Daniel Michael Andrews is an Australian politician, the 48th Premier of Victoria, a post he has held since 2014. He has been the leader of the Victorian branch of the Labor Party since 2010, from 2010 to 2014 was Leader of the Opposition in that state. Andrews was elected member for the Legislative Assembly seat of Mulgrave at the 2002 election, served as a parliamentary secretary and minister in the Bracks and Brumby Labor governments. On 29 November 2014, he was elected Premier of Victoria after the ALP won the state election, defeating the incumbent Liberal government. On 24 November 2018, he was re-elected as Premier of Victoria when Victorian Labor won the 2018 election in a landslide. Andrews was born in a suburb of Melbourne, to Bob Andrews and Jan.. In 1983 his family moved to Wangaratta, where he was educated at the Marist Brothers' Galen Catholic College. Andrews moved back to Melbourne in 1990 to attend Monash University, where he was a resident of Mannix College and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in politics and classics in 1996.
After graduating, Andrews became an electorate officer for federal Labor MP Alan Griffin. He worked at the party's head office from 1999 to 2002 as an organiser, as assistant state secretary. Following his election to parliament in the Legislative Assembly seat of Mulgrave at the 2002 election, Andrews was appointed Parliamentary Secretary for Health in the Steve Bracks Labor government. Following the 2006 election, Andrews was appointed to the Cabinet, becoming Minister for Gaming, Minister for Consumer Affairs and Minister Assisting the Premier on Multicultural Affairs. In 2007, Andrews became Minister for Health in the John Brumby Labor government. In 2008, Andrews voted in favour of abortion law reform in Victoria. Brumby resigned as leader of the Victorian Labor Party following the Labor defeat at the 2010 election, after 11 years of Labor governments. On 3 December 2010, Andrews was elected Victorian Labor Party leader, becoming Leader of the Opposition in Victoria, with former Deputy Premier Rob Hulls staying on as his deputy.
Hulls was replaced as deputy by James Merlino. Labor took the lead in the polls in mid-2012 and held it for all but a few months until the election, though Andrews trailed his Liberal counterparts, Ted Baillieu and Denis Napthine as preferred premier. Labor held 43 seats at dissolution but notionally held 40 after the redistribution of electoral boundaries, it thus needed a swing to win five seats to form government. At the election, Labor gained seven seats for a majority of two; the election was the first time since 1955 that an incumbent government was removed from office after a single term. In his victory speech, Andrews declared, "The people of Victoria have today given to us the greatest of gifts, entrusted to us the greatest of responsibilities and bestowed upon us the greatest of honours. We will not let them down!" He was sworn in as premier on 4 December. On winning office, Andrews government cancelled the East West Link project and initiated the level crossing removal project and the Melbourne Metro Rail Project.
On 24 May 2016 Andrews made an official apology in parliament for gay men in Victoria punished during the time homosexuality was a crime in the state. It was decriminalised in 1981. In August 2018 Andrews announced plans to build a $50 billion suburban rail loop connecting all major rail lines via Melbourne Airport. At the 2018 state election, Labor won a comprehensive victory, picking up an eight-seat swing for a total of 55 seats, tying Labor's second-best seat count in Victoria, it is only the fifth time. Andrews thus joined John Cain Jr and Steve Bracks as the only Victorian Labor leaders to lead the party to a second term in government. Andrews is one of the few state politicians in Australia to have never spent a day on the backbench, he has spent his entire tenure in the Legislative Assembly as a junior minister, opposition leader and premier. Shortly after his taking office in 2014 Daniel Andrews ended the state government's dispute with ambulance paramedics; the dispute that had started with the previous state government did not go as far as strikes, due to the death toll that would result in such action.
So the visible manifestation of the dispute was the protest style "colourful slogans" on the side and back windows of the state's ambulances, which were removed after Andrews promised to end the dispute. In September 2016, the Andrews Government privatised the Port of Melbourne for a term of 50 years in return for more than $9.7 billion. In September 2015, the Opposition announced it would refer the Andrews government to IBAC, the police, or a parliamentary enquiry over allegations that the Labor Party had misused taxpayer-funded electoral officers for party political campaigning in the leadup to the 2014 state election. After an eight month investigation, Victoria Police said; the Legislative Council referred the matter to the Victorian Ombudsman, after the Supreme Court confirmed it was within her jurisdiction, the government lost several appeals against the referral. In March 2018, the Ombudsman released a report stating that Victorian Labor had wrongly used $387,842 of staff budget entitlements during the election campaign, breaching guidelines for the use of electoral staff.
