John G. Schmitz
John George Schmitz was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives and California State Senate from Orange County, California. He was a member of the John Birch Society. In 1972 he was the American Independent Party candidate for President of the United States known as the American Party. Schmitz was notable for his extreme right-wing sympathies. By one measure, he was found to be the third most conservative member of Congress between 1937 and 2002, the ultra-conservative John Birch Society, of which Schmitz was a longtime leader expelled him for extremist rhetoric. On October 25, 1971 Schmitz composed an introduction to the controversial book None Dare Call it Conspiracy written by Gary Allen with Larry Abraham. In 1982, after it was revealed—and Schmitz admitted—that he had engaged in an extra-marital affair and fathered two children with one of his former college students, Schmitz's career as a politician ended, as did his wife Mary's as a conservative political commentator.
Schmitz's oldest son John P. Schmitz was Deputy White House Counsel to President George H. W. Bush from 1989-1992 and has worked in private practice since 1993, with a focus on transatlantic relations. Schmitz's son Joseph E. Schmitz has held prominent posts in Republican presidential administrations and has worked for the international security firm Blackwater, his daughter Mary Kay Letourneau, a 6th grade teacher, became well-known after her arrest for raping a 12 year old male student, whom she married. Schmitz died in 2001 at the age of 70 from prostate cancer. Schmitz was born in the son of Wilhelmina and Jacob John Schmitz, he obtained his B. S. degree from Marquette University in Milwaukee in 1952 and an M. A. from California State University, Long Beach, in 1960. He served as a United States Marine Corps jet fighter and helicopter pilot from 1952 to 1960, was a lieutenant colonel in the United States Marine Corps Reserve from 1960 to 1983. After leaving the Marines, Schmitz took a job as an instructor in philosophy and political science at Santa Ana College.
He became active in the John Birch Society. His views attracted the attention of wealthy Orange County conservatives such as fast-food magnate Carl Karcher, sporting goods heir Willard Voit and San Juan Capistrano rancher Tom Rogers, they helped. His views were conservative by the standards of Orange County. Schmitz once joked that he had joined the John Birch Society in order to court the moderate vote in Orange County, he opposed sex education in public schools and believed citizens should be able to carry loaded guns in their cars. He was critical of the civil unrest that characterized the mid-1960s, he called the Watts riots of 1965 "a Communist operation," and a year sponsored a bill, which failed to pass, to investigate the backgrounds of teachers suspected of Communist affiliations. He believed that state universities should be sold to private corporations as a curb against student protests, he served in the state senate until 1970, when he won a special election to succeed the late James B.
Utt in the House from California's 35th congressional district. He won a full term in November; when Richard M. Nixon, whose permanent residence at the time was in San Clemente—located in Schmitz's district— first went to China in 1972, Schmitz was asked if he supported President Nixon's going to China. Schmitz replied, "I didn't care that Nixon went to China, I was only upset that he came back." Nixon recruited Orange County Tax Assessor Andrew J. Hinshaw, a more moderate Republican, to run against Schmitz in the Republican primary for the renumbered 39th District. Angry at Nixon's role in his defeat, Schmitz ran as the American Independent Party candidate for president in the 1972 election; the pair received 1,100,868 votes for 1.42% of the total. Schmitz' best showings were in the West, he received 9.30 percent of the vote in Idaho, where he finished second ahead of Democrat George McGovern in the archconservative Mormon counties of Fremont, Jefferson and Lemhi. In Jefferson County Schmitz achieved the best result for a third-party presidential candidate in any non-Southern county since 1936 when William Lemke passed twenty-eight percent of the vote in the North Dakota counties of Burke and Hettinger.
