Vassar College is a private, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded in 1861 by Matthew Vassar, it was the second degree-granting institution of higher education for women in the United States following Elmira College, it became coeducational in 1969, now has a gender ratio at the national average. The school is one of the historic Seven Sisters, the first elite female colleges in the U. S. and has a historic relationship with Yale University, which suggested a merger with the college before coeducation at both institutions. The college offers B. A. degrees in more than 50 majors and features a flexible curriculum designed to promote a breadth of studies. Student groups at the college include theater and comedy organizations, acappella groups, club sports teams and service groups, a circus troupe. Vassar College's varsity sports teams, known as the Brewers, play in the NCAA's Division III as members of the Liberty League. Vassar tied for the 11th best liberal arts college in the nation in the 2018 annual ranking of U.
S. News & World Report, with admissions described as "most selective". For the freshman class entering fall 2017, the college had an acceptance rate of 22.8%. The total number of students attending the college is around 2,450; the Vassar campus comprises over 1,000 acres and more than 100 buildings, including two National Historic Landmarks and an additional National Historic Place. A designated arboretum, the campus features more than 200 species of trees, a native plant preserve, a 530-acre ecological preserve. Vassar was founded as a women's school under the name Vassar Female College in 1861, its first president was Milo P. Jewett, but after only a year, its founder, Matthew Vassar, had the word Female cut from the name, prompting some residents of the town of Poughkeepsie, New York to quip that its founder believed it might one day admit male students. The college became coeducational in 1969. Vassar was the second of the Seven Sisters colleges, higher education schools that were strictly for women, sister institutions to the Ivy League.
It was chartered by its namesake, brewer Matthew Vassar, in 1861 in the Hudson Valley, about 70 miles north of New York City. The first person appointed to the Vassar faculty was the astronomer Maria Mitchell, in 1865. Vassar adopted coeducation in 1969; however following World War II, Vassar accepted a small number of male students on the G. I. Bill; because Vassar's charter prohibited male matriculants, the graduates were given diplomas via the University of the State of New York. These were reissued under the Vassar title; the formal decision to become co-ed came after its trustees declined an offer to merge with Yale University, its sibling institution, in the wave of mergers between the all-male colleges of the Ivy League and their Seven Sisters counterparts. In its early years, Vassar was associated with the social elite of the Protestant establishment. E. Digby Baltzell writes that "upper-class WASP families educated their children at colleges such as Harvard, Princeton and Vassar." A select and elite few of Vassar's students were allowed entry into the school's secret society Delta Sigma Rho, started in 1922.
Before becoming President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Trustee. 2,450 students attend Vassar, 98% live on campus. About 60% come from public high schools, 40% come from private schools. Vassar is 56% women and 44% men, at national average for national liberal arts colleges. Students are taught by more than 336 faculty members all holding the doctorate degree or its equivalent; the student-faculty ratio is 8:1, average class size, 17. In recent freshman classes, students of color constituted 32–38% of matriculants. International students from over 60 countries make up 8-10% of the student body. In May 2007, in keeping with its commitment to diverse and equitable education, Vassar returned to a need-blind admissions policy wherein students are admitted by their academic and personal qualities, without regard to financial status. Vassar president Frances D. Fergusson served for two decades, she retired in the spring of 2006, was succeeded by Catharine Bond Hill, former provost at Williams College, who served for 10 years until she departed in 2016.
Hill was replaced by Elizabeth Howe Bradley in 2017. Vassar's campus an arboretum, is 1,000 acres and has more than 100 buildings, ranging in style from Collegiate Gothic to International, with several buildings of architectural interest. At the center of campus stands Main Building, one of the best examples of Second Empire architecture in the United States; when it was opened, Main Building was the largest building in the U. S. in terms of floor space. It housed the entire college, including classrooms, museum and dining halls; the building was designed by Smithsonian architect James Renwick Jr. and was completed in 1865. It was preceded on campus by the original observatory. Both buildings are National Historic Landmarks. Rombout House was purchased by the college in 1915 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Many original brick buildings are scattered throughout the campus, but there are several modern and contemporary structures of architectural interest. Ferry House, a student cooperative, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1951.