The report identified 21 MPs who had used the scheme, devised by former Treasurer John Lenders. Andrews stated he was sorry the incidents had occurred, that Labor had repaid the money; the investigation was reopened in July
John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun
John Adrian Louis Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, was a British aristocrat and statesman who served as the first Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1901 to 1902. He was Governor of Victoria from 1889 to 1895. Hopetoun was born into the Scottish nobility, succeeded his father as Earl of Hopetoun at the age of 12, he attended Eton College and the Royal Military College, but opted not to pursue a full-time military career. Hopetoun sat with the Conservative Party in the House of Lords, became a Lord-in-waiting in 1885 and Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1887, he was appointed Governor of Victoria at the age of 29, had a successful tenure in a time of political and economic instability. After returning to England in 1895, Hopetoun served in Lord Salisbury's cabinet as Paymaster General and Lord Chamberlain; the announcement of his appointment to the new governor-generalship in July 1900 was met with praise. However, he arrived in Australia ill-informed about the political aspects of federation, his decision to call on William Lyne to form a caretaker government became known as the "Hopetoun Blunder".
Lyne, who had campaigned against federation, had little support from the political establishment, Hopetoun was forced to turn to Edmund Barton to serve as Australia's first prime minister. His relationship with Barton once in office was civil, although his interferences in political matters were not well-received. Hopetoun was popular with the general public, but developed a reputation for flamboyance and ostentation, his desire for a large expenses allowance was rebuffed by parliament, he relinquished office in July 1902. He was granted a marquessate upon his return to England, thereafter withdrew from public life, except for a brief term as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1905, he died in France after several years of ill health. Hopetoun's term as governor-general is regarded as a failure, his successors avoided emulating his extravagance. Only Lord Denman held the position at a younger age. Hope was born at South Queensferry, West Lothian, the eldest son of John Hope, 6th Earl of Hopetoun and the former Ethelred Anne Birch-Reynardson.
He was educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, where he passed out in 1879. However, he chose not to join the regular army upon graduation, he explained "the affairs of the family estate, to which I succeeded at 13, seemed to call for my personal attention". Subsequently, he devoted his attentions to managing the more than seventeen thousand hectares of family estate located around the Firth of Forth, he married, in London on 18 October 1886, Hersey Alice Eveleigh-de Moleyns, a Scots-born Irish aristocrat aged 19. They would have a daughter, their elder son Victor would become Viceroy and Governor-General of India, after having declined the governorship of Madras and the governor-generalship of Australia. In 1883, Hopetoun became Conservative whip in the House of Lords and served as a Lord in Waiting to Queen Victoria from June 1885 to January 1886 and August 1886 to August 1889. From 1887 to 1889 he was appointed Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
In 1889 he was appointed Governor of Victoria, where he served until 1895. His appointment came amid a general stylistic change in colonial governors. Reflecting "Britain's more flamboyant pride in Empire, Australian colonial governors began to display a new colour and ostentation". Increased interest in Empire had spurred the appearance of young and wealthy aristocrats in place of previous career administrators. Hopetoun's time as Governor was in keeping with the newly emerging style, he developed a reputation for lavish entertaining and spectacular vice-regal galas. Notwithstanding poor health and colonial astonishment at his habit of wearing hair-powder, his youthful enthusiasm for routine duties and his fondness for informal horseback tours won him many friends. Hopetoun's term coincided with a number of serious difficulties being faced by the colonies; the economic boom in the colony was reversed by the Great Crash in 1891, leading to a decade of depression, bank failures, industrial action and political instability.
In contrast to the troubles faced during this period by other colonial governors, Hopetoun by most accounts handled this period ably and subsequently stayed in office for longer than the usual term. However, the reality of the 1890s was that colonial governors had lost much of their administrative and political power, instead assuming more figurative and representative roles. Hopetoun's term coincided with the important years of the federation movement in Victoria; the economic crash and resultant political and social problems laid bare the inefficiencies of the colonial system and sparked renewed interest in an Australian federation. Hopetoun was an active supporter of the movement, appearing at numerous banquets and giving speeches in its favour. At one such banquet he offered to return to Australia as their first governor-general should Federation be implemented. Upon leaving the governorship and returning to the United Kingdom in 1895, Hopetoun was a popular figure in Victoria and New South Wales.
