Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an American suffragist, social activist and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States. Stanton was president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association from 1890 until 1892. Before Stanton narrowed her political focus exclusively to women's rights, she was an active abolitionist with her husband Henry Brewster Stanton and cousin Gerrit Smith. Unlike many of those involved in the women's rights movement, Stanton addressed various issues pertaining to women beyond voting rights, her concerns included women's parental and custody rights, property rights and income rights, the economic health of the family, birth control. She was an outspoken supporter of the 19th-century temperance movement. After the American Civil War, Stanton's commitment to female suffrage caused a schism in the women's rights movement when she, together with Susan B.
Anthony, declined to support passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. She opposed giving added legal protection and voting rights to African American men while women and white, were denied those same rights, her position on this issue, together with her thoughts on organized Christianity and women's issues beyond voting rights, led to the formation of two separate women's rights organizations that were rejoined, with Stanton as president of the joint organization, about twenty years after her break from the original women's suffrage movement. Stanton died in 1902, having written both The Woman's Bible and her autobiography Eighty Years and More, many other articles and pamphlets about female suffrage and women's rights. Elizabeth Cady, the eighth of eleven children, was born in Johnstown, New York, to Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston Cady. Five of her siblings died in early infancy. A sixth sibling, her older brother Eleazar, died at age 20 just before his graduation from Union College in Schenectady, New York.
Only Elizabeth Cady and four sisters lived well into old age. In life, Elizabeth named her two daughters after two of her sisters and Harriot. Daniel Cady, Stanton's father, was a prominent Federalist attorney who served one term in the United States Congress and became both a circuit court judge and, in 1847, a New York Supreme Court justice. Judge Cady introduced his daughter to the law and, together with her brother-in-law, Edward Bayard, planted the early seeds that grew into her legal and social activism; as a young girl, she enjoyed reading her father's law books and debating legal issues with his law clerks. It was this early exposure to law that, in part, caused Stanton to realize how disproportionately the law favored men over women married women, her realization that married women had no property, employment, or custody rights over their own children, helped set her course toward changing these inequities. Stanton's mother, Margaret Livingston Cady, a descendant of early Dutch settlers, was the daughter of Colonel James Livingston, an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Having fought at Saratoga and Quebec, Livingston assisted in the capture of Major John Andre at West Point, New York where Andre and Benedict Arnold, who escaped aboard HMS Vulture, were planning to turn West Point over to the English. Margaret Cady, an unusually tall woman for her time, had a commanding presence, Stanton described her mother as "queenly." While Stanton's daughter, Harriot Stanton Blatch, remembers her grandmother as being fun and lively, Stanton herself did not share such memories. Devastated by the loss of so many children, Margaret Cady fell into a depression, which kept her from being involved in the lives of her surviving children and left a maternal void in Stanton's childhood. With Stanton's mother depressed, since Stanton's father contended with the loss of several children, including his eldest son Eleazar, by immersing himself in his work, many of the child rearing responsibilities fell to Stanton's elder sister, eleven years her senior, Tryphena's husband, Edward Bayard.
Bayard, a Union College classmate of Eleazar Cady's and son of James A. Bayard, Sr. a U. S. Senator from Wilmington, Delaware was, at the time of his engagement and marriage to Tryphena, an apprentice in Daniel Cady's law office, he was instrumental in nurturing Stanton's growing understanding of the explicit and implicit gender hierarchies within the legal system. Slavery did not end in New York State until July 4, 1827, like many men of his day, Stanton's father was a slaveowner. Peter Teabout, a slave in the Cady household, freed in Johnstown, took care of Stanton and her sister Margaret. While she makes no mention of Teabout's position as a slave in her family's household, he is remembered with particular fondness by Stanton in her memoir, Eighty Years & More. Among other things, she reminisces about the pleasure she took in attending the Episcopal church with Teabout, where she and her sisters enjoyed sitting with him in the back of the church rather than alone in front with the white families of the congregation.
