Michèle Morgan was a French film actress, a leading lady for three decades in both French cinema and Hollywood features. She is considered to have been one of the great French actresses of the 20th century. Morgan was the inaugural winner of the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1992, she was given an honorary César Award for her contributions to French cinema. Morgan was born Simone Renée Roussel in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, a wealthy suburb of Paris, she grew up in Seine-Maritime, France. Morgan left home at the age of 15 for Paris determined to become an actress, she took acting lessons from René Simon while serving as an extra in several films to pay for her drama classes. It was that she took the stage name "Michèle Morgan", she argued that she did not have the body type of a Simone, "Morgan" sounded more Hollywood-friendly. Morgan was first noticed by director Marc Allégret, who offered her a major role in the film Gribouille, opposite Raimu. Came Le Quai des brumes directed by Marcel Carné, opposite Jean Gabin, Remorques directed by Jean Grémillon.
Upon the invasion of France in 1940 by the Germans, Morgan left for the United States and Hollywood where she was contracted to RKO Pictures in 1941. Her career there proved rather disappointing, apart from Joan of Paris opposite Paul Henreid, Higher and Higher opposite Frank Sinatra, she was tested and considered for the female lead in Casablanca but RKO would not release her for the amount of money that Warner Bros. offered. Morgan did work for Warners however in Passage to Marseille with Humphrey Bogart. After the war, Morgan returned to France and resumed her career with the film La Symphonie Pastorale directed by Jean Delannoy, which earned her the Best Actress award at the Cannes Film Festival, her Other films from this period include. She continued working in films throughout the 1960s, such as in Lost Command, a version of Les Centurions. In the 1970s, she retired from her acting career made only occasional appearances in film and theatre. For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Morgan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1645 Vine Street.
In 1969, the government of France awarded her the Légion d'Honneur. For her long service to the French motion picture industry, in 1992 she was given an Honorary César Award. In 1996, she received the Career Golden Lion for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival. Morgan took up painting in the 1960s, she had a solo exhibition, "Artistes En Lumière à Paris", from 2 March to 30 April 2009, at the Espace Cardin in Paris. In 1977 she released her memoir, titled With Those Eyes. While in Hollywood, Morgan married William Marshall, in 1942, with whom she had a son, Mike Marshall. Morgan and Marshall divorced in 1948, she married French actor Henri Vidal in 1950. She remained with him until his death in 1959, she lived with film director and actor/writer Gérard Oury until his death in 2006. Morgan died on 20 December 2016, aged 96, in France of natural causes, her funeral was held at the Église Saint-Pierre in Neuilly-sur-Seine on 23 December 2016, she was buried at the Montparnasse Cemetery. Michèle Morgan on IMDb Michèle Morgan at AllMovie Michèle Morgan at filmsdefrance.com Michèle Morgan at AlloCiné Photographs of Michèle Morgan Michèle Morgan
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i
Vera Andreevna Kuznetsova was a Russian actress. She appeared in more than fifty films from 1944 to 1991. Vera Kuznetsova on IMDb
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder
Free State (province)
The Free State is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, South Africa's judicial capital, its historical origins lie in the Boer republic called Orange Free State and Orange Free State Province. The current borders of the province date from 1994 when the Bantustans were abolished and reincorporated into South Africa, it is the only one of the four original provinces of South Africa not to undergo border changes, excluding the reincorporation of Bantustans. The provincial government consists of a premier, an executive council of ten ministers, a legislature; the provincial assembly and premier are elected for five-year terms, or until the next national election. Political parties are awarded assembly seats based on the percentage of votes each party receives in the province during the national elections; the assembly elects a premier, who appoints the members of the executive council. The premier of Free State as of 2009 was Ace Magashule of the African National Congress. In 2018, Sisi Ntombela was appointed premier.
The Free State is situated on a succession of flat grassy plains sprinkled with pastureland, resting on a general elevation of 3,800 feet only broken by the occasional hill or kopje. The rich soil and pleasant climate allow for a thriving agricultural industry. With more than 30,000 farms, which produce over 70% of the country's grain, it is known locally as South Africa's breadbasket; the province is high-lying, with all land being 1,000 metres above sea level. The Drakensberg and Maluti Mountains foothills raise the terrain to over 2,000 m in the east; the Free State lies in the heart of the Karoo Sequence of rocks, containing shales, mudstones and the Drakensberg Basalt forming the youngest capping rocks. Mineral deposits are plentiful, with gold and diamonds being of particular importance found in the north and west of the province; the flats in the south of the reserve provides ideal conditions for large herds of plain game such as black wildebeest and springbok. The ridges and plains typical of the northern section are home to kudu, red hartebeest, southern white rhinoceros and buffalo.