After his return to the United Kingdom he was made a privy councillor, was appointed Paymaster-General in the Salisbury government from 1895 to 1898, became Lord Chamberlain until 1900. 1900 saw his appointment as a Knight of the Thistle and GCVO. The Australian colonies had agreed to federate, to form the Co
The Herald Sun is a morning newspaper based in Melbourne, published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, itself a subsidiary of News Corp. The Herald Sun serves Victoria and shares many articles with other News Corporation daily newspapers those from Australia, it is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales such as the Riverina and NSW South Coast, is available digitally through its website and apps. In 2017, the paper had a daily circulation of 350,000 from Monday to Friday; the Herald Sun newspaper is the product of a merger in 1990 of two newspapers owned by The Herald and Weekly Times Limited: the morning tabloid paper The Sun News-Pictorial and the afternoon broadsheet paper The Herald. It was first published on 8 October 1990 as the Herald-Sun; the hyphen in its title was dropped after 1 May 1993 as part of an effort to drop the overt reminder of the paper's two predecessors that the hyphen implied and by the fact that by 1993 most of the columns and features inherited from The Herald and The Sun News-Pictorial had either been discontinued or subsumed in new sections.
The Herald was founded on 3 January 1840 by George Cavenagh as the Port Phillip Herald. In 1849, it became The Melbourne Morning Herald. At the beginning of 1855, it became The Melbourne Herald before settling on The Herald from 8 September 1855 - the name it would hold for the next 135 years. From 1869, it was an evening newspaper. Colonel William Thomas Reay was sometime literary editor and associate editor, before becoming managing editor in 1904; when The Argus newspaper closed in 1957, The Herald and Weekly Times bought out and continued various Argus media assets. In 1986, The Herald's Saturday edition - The Weekend Herald - which had adopted a tabloid format, in order to distinguish it from the Monday to Friday editions' broadsheet format - was closed; the Sun News-Pictorial was founded on 11 September 1922, bought by The Herald and Weekly Times in 1925. In its prime, The Herald had a circulation of 600,000, but by the time of its 150th anniversary in 1990, with the impact of evening television news and a higher proportion of people using cars to get home from work rather than public transport, The Herald's circulation had fallen below 200,000.
This was much less than that of the morning Sun. With the only alternative option being to close The Herald, The Herald and Weekly Times decided to merge the two newspapers, so after one hundred and fifty years, ten months and two days of publication, The Herald was published for the last time as a separate newspaper on 5 October 1990; the next day, The Sun News-Pictorial published its last edition. The Sunday editions of the two newspapers, The Sunday Herald and The Sunday Sun, were merged to form the Sunday Herald Sun; the resulting newspaper had both the style of The Sun News-Pictorial. Bruce Baskett, the last Editor of The Herald, was the first Editor of the Herald Sun. After a progressive decline in circulation the afternoon edition was cancelled, the last edition being published on 21 December 2001; the News Corp Australia-produced mX had filled part of that gap, being distributed of an afternoon from stands throughout the Melbourne CBD until 12 June 2015, though not available outside that area.
Recent editors include Simon Pristel, Phil Gardner and Bruce Guthrie. The Herald Sun is the highest-circulating daily newspaper in Australia, with a weekday circulation of 350 thousand and claimed readership of 1.26 million. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Herald Sun's website is the 74th and 125th most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 15th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 6.6 million visitors per month. Over the years, the Herald Sun has had a range of magazines and memorabilia that could be obtained by either getting it out of the newspaper, or using a token from the newspaper to collect or purchase the item. Items that have been a part of this scheme include: William Ellis Green official VFL/AFL Premiership posters The 2000 Olympic Torch Relay Pin, collection includes 15 place pins and one State Pin of Victoria Australian Football League trading cards – every year, near the start of the AFL season The Simpsons pins Socceroos medallions Celebrate 50 Years of TV – in conjunction with Nine Network The Ashes series pins Family Encyclopedia CD-ROM Collection – in conjunction with publishing company Dorling Kindersley The Greatest – a 14-part magazine series Amazing Pictures – a 4-part magazine series Discovery Atlas DVD Collection Harry Potter The Ultimate Collection Shortly before the 2004 election, the Herald Sun published an article entitled "Greens back illegal drugs" written by Gerard McManus which made a number of claims about the Australian Greens based on their harm minimisation and decriminalisation policies posted on their website at the time.