Noyes House was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen. A good example of an attempt to use passive solar design can be seen in the Seeley G. Mudd Ch
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Thomas Jones Goodwin is a former Major League Baseball center fielder. He attended Central High School in Fresno and went on to play for Fresno State University, he is the first base coach with the Boston Red Sox. In 1986, the Pittsburgh Pirates drafted Goodwin in the sixth round, he opted not to sign. In 1988, he was a member of the gold winning United States baseball team at the 1988 Olympics in Seoul; because of this, he decided to wait until 1989 to sign with a team, when he decided to sign with the Los Angeles Dodgers, after being drafted in the 1st round. At 6'1", Goodwin was only 175 pounds, which gave him an advantage over his heavier teammates, he developed a forté in base stealing. He spent only three seasons in the minors before making his Major League debut on September 1, 1991, at the age of 23; some of his major league career highlights include the 369 bases he stole over 14 years in the Major Leagues with the Dodgers, Kansas City Royals, Texas Rangers, Colorado Rockies, San Francisco Giants and Chicago Cubs, a career high 66 stolen bases with the Royals in 1996, a.290 batting average with the Rangers in 1998.
Tom had an interesting year when it came to home runs in 2000—not because he hit so many, but because of what kind of home runs they were. One of his six home runs occurred on April 5, was an inside-the-parker against the Braves. On April 30 against the Mets, he hit a grand slam, on July 17 against the Athletics, he hit another grand slam, his career statistics draw comparisons to those of a former Oakland Athletic. He last played major league baseball in 2004, but he played in the independent Atlantic League in 2005 for the Atlantic City Surf. After retiring as a player, Goodwin managed the Lewisville Lizards, coached for the Lowell Spinners, a minor league affiliate of the Boston Red Sox, served as a roving outfield and base running coach in the Red Sox minor league system. On October 29, 2011 Goodwin was named the first base coach for the Mets replacing former coach Mookie Wilson. On November 2, 2017, Goodwin returned to the Red Sox' organization as MLB first base coach on the staff of new manager Alex Cora.
He switched jobs with Rubén Amaro Jr. who moved from the Red Sox to the Mets. July 25, 1997 – sent to Rangers from Royals for third baseman Dean Palmer. July 31, 2000 – sent to Dodgers from Rockies for outfielder Todd Hollandsworth and minor leaguers Kevin Gibbs and Randy Dorame. In 1989, he was a member of Baseball America's Short Season All-Star Team and a member of the Pioneer League All-Star Team. In 1990, he was a member of the Texas League All-Star Team. Goodwin was a two-time all-America selection at Fresno State University and he was named to The Sporting News' college all-America team in 1989. Goodwin recorded his 1000th career hit off of Mike Gallo on August 20, 2003. List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Barack Obama 2008 presidential campaign
The 2008 presidential campaign of Barack Obama junior United States Senator from Illinois, was announced on February 10, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois. After winning a majority of delegates in the Democratic primaries of 2008, on August 23, leading up to the convention, the campaign announced that Senator Joe Biden of Delaware would be the vice presidential nominee. At the 2008 Democratic National Convention on August 27, Barack Obama was formally selected as the Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States in 2008, he was the first African American in history to be nominated on a major party ticket. On November 4, 2008, Obama defeated the Republican nominee, Senator John McCain of Arizona, making him the President-elect and the first African American elected President, he was the third sitting U. S. Senator, after John F. Kennedy, to be elected president. Upon the vote of the Electoral College on December 15, 2008, the subsequent certification thereof by a Joint Session of the United States Congress on January 8, 2009, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States and Joe Biden Vice President of the United States, with 365 of 538 electors.
