The Lincoln index is a statistical measure used in several fields to estimate the number of cases that have not yet been observed, based on two independent sets of observed cases. Described by Frederick Charles Lincoln in 1930, it is sometimes known as the Lincoln-Petersen method after C. G. Johannes Petersen, the first to use the related mark and recapture method. Consider two observers who separately count the different species of plants or animals in a given area. If they each come back having found 100 species but only 5 particular species are found by both observers each observer missed at least 95 species. Thus, we know. On the other hand, if 99 of the 100 species each observer found had been found by both, it is fair to expect that they have found a far higher percentage of the total species that are there to find; the same reasoning applies to recapture. If some animals in a given area are caught and marked, a second round of captures is done: the number of marked animals found in the second round can be used to generate an estimate of the total population.
Another example arises in computational linguistics for estimating the total vocabulary of a language. Given two independent samples, the overlap between their vocabularies enables a useful estimate of how many more vocabulary items exist but did not happen to show up in either sample. A similar example involves estimating the number of typographical errors remaining in a text, from two proofreaders' counts; the Lincoln Index formalizes this phenomenon. If E1 and E2 are the number of species observed by two independent methods, S is the number of observations in common the Lincoln Index is L = E 1 E 2 S. For values of S < 10, this estimate is rough, becomes rough for values of S < 5. In the case where S = 0 the Lincoln Index is formally undefined; this can arise if the observers only find a small percentage of the actual species, if the observers are using methods that are not statistically independent, or in other circumstances. The Lincoln Index is an estimate. For example, the species in a given area could tend to be either common or rare, or tend to be either hard or easy to see.
It would be that both observers would find a large share of the common species, that both observers would miss a large share of the rare ones. Such distributions would throw off the consequent estimate. However, such distributions are unusual for natural phenomena, as suggested by Zipf's Law). T. J. Gaskell and B. J. George propose an enhancement of the Lincoln Index that claims to reduce bias. Sampling Theory Drake equation Lincoln, Frederick C.. Calculating Waterfowl Abundance on the Basis of Banding Returns. Circular. 118. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 21 May 2013. Petersen, C. G. J.. "The Yearly Immigration of Young Plaice Into the Limfjord From the German Sea", Report of the Danish Biological Station, 6, 5–84. T. J. Gaskell. "A Bayesian Modification of the Lincoln Index". Journal of Applied Ecology. 9: 377–384. Doi:10.2307/2402438
In the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship or the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship, the "Elite Eight" are the final eight teams and, thus represent the regional finals, or national quarterfinals. In Division I and Division III, the Elite Eight consists of the two teams in each of the four regional championship games; the winners advance to the Final Four. Since 1997, when the NCAA trademarked the phrase, in Division II the Elite Eight consists of the eight winners of the eight Division II regions. Like the Division I Final Four, the Division II Elite Eight games are all held in one predetermined location. In the men's Division I, the lowest-seeded team to reach this round in the modern 64 team tournament era was #12 Missouri in 2002, who upset #5-seed Miami, #4-seed Ohio State, #8-seed UCLA before losing to #2-seed Oklahoma in the West regional that year. Eight #11 seeds have advanced to the Elite Eight: LSU in 1986, Loyola Marymount in 1990, Temple in 2001, George Mason in 2006, Virginia Commonwealth in 2011, Dayton in 2014, Xavier in 2017, Loyola Chicago in 2018.
On average, three of the four #1 seeds make it to the Elite Eight each year. In men's play, the Elite Eight exists intact for less than 24 hours between the second Friday evening and the following Saturday afternoon of the tournament; the Elite Eight represents the halfway mark of the men's tournament since each qualifying team must win three rounds to reach the national quarterfinals, with three rounds remaining to reach and win the national championship game. Like "March Madness," the phrase "Elite Eight" referred to the Illinois High School Boys Basketball Championship, the single-elimination high school basketball tournament run by the Illinois High School Association; when the IHSA finals were reduced from sixteen to eight teams in 1956, a replacement nickname for Sweet Sixteen was needed, Elite Eight won popular favor. The IHSA trademarked the term in 1995. Elite Eight can refer to the eight NCAA Division I baseball teams that reach the College World Series. During the first 12 years of the tournament only eight teams competed, meaning every team that qualified in those years was an automatic "Elite Eight" team.