The Greens complained to the Australian Press Council. The text of their adjudication reads: In the context of an approaching election, the potential damage was considerable; the actual electoral impact cannot be known but readers were misled. The claims made in the original article were inaccurate and breached the Council's guiding principles of checking the accuracy of what is reported, taking prompt measures to counter the effects of harmfully inaccurate reporting, ensuring that the facts are not distorted, being fair and balanced in reports on matters o
County Court of Victoria
The County Court of Victoria is the principal trial court in Victoria, with 70 judges hearing up to 12,000 cases annually. The County Court has original jurisdiction in all civil cases and criminal cases, except a small number of charges such as treason and murder; the County Court has appellate jurisdiction to hear appeals from the Magistrates’ Court and the Children’s Court. All decisions of the County Court can be appealed in the Supreme Court Appeals Division, the Victorian Court of Appeal. Since 8 September 2015, the Chief Judge of the County Court has been His Honour Chief Judge Peter Kidd; the County Court was first established in Victoria in 1852 by the County Courts Act 1852. A County Court operated in the County of some regional towns; the County Courts were modelled on the British county courts, which were established in 1846. The Court's principal purpose was to handle small civil claims. Since that time, the Court's jurisdiction has expanded. In the hierarchy of Victorian courts, the County Court of Victoria sits above the Magistrates’ Court of Victoria and below the Supreme Court of Victoria.
Judges of the County Court hear matters across three divisions – Criminal and Common Law. County Court judges sit as the heads of jurisdiction at the Magistrates’ Court of Victoria, Coroners Court of Victoria and the Children’s Court of Victoria and sit at the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal as Vice-Presidents; the County Court hears all indictable criminal matters except treason and certain other homicide offences. The Court deals with a broad range of offences under Victorian and Commonwealth legislation including serious theft, armed robbery, drug trafficking, sexual offences and dishonesty offences, culpable driving, serious assault and income and sales tax offences. All trials are heard before a jury of 12 members of the community; the County Court hears criminal appeals from the Magistrates’ Court. These appeals are determined by judge alone. An appeal decision is final, except when a sentence of imprisonment is imposed and the Magistrates’ Court did not impose a sentence of imprisonment.
In such a case, the appellant may appeal to the Court of Appeal, so long as leave is granted. The County Court hears appeals from the Criminal and Family Divisions of the Children’s Court; the Court’s Commercial and Common Law Divisions, have unlimited jurisdiction with no monetary cap on damages. Both divisions feature a number of ‘lists’ – specialist categories of cases that are administered by a judge; the Commercial Division deals with matters that include debt recovery, contract and property. It has four lists: General List Expedited List Banking and Finance List Building Cases ListThe Common Law Division deals with damages and compensation cases, it consists of eight lists: Applications List Confiscation List Defamation List Family Property List General List Medical List Serious Injury Applications List WorkCover ListAll civil matters are heard by a single judge or, at a party’s request, by a judge and jury. In Victoria, an adoption order transfers parental rights and responsibilities and custody to the adoptive parents.
The County Court hears 50-80 adoption and parentage matters annually. In addition to proceedings in Melbourne, County Court judges hear criminal and civil cases at 12 locations throughout Victoria: Bairnsdale, Bendigo, Horsham, Latrobe Valley, Shepparton, Wangaratta and Wodonga; the County Koori Court was established under the County Court Amendment Act 2008. The Act was assented to on 23 September 2008 and established the Koori Court as a Division of the County Court; the Latrobe Valley County Koori Court commenced on 19 November 2008, with the first sitting taking place on 2 February 2009. The objective of the County Koori Court is to ensure greater participation of the Aboriginal community in the sentencing process through the role played in that process by the Aboriginal Elders and Respected Persons and others such as the Koori Court Officer, it is only the judge who determines the sentence, imposed. The County Koori Court follows the Koori Court model introduced at the Magistrates’ Court of Victoria and the Children’s Court of Victoria.
The County Koori Court sits at Latrobe Valley, Melbourne and Shepparton. The County Koori Court can only be attended by Koori offenders who plead guilty to particular offences. Aboriginal Elders or Respected Persons advise the judge on cultural issues relating to the accused and his or her offending behaviour. Elders and Respected Persons provide information on the background of the accused and possible reasons for offending behaviour, they may explain relevant kinship connections, how particular crimes have affected the Indigenous community and provide advice on cultural practices and perspectives relevant to sentencing. The same sentencing law, applies in the County Koori Court as applies in the mainstream County Court; the current County Court Chief Judge is His Honour Peter Kidd, appointed to the role on 8 September 2015. Chief Judge Kidd is a member of the Courts Council, a Justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria. Past Chief Judges of the County Court of Victoria: His Honour Chief Judge Michael Rozenes 2002 – 2015 His Honour Chief Judge Glenn Waldron 1982 – 2002 His Honour Chief Judge Desmond Whelan 1975 – 1981 Australian court hierarchy County Court of Victoria
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
East Melbourne, Victoria
East Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 2 km east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Melbourne. East Melbourne is a small area of inner Melbourne, located between Richmond and the Melbourne Central Business District. Broadly, it is bounded by Spring Street, Victoria Parade, Punt Road/Hoddle Street and Brunton Avenue. One of Melbourne's earliest suburbs, East Melbourne has long been home to many significant government and religious institutions, including the Parliament of Victoria and offices of the Government of Victoria in the Parliamentary and Cathedral precincts, which are located on a gentle hill at the edge of the Melbourne's Hoddle Grid, known as Eastern Hill; the world-famous Melbourne Cricket Ground is located in Yarra Park, in the East Melbourne locality of Jolimont. East Melbourne has been affluent since its first establishment and contains some of the oldest Victorian homes and terrace houses and parks and gardens in Melbourne.