Schmitz received 7.25 percent in Alaska, 5.97 percent in Utah, between four and five percent in Oregon, Washington State and Louisiana. Schmitz won the District 36 state senate seat in 1978, with 49.5% of the vote, subsequently was named chairman of the Constitutional Amendments Committee. In 1981, Schmitz—who was staunchly pro-life—chaired a committee hearing on abortion. Feminist attorney Gloria Allred testified at the hearing in support of the pro-choice position, afterward sarcastically presented Schmitz with a black leather chastity belt. Schmitz's committee issued a press release under the headline, "Senator Schmitz and His Committee Survive Attack of the Bulldykes", describing the hearing room as filled with "hard and female faces." Allred sued Schmitz for libel, claiming $10 million in damages, but settled for $20,000 and an apology. In his apology, Schmitz stated, "I have never considered her to be... a slick, butch lawyeress." Allred appeared at a press conference called by Senator Schmitz regarding Mid-East issues, handed Schmitz a box of frogs and shouted, "A plague on the House of Schmitz!"The incident cost him his committee chairmanship and the John Birch Society stripped him of his
George Stanley McGovern was an American historian, author, U. S. representative, U. S. senator, the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election. McGovern grew up in South Dakota, where he was a renowned debater, he volunteered for the U. S. Army Air Forces upon the country's entry into World War II and as a B-24 Liberator pilot flew 35 missions over German-occupied Europe. Among the medals bestowed upon him was a Distinguished Flying Cross for making a hazardous emergency landing of his damaged plane and saving his crew. After the war he earned degrees from Dakota Wesleyan University and Northwestern University, culminating in a PhD, was a history professor, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1956 and re-elected in 1958. After a failed bid for the U. S. Senate in 1960, he was a successful candidate in 1962; as a senator, McGovern was an exemplar of modern American liberalism. He became most known for his outspoken opposition to the growing U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
He staged a brief nomination run in the 1968 presidential election as a stand-in for the assassinated Robert F. Kennedy; the subsequent McGovern–Fraser Commission fundamentally altered the presidential nominating process, by increasing the number of caucuses and primaries and reducing the influence of party insiders. The McGovern–Hatfield Amendment sought to end the Vietnam War by legislative means but was defeated in 1970 and 1971. McGovern's long-shot, grassroots-based 1972 presidential campaign found triumph in gaining the Democratic nomination but left the party badly split ideologically, the failed vice-presidential pick of Thomas Eagleton undermined McGovern's credibility. In the general election McGovern lost to incumbent Richard Nixon in one of the biggest landslides in American electoral history. Re-elected Senator in 1968 and 1974, McGovern was defeated in a bid for a fourth term in 1980. Throughout his career, McGovern was involved in issues related to agriculture, food and hunger.
As the first director of the Food for Peace program in 1961, McGovern oversaw the distribution of U. S. surpluses to the needy abroad and was instrumental in the creation of the United Nations-run World Food Programme. As sole chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs from 1968 to 1977, McGovern publicized the problem of hunger within the United States and issued the "McGovern Report", which led to a new set of nutritional guidelines for Americans. McGovern served as U. S. ambassador to the United Nations Agencies for Food and Agriculture from 1998 to 2001 and was appointed the first UN global ambassador on world hunger by the World Food Programme in 2001. The McGovern–Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program has provided school meals for millions of children in dozens of countries since 2000 and resulted in McGovern's being named World Food Prize co‑laureate in 2008. McGovern was born in the 600‑person farming community of South Dakota, his father, the Rev. Joseph C.
McGovern, born in 1868, was pastor of the local Wesleyan Methodist Church there. Joseph – the son of an alcoholic who had immigrated from Ireland – had grown up in several states, working in coal mines from the age of nine and parentless from the age of thirteen, he had been a professional baseball player in the minor leagues, but had given it up due to his teammates' heavy drinking and womanizing, entered the seminary instead. George's mother was the former Frances McLean, born c. 1890 and raised in Ontario. George was the second oldest of four children. Joseph McGovern's salary never reached $100 per month, he received compensation in the form of potatoes, cabbages, or other food items. Joseph and Frances McGovern were both firm Republicans, but were not politically active or doctrinaire; when George was about three years old, the family moved to Calgary for a while to be near Frances's ailing mother, he formed memories of events such as the Calgary Stampede. When George was six, the family returned to the United States and moved to Mitchell, South Dakota, a community of 12,000.
McGovern was an average student. He was afraid to speak in class during first grade, his only reproachable behavior was going to see movies, which were among the worldly amusements forbidden to good Wesleyan Methodists. Otherwise he had a normal childhood marked by visits to the renowned Mitchell Corn Palace and what he termed "a sense of belonging to a particular place and knowing your part in it." He would, long remember the Dust Bowl storms and grasshopper plagues that swept the prairie states during the Great Depression. The McGovern family lived on the edge of the poverty line for much of the 1930s. Growing up amid that lack of affluence gave young George a lifelong sympathy for underpaid workers and struggling farmers, he was influenced by the currents of populism and agrarian unrest and by the "practical divinity" teachings of cleric John Wesley that sought to fight poverty and ignorance. McGovern attended Mitchell High School, where he was a solid but unspectacular member of the track team.