Idaho State in 1977, which defeated UCLA in the previous round to end the Bruins' streak of consecutive Final Four appearances at 10 to end the John Wooden-era dynasty 11-seed Loyola Marymount in 1990. One of the team's stars, Hank Gathers and died on the court during the WCC Tournament, teammates honored Gathers during the tournament. 12-seed Missouri and 10-seed Kent State in 2002 10-seed Providence College in 1997 10-seed Gonzaga in 1999 11-seed Temple finished the 2001 regular season on a remarkable run, won Atlantic-10 tournament behind play of Lynn Greer before succumbing to Michigan State. 11-seed George Mason in 2006, which became the first 11-seed to advance to the Final Four since 1986, after defeating 1-seed Connecticut in overtime in the Elite Eight 10-seed Davidson College in 2008 11-seed Virginia Commonwealth in 2011 11-seed Dayton in 2014 10-seed Syracuse in 2016 11-seed Xavier in 2017 11-seed Loyola–Chicago in 2018
"Anna Wintour" is a song recorded by American singer and rapper Azealia Banks. It was released on April 6, 2018 by eOne and Chaos & Glory as the planned lead single from her mixtape Fantasea II: The Second Wave. Production of the song was handled by Junior Sanchez, while the song was penned by Banks, Dorian Strickland, Kevin James, "Shug"; the song is named after Anna Wintour, the editor-in-chief of Vogue, is about self empowerment. The music video was surpassed 1 million views in 48 hours. While Banks was signed to Interscope Records, Junior Sanchez was commissioned by the label to do a remix of Banks's song "Ice Princess," from Broke with Expensive Taste, with the working title of the track being "Anna Wintour". One of the initial plans for the song was for it to feature Mel B, this concept was scrapped due to scheduling conflicts. Another concept that Banks had envisioned for the song was; when discussing her reasoning for the title of the song, Banks stated: "My choice to name this song'Anna Wintour' is telling.
While others may see Anna as intimidating, I see a woman, born into this world with an absolute certainty about her place in it." Shaad D'Souza of the website Noisey stated, "The song is a fun, upbeat vogue track, it features Azealia rapping and singing some of her sweetest lines ever. "I feel in love babe, I know that your love is enough," she sings on the chorus, "I'm so lucky you found me in the day." It's beautiful! The song is called "Anna Wintour," I assume, because it's a vogue track, Anna Wintour is the editor of Vogue. Wordplay! I'm feeling positive about Fantasea II, "Anna Wintour" is a great start to a new era for Azealia. Myles Tanzer of The Fader commented on Banks' vocals, stating: "...she hits soulful high notes in the pre-chorus, glides through a pop section with her trademark fluid delivery, screams over the song's breakdown, stops to rap a ferocious verse."Dazed put "Anna Wintour" on its 20 best tracks of 2018 list, saying the song "showed, once again, that the rapper knows how to make a dance floor anthem.
Channeling the energy of Vogue’s iconic editor with the same glow she exhibits while “stuntin’ in front row”, “Anna Wintour” felt like it could have been a real comeback moment for Banks, marking an upwards artistic trajectory as she embarked on her new album." The Line of Best Fit placed it on 25th spot in its Fifty Best Songs of 2018, remarking that "its impossibly catchy 90s house beat plays host to both Banks’ powerful voice and unstoppable bars. It treads the pop/rap line in a way that no other artist is doing in 2018, it feels retro but not dated, sticks to Banks’ signature sound without feeling too same-old."Pitchfork ranked it on its 100 best songs of 2018 list, saying that "the rapper’s messy public persona yields the floor to a bracing showcase of her dexterity. She pulls triple duty as house diva, raging wraith, cold-blooded killer, nailing each part and metabolizing Junior Sanchez’s fiercely generic Ibiza track into a raw energy source. “Anna Wintour” joins “Thank U, Next” and “Honey” among the few songs about self-love released this year that betray greater depth than vapid Instagram inspo, it offers a reminder of what makes the often-frustrating Banks so great: Like this song’s namesake, she knows how to keep us looking."
On May 24, 2018, Banks released the music video for "Anna Wintour". The video features Banks in and around an abandoned warehouse dancing and was directed by choreographer and long time backup dancer Matthew Pasterisa. Prior to the music video's release, Banks responded to accusations that her music video was too similar to Kanye West's 2016 video for "Fade", claiming that Teyana Taylor stole the choreography from Pasterisa and didn't give him credit until lawyers were involved. Taylor denied these claims and called on Pasterisa to comment, to which he said he wasn't directly involved with "Fade" but received credit regardless. Digital download"Anna Wintour" – 4:33
"Bon Ton Roula" is a zydeco-influenced blues song first recorded by Clarence Garlow in 1949. The following year, it became a hit, reaching number seven in Billboard magazine's Rhythm & Blues chart and introduced the style to a national audience. "Bon ton roula" is a phonetical approximation of "bons temps rouler", Louisiana Creole French for "good times roll" as in "Laissez les bons temps rouler" or "Let the good times roll", a regional invitation to join in a festive celebration. A song with a similar theme, "Let the Good Times Roll", was recorded by Louis Jordan in 1946, that became a R&B chart hit. In 1949, Garlow recorded "Bon Ton Roula", using lyrics; the song was recorded as a sixteen-bar blues with "an insistent, swirling rhumba rhythm". Singer and music writer Billy Vera commented on the song's lyrics: "The song featured some of the same kind of broken Cajun-isms as Hank Williams's'Jambalaya'": The song's success prompted Garlow to record subsequent renditions. A newer version with singer Emma Dell Lee titled "New Bon Ton Roola" was released on Feature Records and in 1953, he recorded a version with the Maxwell Davis Orchestra for Aladdin Records, titled "New Bon Ton Roulay".