The Parliamentary and Cathedral precincts are located on a gentle hill, known as Eastern Hill. Jolimont railway station is at the top of a ridge, which extends towards Bridge Road in Richmond, from which Jolimont slopes downwards towards the Yarra River and the residential section to the north slopes towards the flatter areas of Fitzroy and Collingwood to the north and Richmond to the south. East Melbourne was one of Melbourne's earliest suburbs, it was first planned in 1837 by surveyor Robert Hoddle, but was not settled until 1840, some time after neighbouring Fitzroy and Collingwood. Among the first settlers was Charles La Trobe, who built a transportable dwelling in 1840 and wealthy professionals followed, establishing mansions there; the plan of the alignment of streets was adopted in July 1849. In the 1960s and 1970s, while other inner-city suburbs were experiencing gentrification, East Melbourne, traditionally a blue ribbon district, experienced a temporary decline. Flats began to replace many of the old mansions.
Many remaining mansions had been converted to rooming houses over the years. The construction of the Hilton Hotel saw the demolition of Cliveden mansions, a five-storey Victorian era terrace and the largest mansion in Melbourne. Office development and expansion of the hospitals in the area affected much of the area surrounding Victoria Parade. During the 1990s East Melbourne once again experienced a sharp increase in property prices; the Becton development at Jolimont, modelled on a picturesque Georgian village, created one of inner-city Melbourne's first exclusive enclaves. Many of the remaining mansions and terraces were placed on heritage registers and subdivided into apartments; the Victoria Brewery was converted into exclusive apartments, named "TriBeCa", after the Manhattan neighbourhood. East Melbourne's proximity to the city, its small size and its unspoilt streetscapes ensure its property is expensive and sought after. At the 2016 Census, East Melbourne had a population of 4,964. 62.8% of people were born in Australia.
The most common countries of birth were England 4.2% and New Zealand 3.0%. 75.0% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 42.8% and Catholic 18.3%. East Melbourne is home to many famous Melbourne landmarks. Treasury Place is notable for its government buildings on Spring Street, including Parliament House of Victoria and the old Treasury Building. Treasury Place forms Australia's finest Renaissance revival streetscape, combining the facades of the Premier's Department and Treasury, State Offices, now occupied by the Education Department, the former Government Printing Office and Commonwealth Government Offices, all overlooking the Treasury Gardens; the rear of these offices is a feature of St Andrews Place. Nearby Cathedral Place is home to St Patrick's Cathedral and many other former religious buildings now serving mixed use; the former Baptist Church House, built between 1859 and 1863, although modified during conversion into an office building, is one of the finer classical styled buildings in East Melbourne and was designed by Thomas Watts.
On the corner of Hotham and Powlett Streets, the large Cairns Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in the 1880s was subject to an innovative apartment conversion after the church was gutted by fire in 1988, leaving only the exterior sandstone shell. Other notable buildings include the Arts & Crafts style of the Victorian Artists Society by Richard Speight and Harry Tompkins, the Eastern Hill Fire Station and the East Melbourne Synagogue by Crouch & Wilson. ICI House, built on the edge of the Melbourne CBD on Nicholson Street between 1955 and 1958 and designed by Bates, Smart & McCutcheon, is notable as being one of the first curtain wall glass skyscrapers in the world and the first skyscraper to break Melbourne's strict height limits; until 1961, it was Australia's tallest building. The Dallas Brooks Hall, one of Australia's finest examples of the "stripped classical" style, was completed in 1969 and has served as a major events venue for many years; the building caused controversy after 2001 when it owners, Freemasons Victoria announced that it was to be sold and demolished to make way for multi-purpose commercial development.
Despite the building's architectural and cultural significance, its heritage protection status remains unknown. The building has since been demolished. Victoria Brewery, between Albert and Victoria Streets, is notable as an early
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s