It seems it was, not that her family owned at least one slave, but her exposure to the abolition movement as a young woman visiting her cousin, Gerrit Smith, in Peterboro, New York, that led to her staunch abolitionist sentiments. Unlike many women of her era, St
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts into a prominent family with strong ties to its community. After studying at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she attended the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst; some argue. Considered an eccentric by locals, she developed a noted penchant for white clothing and became known for her reluctance to greet guests or in life, to leave her bedroom. Dickinson never married, most friendships between her and others depended upon correspondence. While Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly 1,800 poems were published during her lifetime; the work, published during her lifetime was altered by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Her poems are unique for the era. Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends. Although Dickinson's acquaintances were most aware of her writing, it was not until after her death in 1886—when Lavinia, Dickinson's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems—that the breadth of her work became apparent to the public.
Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, though both edited the content. A 1998 New York Times article revealed that of the many edits made to Dickinson's work, the name "Susan" was deliberately removed. At least 11 of Dickinson's poems were dedicated to sister-in-law Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickinson, though all the dedications were obliterated by Todd. A complete, unaltered, collection of her poetry became available for the first time when scholar Thomas H. Johnson published The Poems of Emily Dickinson in 1955. Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born at the family's homestead in Amherst, Massachusetts, on December 10, 1830, into a prominent, but not wealthy, family, her father, Edward Dickinson was a trustee of Amherst College. Two hundred years earlier, her patrilineal ancestors had arrived in the New World—in the Puritan Great Migration—where they prospered. Emily Dickinson's paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, was one of the founders of Amherst College.
In 1813, he built the Homestead, a large mansion on the town's Main Street, that became the focus of Dickinson family life for the better part of a century. Samuel Dickinson's eldest son, was treasurer of Amherst College for nearly forty years, served numerous terms as a State Legislator, represented the Hampshire district in the United States Congress. On May 6, 1828, he married Emily Norcross from Monson, they had three children: William Austin, known as Austin, Aust or Awe Emily Elizabeth Lavinia Norcross, known as Lavinia or VinnieBy all accounts, young Emily was a well-behaved girl. On an extended visit to Monson when she was two, Emily's Aunt Lavinia described Emily as "perfectly well & contented—She is a good child & but little trouble." Emily's aunt noted the girl's affinity for music and her particular talent for the piano, which she called "the moosic". Dickinson attended primary school in a two-story building on Pleasant Street, her education was "ambitiously classical for a Victorian girl".
Her father wanted his children well-educated and he followed their progress while away on business. When Emily was seven, he wrote home, reminding his children to "keep school, learn, so as to tell me, when I come home, how many new things you have learned". While Emily described her father in a warm manner, her correspondence suggests that her mother was cold and aloof. In a letter to a confidante, Emily wrote she "always ran Home to Awe when a child, if anything befell me, he was an awful Mother, but I liked him better than none."On September 7, 1840, Dickinson and her sister Lavinia started together at Amherst Academy, a former boys' school that had opened to female students just two years earlier. At about the same time, her father purchased a house on North Pleasant Street. Emily's brother Austin described this large new home as the "mansion" over which he and Emily presided as "lord and lady" while their parents were absent; the house overlooked Amherst's burial ground, described by one local minister as treeless and "forbidding".