On June 3, 2008, after the Montana and South Dakota primaries, he secured enough delegates to clinch the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States. His opponent in the general election, Republican John McCain, passed the delegate threshold to become the apparent nominee of his party on March 4. On June 7, Hillary Clinton, Obama's remaining opponent in the quest for the Democratic nomination, conceded defeat and urged her supporters to back Obama. After a June 26 dinner at which Obama encouraged his fundraisers to donate to Clinton's debt-saddled campaign and Clinton ran their first post-primary event together in Unity, New Hampshire, on June 27. Over the first two weeks of July, the campaign ran a heavier schedule of fundraising events, drawing from former donors to Clinton's campaign. Obama strategically had pictures made with financial experts Warren Buffett and Paul Volcker so the public would perceive him as having inside knowledge of Wall Street. Obama's vice presidential running mate had been a subject of speculation since the end of the primaries.
As of August 2008, some of the most popular choices for vice president included, but were not limited to, New York Senator Hillary Clinton, Delaware Senator Joe Biden, Indiana Senator Evan Bayh, Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius, Virginia Governor Tim Kaine, retired General and former Secretary of State Colin Powell, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, retired General Wesley Clark. On August 21, 2008, Obama announced that he had made a selection for his running mate, but would not reveal until August 23 who it was. Obama's campaign encouraged supporters to sign up for a text messaging system that would alert them the moment he announced his choice. On August 22, KMBC News of Kansas City spotted bumper stickers of an "Obama/Bayh'08" ticket that were being printed in Lenexa, Kansas. Three sources close to a local printing plant reported; the image of the bumper sticker circulated on the internet. However, NBC News quoted sources stating that Bayh had been informed by Obama's campaign that he was not the pick.
According to an Associated Press report that same evening, Joe Biden was selected as Obama's candidate. The Associated Press report was confirmed several hours on August 23, on his official campaign website and by a mass text message to supporters. Obama selected Biden to be vice president for three reasons: he could relate to blue-collar Americans. In July 2008 Obama traveled to Kuwait, Iraq, the West Bank, Germany and Britain. During the course of this trip he met with assorted international leaders, including President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki of Iraq, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Olmert, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, President Nicolas Sarkozy of France, Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, as well as former British Prime Minister Tony Blair and Conservative opposition leader David Cameron. On July 24, 2008 he gave a speech at the Victory Column in Berlin before a crowd of estimated 200,000 to 240,000 people.
There were three presidential debates between McCain. No third party candidates or Independent candidates were offered an invitation to join in any of the debates, as Obama and McCain were the only candidates on the ballot in all 50 states and the District of Columbia; the Commission on Presidential Debates proposed, the candidates agreed, that two of three 90-minute debates would be in an informal, talk show format, while the third would be in a town hall format that allowed both candidates to walk around. The first presidential debate was held on Friday, September 26, 2008 at the University of Mississippi, Mississippi; this debate was held in a traditional debate format. The second presidential debate was held on Tuesday, October 7, 2008 at Belmont University, in Nashville, Tennessee; this debate was held in the town hall format. The third presidential debate was held on Wednesday, October 15, 2008 at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York; this debate was held in talk show format. On June 4, John McCain proposed a series of ten joint town hall meetings with Obama, at which the two could engage each other.
Obama first agreed in principle to the notion, but rejected McCain's proposal, offering instead one town-hall event on the Independence Day holi
Rush Holt Jr.
Rush Dew Holt Jr. is an American scientist and politician. He was the U. S. Representative for New Jersey's 12th congressional district from 1999 to 2015, he is a member of the Democratic Party and son of former West Virginia U. S. Senator Rush D. Holt Sr, he worked as a professor of public policy and physics, during his tenure in Congress he was one of two physicists and the only Quaker there. Holt sought the Democratic nomination for U. S. Senate in the 2013 special primary election to fill the seat of U. S. Senator Frank Lautenberg, who died in office on June 3, 2013, he lost the nomination to Newark Mayor Cory Booker. Holt announced on February 18, 2014 that he would not seek re-election in 2014; as of February 2015, Holt became chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and executive publisher of the Science family of journals. Holt was born in Weston, West Virginia, to Rush Holt Sr. who served as a United States Senator from West Virginia, his wife, Helen Louise Froelich Holt, the first woman to be appointed Secretary of State of West Virginia.