A turning point came when his tenth-grade English teacher recommended him to the debate team, where he became quite active. His high-school debate coach, a history teacher who capitalized on McGovern's interest in that subject, proved to be a great influence in his life, McGovern spent many hours honing his meticulous, if colorless, forensic style. McGovern and his debating partner won events in his area and gained renown in a state where debating was passio
Paul Norton "Pete" McCloskey Jr. is a former Republican politician from the U. S. state of California who served in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1967 to 1983, he ran on an anti-war platform for the Republican nomination for President in 1972 but was defeated by incumbent President Richard Nixon. In April 2007, McCloskey switched his affiliation to the Democratic Party. Born in Loma Linda, California, McCloskey pursued a legal career in Palo Alto, California after graduating from Stanford Law School, he served in the Korean War as a member of the United States Marine Corps. For his service, he was awarded the Silver Star, he won election to the House of Representatives in 1967, defeating Shirley Temple in the Republican primary. He unsuccessfully challenged President Richard Nixon in the 1972 Republican primaries on an anti-Vietnam War platform, he co-authored the 1973 Endangered Species Act. After the Saturday Night Massacre, he became the first member of Congress to publicly call for President Nixon's resignation.
He continually won re-election until 1982, when he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination to represent California in the United States Senate. The nomination was won by Pete Wilson. During the 1988 Republican presidential primaries, McCloskey helped put an end to Pat Robertson's campaign by revealing that the latter had not served in combat, contrary to Robertson's claims. In 1989, he co-founded the Council for the National Interest, he opposed the Iraq War and supported Democrat John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election. In 2006, he unsuccessfully challenged Congressman Richard Pombo in the Republican primary and endorsed Democrat Jerry McNerney in the general election, he has written two books and Untruth: Political Deceit in America and The Taking of Hill 610: And Other Essays on Friendship. Pete McCloskey's great-grandfather was orphaned in the Great Irish Famine and came to California in 1853 at the age of 16, he and his son, McCloskey's grandfather, were farmers in Merced County.
The family were lifelong Republicans. McCloskey was born on September 29, 1927, in Loma Linda, the son of Mary Vera and Paul Norton McCloskey, he attended public schools in San Marino. He was inducted into South Pasadena High School Hall of Fame for the sport of baseball, he attended Occidental College and California Institute of Technology under the U. S. Navy's V-5 Pilot Program, he graduated from Stanford University in 1950 and Stanford University Law School in 1953. McCloskey voluntarily served in the U. S. Navy from 1945 to 1947, the U. S. Marine Corps from 1950 to 1952, the U. S. Marine Corps Reserve from 1952 to 1960 and the Ready Reserve from 1960 to 1967, he retired from the Marine Corps Reserve in 1974. He was awarded the Navy Cross and Silver Star decorations for heroism in combat and two Purple Hearts as a Marine during the Korean War, he volunteered for the Vietnam War before turning against it. In 1992, he wrote The Taking of Hill 610, describing some of his exploits in Korea. McCloskey served as a Deputy District Attorney for Alameda County, from 1953 to 1954 and practiced law in Palo Alto, from 1955 to 1967, cofounding the firm that became Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati.
He was a lecturer on legal ethics at the Santa Clara and Stanford Law Schools from 1964 to 1967. He was elected as a Republican to the 90th Congress, by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of U. S. Rep. J. Arthur Younger, after defeating Shirley Temple in the primary, was reelected to the seven succeeding Congresses, serving from December 12, 1967 to January 3, 1983. In a 1981 interview, he stated that he thought he "was the first Republican elected opposing the war" despite the fact that his "constituency, two to one, favored the war in 1967". McCloskey was the first member of Congress to publicly call for the impeachment of President Nixon after the Watergate scandal and the Saturday Night Massacre, he was the first lawmaker to call for a repeal of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that had allowed for the War in Vietnam. He chose, in early 1975, to see for himself the effects of US bombing in Cambodia, stating afterwards that his country had committed "greater evil than we have done to any country in the world, wholly without reason, except for our benefit to fight against the Vietnamese".
McCloskey sought the 1972 Republican Presidential nomination on a pro-peace/anti-Vietnam War platform, obtained 11% of the vote against incumbent President Richard M. Nixon in the New Hampshire primary. At the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Rep. McCloskey received one vote from a New Mexico delegate. All other votes cast went to President Nixon, which technically meant that McCloskey finished second place in the race for the Presidential nomination. Congressman John Ashbrook of Ohio had challenged President Nixon's bid for re-nomination, albeit on a conservative platform. In 1982, McCloskey was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for nomination to the United States Senate; the California Republican Senatorial primary that year was a contentious battle among the major candidates in the 12-person GOP field, featuring Reps. McCloskey, Bob Dornan, Barry Goldwater Jr. Maureen Reagan, San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson, former Rep. John G. Schmitz, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce president Ted Bruinsma.