Dickinson spent seven years at the Academy, taking classes in English and classical literature, botany, history, "mental philosophy," and arithmetic. Daniel Taggart Fiske, the school's principal at the time, would recall that Dickinson was "very bright" and "an excellent scholar, of exemplary deportment, faithful in all school duties". Although she had a few terms off due to illness—the longest of, in 1845–1846, when she was enrolled for only eleven weeks—she enjoyed her strenuous studies, writing to a friend that the Academy was "a fine school". Dickinson was troubled from a young age by the "deepening menace" of death the deaths of those who were close to her; when Sophia Holland, her second cousin and a close friend, grew ill from typhus and died in April 1844, Emily was traumatized. Recalling the incident two years Emily wrote that "it seemed to me I should die too if I could not be permitted to watch over her or look at her face." She became so melancholic. With her health and spirits restored, she soon returned to Amherst A
King's College Hospital
King's College Hospital is an acute care facility in Denmark Hill, Camberwell in the London Borough of Lambeth, referred to locally and by staff as "King's" or abbreviated internally to "KCH". It is managed by King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, it serves an inner city population of 700,000 in the London boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth, but serves as a tertiary referral centre in certain specialties to millions of people in southern England. It is a large teaching hospital and is, with Guy's Hospital and St. Thomas' Hospital, the location of King's College London School of Medicine and one of the institutions that comprise the King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre; the interim chief executive is Peter Herring. King's was opened in 1840 in the disused St Clement Danes workhouse in Portugal Street close to Lincoln's Inn Fields and King's College London itself, it was used as a training facility where medical students of King's College could practice and receive instruction from the college's own professors.
The surrounding area there was composed of overcrowded slums characterised by disease. Within two years of opening, the hospital was treating 1,290 inpatients in 120 beds, with two patients sharing a bed by no means unusual; the main contractor for the new hospital was Lucas Brothers. It was one of the first hospitals to start nurse training, in 1856. Pioneer of aseptic surgery Joseph Lister performed the first major elective surgery under strict antiseptic conditions in 1877, he helped propel the hospital to have a surgical unit comparable with the best in Europe. In the first years of the 20th century, demographic changes saw a decrease in the number of patients requiring treatment in the centre of London, an increase of patients from further afield – notably Camberwell and Brixton which were suburbs on the outskirts of London. Following an Act of Parliament in 1904, a foundation stone was laid for the new hospital, designed by William Pite, in 1909 at its present site at Denmark Hill, south of the River Thames.
The move to Denmark Hill provided the hospital with a greenfield-site nearer to its patients. The building itself incorporated modern design principles to encourage adequate ventilation, used electric clocks throughout, contained only the second internal phone installation in the UK at the time, generated its own power through the use of diesel engines. Pre-clinical training of medical students remained the responsibility of King's College London, whilst advanced medical training took place at the hospital under the auspices of a newly formed King's College Hospital Medical School. During the period of World War I, a large proportion of the hospital was used for military purposes. A dental school was established at the same site in 1923. During this time most patients were still poor and vulnerable to contagious diseases such as tuberculosis. In 1937 the private Guthrie wing was established with a donation from the Stock Exchange Dramatic and Operatic Society for wealthier patients to enjoy less crowded wards.
During the Second World War the hospital was used for treating casualties of air raids, was fortunate never to sustain a major direct hit. Following the creation of the National Health Service in 1948, the hospital was granted Teaching Hospital status. In 1974 the NHS re-organisation saw King's become the centre for all health services management in its catchment area; the hospital's medical school was reunited with King's College in 1983 to form King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry. A purpose-built medical education centre, the Weston Education Centre, was built in 1997 and contains a medical library as well as hosting conferences and professional training events as well as containing public access computer rooms for students. In 1998 King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry merged with the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas's Hospitals to form Guy's, King's and St Thomas's School of Medicine abbreviated to "GKT"; the Golden Jubilee wing, intended to host a number of outpatient clinics as well as therapy suites for speech and language, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, was procured under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 2000.
The works, which were carried by a joint venture of Costain and Skanska at a cost of £50 million, were completed in 2002. In December 2013 it was announced that a proposed merger with Guy's and St Thomas' and South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trusts had been suspended because of doubts about the reaction of the Competition Commission; the Trust took over the management of Princess Royal University Hospital in October 2013 after the dissolution of the South London Healthcare NHS Trust. Over Christmas 2013 8 patients there waited on trolleys for more than 12 hours for admission, the largest number of trolley waits in England; the hospital is situated on Bessemer Road, contained within the hospital grounds. Although the classically-styled Hambleden Wing Entrance is still the official Main Entrance, the Golden Jubilee Wing Entrance about 100m to the north-east has become the de facto Main Entrance, due to its being directly opposite Caldecot Road and having the ambulance parking spaces in front of it.