The Southern African wildcat, black wildebeest, eland, white rhinoceros and wild dog can be seen at the Soetdoring Nature Reserve near Bloemfontein. The South African cheetahs has been reintroduced in the Free State for the first time in June 2013 after a hundred years of regional extinction, at Laohu Valley Reserve near Philippolis. Following the reintroduction of an adult female South African cheetah in early 2016, three wild cheetah cubs has been born for the first time in Laohu Valley Reserve in February 2017, making the three new cubs the first cheetahs born in the wild since their disappearance from the Free State province in over a century; the Free State experiences a continental climate, characterised by warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters. Areas in the east experience frequent snowfalls on the higher ranges, whilst the west can be hot in summer. All precipitation falls in the summer months as brief afternoon thunderstorms, with aridity increasing towards the west. Areas in the east around Harrismith and Ficksburg are well watered.
The capital, experiences hot, moist summers and cold, dry winters frequented by severe frost. Bloemfontein averages: January maximum: 31 °C, July maximum: 17 °C, annual precipitation: 559 mm Bethlehem averages: 27 °C, July maximum: 16 °C, annual precipitation: 680 mm In the southeast, the Free State borders seven districts of Lesotho: Mokhotlong – farthest to the east Butha-Buthe – northwest of Mokhotlong and northeast of Leribe Leribe – southwest of Butha-Buthe and northeast of Berea Berea – southwest of Leribe and north of Maseru Maseru – south of Berea and northeast of Mafeteng Mafeteng – southwest of Maseru and northwest of Mohale's Hoek Mohale's Hoek – southeast of MafetengDomestically, it borders the following provinces: KwaZulu-Natal – east Eastern Cape – south Northern Cape – west North West – northwest Gauteng – north Mpumalanga – northeastThe Free State borders more districts of Lesotho and more provinces of South Africa than any other province, it is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal longitude.
The Free State Province is divided into one metropolitan municipality and four district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into 19 local municipalities: See List of cities and towns in the Free State The Free State's major towns include: Bloemfontein & Botshabelo in Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality Welkom and Virginia in Lejweleputswa Bethlehem and Phuthaditjhaba in Thabo Mofutsanyana Kroonstad and Parys in Fezile Dabi The Free State is the only province in South Africa that operates a free 24-hour dedicated rotorwing aeromedical service from a public hospital, they are able to deliver a high level of care on scene. On 31 October 2018 Free State Emergency Medical Service launched an additional 65 road ambulances to augment the fleet. Free state has many private hospitals; some of them are: Bloemfontein Medi-clinic Bethlehem Medi-clinic Welkom Medi-clinic Mofumahadi Mmanapo Regional Hospital in Phuthaditjhaba. The province is the granary of South Africa, with agriculture central to its economy, while mining on the rich goldfields reef is its largest employer.
Agriculture dominates the Free State landscape, with cultivated land covering 32,000 square kilometres, natural veld and grazing a further 87,000 square kilometres of the province. It is South A
A World Apart (film)
A World Apart is a 1988 anti-apartheid drama, written by Shawn Slovo and directed by Chris Menges. It is based on Ruth First and Joe Slovo; the film was a co-production between companies from the Zimbabwe, where the movie was filmed. It features Hans Zimmer's first non-collaborative film score. Set in Johannesburg in 1963, the film examines the abrupt ending of 13-year-old Molly's blithe childhood when her father, a member of the South African Communist Party, flees into exile. Ostracised by her peers, Molly draws closer to her mother, part of the campaign against apartheid, their relationship is challenged by hardship, political intimidation, the mother's eventual arrest. The film title references both the gap between the mother and her teenage girl, who fails to grasp why their family is so fixated with events beyond their comfortable white suburb, another separating this world from that of South Africa's poverty-stricken black townships; the film is a tribute to Ruth First by her daughter and concludes in a moment of epiphany as Molly comes to terms with her mother's activism and understands that she too must play a part in the struggle against racial injustice.