The song retains most of the elements of the original song, but some new lyrics are added and the arrangement does not include a progression to the IV chord. "Bon Ton Roula" has been recorded by several artists associated with Louisiana music, including Bo Dollis and the Wild Magnolias, Phillip Walker, BeauSoleil. Blues-rocker Johnny Winter, a native of Garlow's adopted home of Beaumont, Texas recorded a version for his Raisin' Cain album in 1980. A "Bon Ton Roulet" credited to Clifton Chenier was recorded in 1967 and released as the title track of his album Bon Ton Roulet, on Arhoolie Records. Producer Chris Strachwitz notes "You will recognize the song as'Let the Good Times Roll', which in recent years has become an R&B standard"
Tate County is a county located in the northwestern portion of the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,886, its county seat is Senatobia. Organized in 1873 during the Reconstruction era, from portions of DeSoto and Tunica counties, the county is named for Thomas Simpson Tate, one of the first prominent American settlers of the area. Tate County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located about 40 miles south of one county east of the Mississippi River. This fertile river valley was developed for cotton cultivation in the 19th century; as it was developed for cotton culture in the antebellum years, planters in the county depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans. Blacks comprised a majority of the population for many decades. After Reconstruction, whites sometimes enforced their dominance through political intimidation or violence against blacks. In 1932, a deputy sheriff and son of County Sheriff C. A. Williams, was shot by a black man, Jesse Williams.
Sheriff Williams illegally organized a posse and murdered at least five and as many as seven black people, family members of a man known as "Judge" Crawford. A month Jesse Williams was caught, "tried" and lynched by hanging. No charges were considered against the sheriff or lynch mob. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 411 square miles, of which 405 square miles is land and 6.2 square miles is water. It is the third-smallest county in Mississippi by land area. DeSoto County Marshall County Lafayette County Panola County Tunica County As of the census of 2000, there were 25,370 people, 8,850 households, 6,717 families residing in the county; the population density was 63 people per square mile. There were 9,354 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 67.84% White, 31.02% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races.
0.88 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 8,850 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.00% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.10% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.18. As of 2000, the county's population was spread out with 27.10% under the age of 18, 11.70% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,836, the median income for a family was $41,423. Males had a median income of $33,064 versus $21,154 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,154.
About 10.60% of families and 13.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.20% of those under age 18 and 21.10% of those age 65 or over. Senatobia Coldwater Actor James Earl Jones was born in Arkabutla, Mississippi, an unincorporated area of Tate County and lived here for five years, he was sent north to live with his maternal grandparents on their farm in Michigan. Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Tate County, Mississippi Northwest Mississippi Community College U. S. S. Tate Tate County Economic Development Foundation The Democrat - Weekly newspaper serving Tate County. Tate County Sheriff
Pierre Seghers was a French poet and editor. During the Second World War he took part in the French Resistance movement, he founded, among other things, the famous line of books Poètes d’aujourd’hui in 1944, which published 270 books of poets both famous and unknown. Together François Lachenal, Paul Eluard and Jean Lescure, he gathers in 1943.the texts of many poets of the French Resistance, which he published in Les Editions de Minuit under the title: L’honneur des poètes. Among the prizes and orders he received, he was made a commander of the Légion d'honneur and in 1976 Laureate Of The International Botev Prize, he was doctor honoris causa of Scotland. He is buried at the Montparnasse Cemetery. An exhibition on his life and work took place in the Musée du Montparnasse in Paris in 2011. A detailed catalogue was published. Poetry Bonne-Espérance, Éditions de la Tour, 1939 Pour les quatre saisons, Poésie 42 Le chien de pique, Ides et Calendes, 1943 Le domaine public Poésie 45 et Pariseau Montréal Jeune fille, Éditions Seghers, 1947 Menaces de mort, La presse à bras, 1948 Six poèmes pour Véronique, Poésie 50 Poèmes choisis, Éditions Seghers, 1952 Le Cœur-Volant, Les Écrivains réunis, 1954 Racines, Interc.
Du Livre, 1956 Les pierres, Interc. Du Livre, 1956 Chansons et complaintes, Tome I, Éditions Seghers, 1959 Chansons et complaintes, Tome II, Éditions Seghers, 1961 Piranèse, Éditions Ides et Calendes, 1961 Chansons et complaintes, Tome III, Éditions Seghers, 1964 Dialogue, 1965 Dis-moi, Ma vie, 1973 Le Temps des merveilles, Éditions Seghers, 1978Prose Richaud du Combat, Stols, 1944 L'Homme du commun,Poèsie 44 Considérations, ou Histoires sous la langue, Collection des 150 La Résistance et ses poètes, 1940-1945, Seghers 1974 Publishing house homepage Biography of Seghers, in French Video: Pierre Seghers in 1967, he is interviewed about his new collection Poètes d’aujourd’hui. Archive of the Télévision suisse romande