Holt Sr. was the youngest person to be popularly elected to the U. S. Senate, at age 29, he died of cancer. Holt graduated from the Landon School in Bethesda, Maryland, in 1966 later graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a BS in physics from Carleton College in 1970, received his MS and PhD degrees in physics from New York University in 1981; the title of his doctoral dissertation was "Calcium absorption lines and solar activity: a systematic program of observations." Holt was a faculty member at Swarthmore College from 1980 to 1988 where he taught physics, public policy, religion courses. During that time, he worked as a Congressional Science Fellow for U. S. Representative Bob Edgar of Pennsylvania. From 1987 until 1989, Holt headed the Nuclear and Scientific Division of the Office of Strategic Forces at the U. S. Department of State. Holt was the Assistant Director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory at Princeton University, the University's largest research facility and the largest center for energy research in New Jersey.
Holt, Rush D.. "The interaction of researchers with teachers: What scientists can offer elementary and secondary schools". Physics of Plasmas. 2: 2605. Bibcode:1995PhPl....2.2605H. Doi:10.1063/1.871223. Archived from the original on 2013-02-24. Holt, Rush D. "Magnetic Fusion". Science. 250: 359. Bibcode:1990Sci...250..359H. Doi:10.1126/science.250.4979.359-b. PMID 17793003. Holt, Rush D.. J.. "Shifts of the CaII K line in HeI 10830 dark points". Solar Physics. 107: 63–72. Bibcode:1986SoPh..107...63H. Doi:10.1007/BF00155342. 4,249,518 Method for maintaining a correct density gradient in a non-convecting solar pond 1996Holt first ran for Congress in 1996 in New Jersey's 12th congressional district after incumbent Republican congressman Dick Zimmer decided to run for the U. S. Senate. On June 4, 1996, Holt lost the Democratic party primary, receiving 24% of the vote and finishing last of the three candidates. Lambertville Mayor David DelVecchio won the primary with 45% of the vote and Carl Mayer finished second with 31% of the vote.
Holt received the most votes in Mercer County, while losing the other four counties in the district to DelVecchio and Mayer: DelVecchio won Monmouth and Somerset Counties while Mayer won Middlesex County. DelVecchio went on to lose the general election to Republican Michael Pappas. 1998Holt decided to run again in 1998. On June 2, 1998, Holt won the Democratic primary, defeating Carl Mayer 64% to 36%. Holt challenged one-term Congressman Michael Pappas; the incumbent's campaign experienced a setback after he read a poem, set to the tune of "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star", praising Kenneth Starr on the floor of the House of Representatives. Holt defeated Pappas by 4 percentage points, 51% to 47%, becoming the first Democrat to represent the district in two decades. Holt won Mercer and Middlesex while losing Monmouth and Somerset. 2000Holt was challenged by former Republican Congressman Dick Zimmer in the 2000 election. Holt's prior win was thought by Republicans to be a fluke, the race attracted considerable money and advertising.
The election was hotly contested and the winner was not known on election day. Zimmer was ahead on election night by just a few votes. Ten days after the election, Holt declared himself the winner by 481 votes. Zimmer conceded after the count began to go against him. Holt won the election by a margin of 651 votes: 146,162 votes for Holt compared to Zimmer's 145,511, making it the only general election where Holt has not received a majority of the votes in the election. Holt won Mercer and Middlesex while losing Monmouth and Somerset. 2002Redistricting after the 2000 census Holt's district became much safer politically, in part by adding much of Trenton while cutting out more conservative-leaning territory in Somerset and Hunterdon counties. While Holt faced a well-funded challenge from Republican Secretary of State of New Jersey Buster Soaries, Holt won a third term, taking 61% to Soaries' 38%, he won all five counties: Mercer, Somerset and Monmouth. 2004Holt won re-election to a fourth term, defeating Republican Bill Spadea 59% to 40%.
He won four of five counties: Mercer, Somerset and Hunterdon. He lost Monmouth. 2006 He won re-election to a fifth term, defeating former Helmetta, New Jersey Council President Joseph Sinagra, 66% to 34%. He won