Jodhi May – Molly Roth Jeroen Krabbé – Gus Roth Barbara Hershey – Diana Roth Linda Mvusi – Elsie Nadine Chalmers – Yvonne Abelson Kate Fitzpatrick – June Abelson Tim Roth – Harold Carolyn Clayton-Cragg – Myriam Roth Yvonne Bryceland – Bertha Merav Gruer – Jude Roth Paul Freeman – Kruger Rosalie Crutchley – Mrs. Harris Adrian Dunbar – Le Roux David Suchet – Muller Jude Akuwudike – Priest Nomaziko Zondo – Thandile A World Apart has an overall approval rating of 89% on Rotten Tomatoes from 9 critics. 1989: Winner – BAFTA Best Screenplay Shawn Slovo 1989: Nominee – BAFTA Best Supporting Actor David Suchet 1988: Winner – 1988 Cannes Film Festival, Best Actress: Jodhi May, Barbara Hershey, Linda Mvusi 1988: Nominee – Cannes Film Festival Golden Palm 1988: Winner – Cannes Film Festival Special Grand Prize of the Jury: Chris Menges 1988: Winner – Cannes Film Festival Price of the Ecumenical Jury: Chris Menges 1988: Winner – Evening Standard British Film Award Jodhi May – Most Promising Newcomer 1989: Nominee – Independent Spirit Award Best Foreign Film 1988: Winner – New York Film Critics Circle Awards Chris Menges – Best Director 1989: Winner - Best Foreign Language Film, 25th Guldbagge Awards A World Apart on IMDb A World Apart at Rotten Tomatoes A World Apart at Box Office Mojo
Katharine Houghton Hepburn was an American actress. Known for her fierce independence and spirited personality, Hepburn was a leading lady in Hollywood for more than 60 years, she appeared in a range of genres, from screwball comedy to literary drama, she received a record four Academy Awards for Best Actress. In 1999, Hepburn was named by the American Film Institute the greatest female star of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Raised in Connecticut by wealthy, progressive parents, Hepburn began to act while studying at Bryn Mawr College. After four years in the theatre, favorable reviews of her work on Broadway brought her to the attention of Hollywood, her early years in the film industry were marked with success, including an Academy Award for her third picture, Morning Glory, but this was followed by a series of commercial failures that led her to be labeled "box office poison" in 1938. Hepburn masterminded her own comeback, buying out her contract with RKO Radio Pictures and acquiring the film rights to The Philadelphia Story, which she sold on the condition that she be the star.
In the 1940s, she was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where her career focused on an alliance with Spencer Tracy. The screen partnership produced nine movies. Hepburn challenged herself in the latter half of her life, as she appeared in Shakespearean stage productions and tackled a range of literary roles, she found a niche playing middle-aged spinsters, such as in The African Queen, a persona the public embraced. Three more Oscars came for her work in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, The Lion in Winter, On Golden Pond. In the 1970s, she began appearing in television films, which became the focus of her career in life, she remained active into old age, making her final screen appearance in 1994 at the age of 87. After a period of inactivity and ill health, Hepburn died in 2003 at the age of 96. Hepburn famously shunned the Hollywood publicity machine, refused to conform to society's expectations of women, she was outspoken, assertive and wore trousers before it was fashionable for women to do so.
She was married as a young woman, but thereafter lived independently. A 26-year affair with her co-star Spencer Tracy was hidden from the public. With her unconventional lifestyle and the independent characters she brought to the screen, Hepburn epitomized the "modern woman" in the 20th-century United States, is remembered as an important cultural figure. Hepburn was born on May 12, 1907, in Hartford, the second of six children, her parents were Thomas Norval Hepburn, a urologist at Hartford Hospital, Katharine Martha Houghton, a feminist campaigner. Both parents fought for social change in the US: Thomas Hepburn helped establish the New England Social Hygiene Association, which educated the public about venereal disease, while the elder Katharine headed the Connecticut Woman Suffrage Association and campaigned for birth control with Margaret Sanger; as a child, Hepburn joined her mother on several "Votes For Women" demonstrations. The Hepburn children were raised to exercise freedom of speech and encouraged to think and debate on any topic they wished.
Her parents were criticized by the community for their progressive views, which stimulated Hepburn to fight against barriers she encountered. Hepburn said she realized from a young age that she was the product of "two remarkable parents", credited her "enormously lucky" upbringing with providing the foundation for her success, she remained close to her family throughout her life. The young Hepburn was a tomboy who liked to call herself Jimmy, cut her hair short. Thomas Hepburn was eager for his children to use their minds and bodies to the limit, taught them to swim, dive, ride and play golf and tennis. Golf became a passion of Hepburn's, she loved swimming in Long Island Sound, took ice-cold baths every morning in the belief that "the bitterer the medicine, the better it was for you". Hepburn was a fan of movies from a young age, went to see one every Saturday night, she would put on plays and perform for her neighbors with friends and siblings for 50 cents a ticket to raise money for the Navajo people.
In April of 1921, Hepburn, 14, her brother Tom were visiting New York, staying with a friend of their mother's in Greenwich Village over the Easter break. On April 3, Hepburn discovered the body of her adored older brother dead from an apparent suicide, he had hanged himself. The Hepburn family denied it was suicide and maintained that Tom's death must have been an experiment that had gone wrong; the incident made the teenage Hepburn nervous and suspicious of people. She shied away from other children, dropped out of Oxford School, began receiving private tutoring. For many years she used Tom's birthday as her own, it was not until her 1991 autobiography, Me: Stories of My Life, that Hepburn revealed her true birth date. In 1924 Hepburn gained a place at Bryn Mawr College, she attended the institution to satisfy her mother, who had studied there, recalled disliking the experience. It was the first time she had been in school for several years, she was self-conscious and uncomfortable with her classmates.
She struggled with the scholastic demands of university, once was suspended for smoking in her room. Hepburn was drawn to acting. Once her marks had improved, she began performing regularly, she performed the lead role in a production of The Woman in the Moon in her senior year, the positive