for Naval Literature. The son of Lee and Virginia Symonds, Craig Symonds attended Anaheim High School University of California, Los Angeles, where he earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1967. Going on to graduate work, he obtained his M. A. in history at the University of Florida in 1969 with a thesis on "The defense of the southwestern frontier, 1784-1794: a study in governmental relations." He married Marylou Hayden on 17 January 1969 and the couple had one son. In 1971, Symonds joined the United States Naval Reserve, serving for three years until 1974 and raising to the grade of Lieutenant.
While in the Navy, he served on the faculty of the Naval War College. On his release from active duty, he returned to his graduate studies in history at the University of Florida, where he obtained his Ph. D. in 1976 under the tutelage of Professor John K. Mahon with a dissertation on "Navalists and antinavalists: the naval policy debate in the United States, 1785-1827." In 1976, the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland appointed Symonds assistant professor of history to succeed Professor E. B. Potter as a specialist in Naval history, he was subsequently promoted to associate professor in 1980 and professor of history in 1985. He served as chairman of the history department in 1988-1992 and appointed professor emeritus on his retirement in 2005. In 1994-1995, he was visiting lecturer at Britannia Royal Naval College in England, he returned to teach at the Naval Academy as The Class of 1957 Distinguished Professor of American Naval Heritage for 2011-12. In 2017 he was appointed to a two-year term as the Ernest J. King Distinguished Visiting Professor of Maritime History at the U.
S. Naval War College in Newport Rhode Island. Samuel Eliot Morison Award for Naval Literature in 2015 for Neptune: The Allied Invasion of Europe and the D-Day Landings. In 2014, The Naval Historical Foundation awarded him the Commodore Dudley W. Knox Naval History Lifetime Achievement Award; the Abraham Lincoln Book Award, 2010 The Lincoln Prize, 2009 for Lincoln and His Admirals. The Barondess Prize, 2009 The Daniel and Marilyn Laney Prize, 2009 The Nevins-Freeman Prize, 2009 The Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt Prize in Naval History, 2006 Anne Arundel County Award for Literary Arts, 2006 John Lyman Book Awards, 1995, 1999, 2009 USNA Research Excellence Award, 1998 USNA Teaching Excellence Award, 1988 Navy Superior Civilian Service Award, 1994, 1998, 2005 Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award, 1989 History Book Club Author, 1983, 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2010 Military Book Club Author, 1983, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2005 Book-of-the-Month Club Author, 1983, 1986, 1992, 2001, 2005 Charleston Blockade: The Journals of John B.
Marchand, USN, edited by Craig Symonds. (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 1976. Navalists and Antinavalists: The Naval Policy Debate in the United States, 1785-1827.. New Aspects of Naval History, edited by Craig Symonds.. A Battlefield Atlas of the Civil War.. ISBN 9780933852495 William H. Parker. Craig Symonds, ed. Recollections of a Naval Officer, 1841-1865. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-533-9. A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution.. Alvah F. Hunter. Craig Symonds, ed. A Year on a Monitor. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-761-0. Joseph E. Johnston: A Civil War Biography. New York: Norton. 1992. ISBN 978-0-393-31130-3. Gettysburg: A Battlefield Atlas, by Craig Symonds with William J. Clipson.. The Naval Institute Historical Atlas of the U. S. Navy. Illustrator William J. Clipson. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. 1995. ISBN 978-1-55750-984-0. Stonewall of the West: Patrick Cleburne and the Civil War.. Confederate Admiral: The Life and Wars of Franklin Buchanan..
ISBN 9781591148463 American Heritage History of the Battle of Gettysburg. New York: HarperCollins. 2001. ISBN 978-0-06-054933-6. New Interpretations in Naval History: Selected Papers from the Fourteenth Naval History Symposium, Held at Annapolis, Maryland, 23–25 September 1999, Naval Institute Press, 2001. Decision at Sea: Five Naval Battles That Shaped American History. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-531211-9. Lincoln and his Admirals. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-531022-1; the Battle of Midway. New York: Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-539793-2; the Civil War at Sea. New York: Oxford University Press. 2012. ISBN 0199931682. Neptune: The Allied Invasion of Europe and the D-Day Landings. Oxford University Press. 2014. ISBN 0199986118. World War Two at Sea: A Global History. Oxford University Press. 2018. ISBN 9780190243678. Appearances on C-SPAN "Craig L. Symonds", Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2009. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2009. Interview on The Battle of Midway at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library on October 7, 2011 Marquis Who's Who Biogra
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. As soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the former slave became free; the rebel surrender liberated and resulted in the proclamation's application to all of the designated former slaves. It did not cover slaves in Union areas, it was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States. The Proclamation ordered the freedom of all slaves in ten states; because it was issued under the president's authority to suppress rebellion, it excluded areas not in rebellion, but still applied to more than 3.5 million of the 4 million slaves.
The Proclamation was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces. The Proclamation was issued in January 1863 after U. S government issued a series of warnings in the summer of 1862 under the Second Confiscation Act, allowing Southern Confederate supporters 60 days to surrender, or face confiscation of land and slaves; the Proclamation ordered that suitable persons among those freed could be enrolled into the paid service of United States' forces, ordered the Union Army to "recognize and maintain the freedom of" the ex-slaves. The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves, it made the eradication of slavery an explicit war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union. Around 25,000 to 75,000 slaves in regions where the US Army was active were emancipated, it could not be enforced in areas still under rebellion, but, as the Union army took control of Confederate regions, the Proclamation provided the legal framework for freeing more than three and a half million slaves in those regions.
Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, escaped slaves were either returned to their masters or held in camps as contraband for return. The Proclamation applied only to slaves in Confederate-held lands. Excluded were some regions controlled by the Union army. Emancipation in those places would come after separate state actions or the December 1865 ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery and indentured servitude, except for those duly convicted of a crime, illegal everywhere subject to United States jurisdiction. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued a preliminary warning that he would order the emancipation of all slaves in any state that did not end its rebellion against the Union by January 1, 1863. None of the Confederate states restored themselves to the Union, Lincoln's order was signed and took effect on January 1, 1863; the Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners. It angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, undermined elements in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy.
The Proclamation lifted the spirits of African Americans both slave. It led many slaves to escape from their masters and get to Union lines to obtain their freedom, to join the Union Army; the Emancipation Proclamation broadened the goals of the Civil War. While slavery had been a major issue that led to the war, Lincoln's only mission at the start of the war was to maintain the Union; the Proclamation made freeing the slaves an explicit goal of the Union war effort. Establishing the abolition of slavery as one of the two primary war goals served to deter intervention by Britain and France; the Emancipation Proclamation was never challenged in court. To ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U. S. Lincoln pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, insisted that Reconstruction plans for Southern states require abolition in new state constitutions. Congress passed the 13th Amendment by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31, 1865, it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865, ending legal slavery.
The United States Constitution of 1787 did not use the word "slavery" but included several provisions about unfree persons. The Three-Fifths Compromise allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons". Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, "o person held to service or labour in one state" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9 allowed Congress to pass legislation to outlaw the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis for treating slaves as property with Dred Scott v. Sandford. So
The Overland Campaign known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, other forces against Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Although Grant suffered severe losses during the campaign, it was a strategic Union victory, it inflicted proportionately higher losses on Lee's army and maneuvered it into a siege at Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia, in just over eight weeks. Crossing the Rapidan River on May 4, 1864, Grant sought to defeat Lee's army by placing his forces between Lee and Richmond and inviting an open battle. Lee surprised Grant by attacking the larger Union army aggressively in the Battle of the Wilderness, resulting in heavy casualties on both sides. Unlike his predecessors in the Eastern Theater, Grant did not withdraw his army following this setback, but instead maneuvered to the southeast, resuming his attempt to interpose his forces between Lee and Richmond.
Lee's army was able to get into position to block this movement. At the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Grant attacked segments of the Confederate defensive line, hoping for a breakthrough, but the only results were again heavy losses for both sides. Grant maneuvered again. Here, Lee held clever defensive positions that provided an opportunity to defeat portions of Grant's army, but illness prevented Lee from attacking in time to trap Grant; the final major battle of the campaign was waged at Cold Harbor, in which Grant gambled that Lee's army was exhausted and ordered a massive assault against strong defensive positions, resulting in disproportionately heavy Union casualties. Resorting to maneuver a final time, Grant surprised Lee by stealthily crossing the James River, threatening to capture the city of Petersburg, the loss of which would doom the Confederate capital; the resulting Siege of Petersburg led to the eventual surrender of Lee's army in April 1865 and the effective end of the Civil War.
The campaign included two long-range raids by Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan. In a raid toward Richmond, legendary Confederate cavalry commander Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart was mortally wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern. In a raid attempting to destroy the Virginia Central Railroad to the west, Sheridan was thwarted by Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton at the Battle of Trevilian Station, the largest all-cavalry battle of the war. In March 1864, Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, given command of all Union armies, he chose to make his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, although Meade retained formal command of that army. Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman succeeded Grant in command of most of the western armies. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant and Benjamin Butler against Lee near Richmond, Virginia; this was the first time the Union armies would have a coordinated offensive strategy across a number of theaters.
Although previous Union campaigns in Virginia targeted the Confederate capital of Richmond as their primary objective, this time the goal was to capture Richmond by aiming for the destruction of Lee's army. Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, "Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also." Although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition. He meant to "hammer continuously against the armed force of the enemy and his resources until by mere attrition, if in no other way, there should be nothing left to him but an equal submission with the loyal section of our common country to the constitution and laws of the land." Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had greater resources to replace lost soldiers and equipment. Despite Grant's superior numbers, he had manpower challenges. Following their severe beating at the Battle of Gettysburg the previous year, the I Corps and the III Corps had been disbanded and their survivors reallocated to other corps, which damaged unit cohesion and morale.
Because he was operating on the offensive in enemy territory, Grant had to defend his bases of supply and the lines extending from them to his army in the field. Furthermore, since many of his soldiers' three-year enlistments were about to expire, they were reluctant to participate in dangerous assaults. To deal with these challenges, Grant supplemented his forces by reassigning soldiers manning the heavy artillery batteries around Washington, D. C. to infantry regiments. The Overland Campaign began as Grant's forces crossed the Rapidan River on May 4, 1864. Grant's objective was to force an engagement with Lee, outside of his Mine Run fortifications, by either drawing his forces out or turning them. Lee, displaying the audacity that characterized his generalship, moved out