Wilson was the eventual victor and went on to defeat the Democratic candidate, then-Governor Jerry Brown, in the general election Accordi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
American Independent Party
The American Independent Party is a far right political party in the United States, established in 1967. The AIP is best known for its nomination of former Governor George Wallace of Alabama, who carried five states in the 1968 presidential election running on a law and order platform against Richard M. Nixon and Hubert H. Humphrey; the party split in 1976 into the American Party. From 1992 until 2008, the party was the California affiliate of the national Constitution Party, its exit from the Constitution Party led to a leadership dispute during the 2016 election. In 1968, the AIP was founded by his wife, Eileen Knowland Shearer, it nominated George C. Wallace as its presidential candidate and retired U. S. Air Force General Curtis E. LeMay as the vice-presidential candidate. Wallace ran on every state ballot in the election, though he did not represent the American Independent Party in all fifty states: in Connecticut, for instance, he was listed on the ballot as the nominee of the "George Wallace Party."
The Wallace/LeMay ticket received 13.5 percent of the popular vote and 46 electoral votes from the states of Arkansas, Mississippi and Alabama. No third-party candidate has won more than one electoral vote since the 1968 election. In 1969, representatives from forty states established the American Party as the successor to the American Independent Party. In some places, such as Connecticut, the American Party was constituted as the American Conservative Party. In March 1969, the party ran a candidate in a special election in Tennessee's 8th congressional district in northwestern Tennessee, where Wallace had done well the previous November, to replace Congressman Robert "Fats" Everett, who had died in office, their candidate, William J. Davis, out-polled Republican Leonard Dunavant, with 16,375 votes to Dunavant's 15,773; the party flag, adopted on August 30, 1970, depicts an eagle holding a group of arrows in its left talons, over a compass rose, with a banner which reads "The American Independent Party" at the eagle's base.
The American Party, as it was called and styled in several states, ran occasional congressional and gubernatorial candidates, but few made any real impact. In 1970, the AIP fielded a candidate for governor of South Carolina, Alfred W. Bethea, a former Democratic member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from Dillon County. Democrat John C. West defeated the Republican nominee, Albert Watson, an outgoing member of the United States House of Representatives. Bethea finished with only 2 percent of the votes cast. In another 1970 gubernatorial race, the Arkansas American Party ran Walter L. Carruth, a justice of the peace from Phillips County in eastern Arkansas, against Republican Winthrop Rockefeller and Democrat Dale Bumpers. Carruth received 36,132 votes, not enough to affect the outcome in which Bumpers handily unseated Rockefeller; the American Party had gained ballot access in Tennessee in 1970 as the result of George Wallace's strong showing in the state in 1968 crossing the 5 percent threshold required, held a primary election which nominated a slate of candidates including businessman Douglas Heinsohn for governor.
However, neither Heinsohn nor any other candidate running on the American Party line achieved the 5 percent threshold in the 1970 Tennessee election, it failed to do so in 1972, meaning that the party lost its newfound ballot access, which as of 2017 it has never regained. In 1972, the American Party nominated Republican Congressman John G. Schmitz of California for president and Tennessee author Thomas Jefferson Anderson, both members of the John Birch Society, for vice president. In that election, Hall Lyons, an oilman from Lafayette, a former Republican, ran as the AP U. S. Senate nominee but finished last in a four-way race dominated by the Democratic nominee, J. Bennett Johnston, Jr. In 1976, the American Independent Party split into the more moderate American Party, which included more northern conservatives and Schmitz supporters, the American Independent Party, which focused on the Deep South. Both parties have nominated candidates for other offices. Neither the American Party nor the American Independent Party has had national success, the American Party has not achieved ballot status in any state since 1996.
In the early 1980s, Bill Shearer led the American Independent Party into the Populist Party. From 1992 to 2008, the American Independent Party was the California affiliate of the national Constitution Party the U. S. Taxpayers Party, whose founders included the late Howard Phillips. A split in the American Independent Party occurred during the 2008 presidential campaign, one faction recognizing Jim King as chairman of the AIP with the other recognizing Ed Noonan as chairman. Noonan's faction claims the old AIP main website. King's group met in Los Angeles on June 28–29, elected King to state chair. Ed Noonan's faction, which included 8 of the 17 AIP officers, held a convention in Sacramento on July 5, 2008. Issues in the split were U. S. foreign policy and the influence of Constitution Party founder Howard Phillips on the state party. The King group elected to stay in the Constitution Party and supported its presidential candidate, Chuck Baldwin, it was not listed as the "Qualified Political Party" by the California Secretary of State and Baldwin's name was not printed in the state's ballots.
King's group sued f
Age of candidacy
Age of candidacy is the minimum age at which a person can qualify to hold certain elected government offices. In many cases, it determines the age at which a person may be eligible to stand for an election or be granted ballot access; the first known example of a law enforcing age of candidacy was the Lex Villia Annalis, a Roman law enacted in 180 BCE which set the minimum ages for senatorial magistrates. Many youth rights groups view current age of candidacy requirements as unjustified age discrimination. People who are younger than the minimum age will run for an office in protest of the requirement or because they don't know that the requirement exists. On rare occasions, young people have been elected to offices they do not qualify for and have been deemed ineligible to assume the office. In 1934, Rush Holt of West Virginia was elected to the Senate of the United States at the age of 29. Since the U. S. Constitution requires senators to be at least 30, Holt was forced to wait until his 30th birthday, six months after the start of the session, before being sworn in.
In 1954, Richard Fulton won election to the Tennessee Senate. Shortly after being sworn in, Fulton was ousted from office; the Tennessee State Constitution required that senators be at least 30. Rather than hold a new election, the previous incumbent, Clifford Allen, was allowed to resume his office for another term. Fulton went on to win the next State Senate election in 1956 and was elected to the US House of Representatives where he served for 10 years. In 1964 Congressman Jed Johnson, Jr. of Oklahoma was elected to the 89th Congress in the 1964 election while still aged 24 years. However, he became eligible for the House after turning 25 on his birthday, December 27, 1964, 7 days before his swearing in, making him the youngest elected and seated member of the United States Congress. In South Carolina, two Senators aged 24 were elected, but were too young according to the State Constitution: Mike Laughlin in 1969 and Bryan Dorn in 1941, they were seated anyway. On several occasions, the Socialist Workers Party has nominated candidates too young to qualify for the offices they were running for.
In 1972, Linda Jenness ran as the SWP presidential candidate. Since the U. S. Constitution requires that the President and Vice President be at least 35 years old, Jenness was not able to receive ballot access in several states in which she otherwise qualified. Despite this handicap, Jenness still received 83,380 votes. In 2004, the SWP nominated Arrin Hawkins as the party's vice-presidential candidate, although she was 28 at the time. Hawkins was unable to receive ballot access in several states due to her age. In the United States, many groups have attempted to lower age of candidacy requirements in various states. In 1994, South Dakota voters rejected a ballot measure that would have lowered the age requirements to serve as a State Senator or State Representative from 30 to 18. In 1998, they approved a similar ballot measure that reduced the age requirements for those offices from 25 to 21. In 2002, Oregon voters rejected a ballot measure that would have reduced the age requirement to serve as a State Representative from 21 to 18.
During the early 2000s, the British Youth Council and other groups campaigned to lower age of candidacy requirements in the United Kingdom. The age of candidacy was reduced from 21 to 18 in England and Scotland on 1 January 2007, when section 17 of the Electoral Administration Act 2006 entered into force. International electoral standards which are defined in the International Public Human Rights Law, allow restricting candidacy on the basis of age; the interpretation of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights offered by the United Nations Human Rights Committee in the General Comment 25 states "Any conditions which apply to the exercise of the rights protected by article 25 should be based on objective and reasonable criteria. For example, it may be reasonable to require a higher age for election or appointment to particular offices than for exercising the right to vote, which should be available to every adult citizen." In Australia a person must be aged 18 or over to stand for election to public office at federal, state or local government level.
The youngest member of the House of Representatives was 20-year-old Wyatt Roy elected in the 2010 federal election after the Electoral Act 1918 was amended to reduce the age of candidacy for that office from 21 to 18. In Austria, a person must be 18 years of age or older to stand in elections to the European Parliament or National Council; the Diets of regional Länder are able to set a minimum age lower than 18 for to be in the polls in elections to the Diet itself as well as to municipal councils in the Land. In presidential elections the candidacy age is 35. Any Belgian who has reached the age of 18 years can stand for election for the Chamber of Representatives, can become a member of the Senate, or can be elected in one of the regional parliaments; this is regulated in the Special Law on the Reform of the Institutions. According to the Constitution of Belize, a person must be at least 18 years old to be elected as a member of the House of Representatives and must be at least 30 to be Speaker of the House.
A person must be at least 18 years old to be appointed to the Senate and must be at least 30 to be President or Vice-President of the Senate. As only members of the House of Representatives are eligible to be appointed Prime Minister, the Prime Minister must be at least 18 years old. A person must be at least 18 years old to be elected to a village council; the Brazilian Constitutio