There are the A&E Entrance and the Denmark Wing Entrance on Denmark Hill, whilst on Bessemer Road is the Bessemer Wing Entrance, there is the Cheyne Wing Entrance on an unnamed service road at the south-west of the main building. The Trust was one of the first such organisations to introduce a comprehensive public Wi-Fi service; the basic service costs £4.50 a day but is free on th
Marian Anderson was an American singer, one of the most celebrated of the twentieth century. Music critic Alan Blyth said: "Her voice was a rich, vibrant contralto of intrinsic beauty." She performed in concert and recital in major music venues and with famous orchestras throughout the United States and Europe between 1925 and 1965. Although offered roles with many important European opera companies, Anderson declined, as she had no training in acting, she preferred to perform in recital only. She did, perform opera arias within her concerts and recitals, she made many recordings that reflected her broad performance repertoire, which ranged from concert literature to lieder to opera to traditional American songs and spirituals. Between 1940 and 1965 the German-American pianist Franz Rupp was her permanent accompanist. Anderson became an important figure in the struggle for black artists to overcome racial prejudice in the United States during the mid-twentieth century. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall in Washington, DC.
The incident placed Anderson into the spotlight of the international community on a level unusual for a classical musician. With the aid of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt, Anderson performed a critically acclaimed open-air concert on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in the capital, she sang before an integrated crowd of a radio audience in the millions. Anderson continued to break barriers for black artists in the United States, becoming the first black person, American or otherwise, to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on January 7, 1955, her performance as Ulrica in Giuseppe Verdi's Un ballo in maschera at the Met was the only time she sang an opera role on stage. Anderson worked for several years as a delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Committee and as a "goodwill ambassadress" for the United States Department of State, giving concerts all over the world, she participated in the civil rights movement in the 1960s, singing at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963.
The recipient of numerous awards and honors, Anderson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1977, the Kennedy Center Honors in 1978, the National Medal of Arts in 1986, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1991. Marian Anderson was born on February 27, 1897, in Philadelphia, to John Berkley Anderson and the former Annie Delilah Rucker, her father sold ice and coal at the Reading Terminal in downtown Philadelphia and opened a small liquor business as well. Prior to her marriage, Anderson's mother had attended the Virginia Seminary and College in Lynchburg and had worked as a schoolteacher in Virginia; as she did not obtain a degree, Annie Anderson was unable to teach in Philadelphia under a law, applied only to black teachers and not white ones. She therefore earned an income caring for small children. Marian was the eldest of the three Anderson children, her two sisters and Ethel became singers. Ethel married James DePreist and their late son, James Anderson DePreist was a noted conductor.
Anderson's parents were both devout Christians and the whole family was active in the Union Baptist Church in South Philadelphia. Marian's aunt Mary, her father's sister, was active in the church's musical life and, noticing her niece's talent, convinced her to join the junior church choir at the age of six. In that role she got to perform solos and duets with her aunt Mary. Marian was taken by her aunt to concerts at local churches, the YMCA, benefit concerts, other community music events throughout the city. Anderson credited her aunt's influence as the reason. Beginning as young as six, her aunt arranged for Marian to sing for local functions where she was paid 25 or 50 cents for singing a few songs; as she got into her early teens, Marian began to make as much as five dollars for singing. At the age of 10, Marian joined the People's Chorus under the direction of singer Emma Azalia Hackley, where she was given solos. On March 21, 1919, during a March Festival of Music, she was a lead singer in a concert by the Robert Curtis Ogden Band and Choral Society at Egyptian Hall in Philadelphia's John Wanamaker department store.
When Anderson was 12, her father was accidentally struck on the head while at work at the Reading Terminal, just a few weeks before Christmas of 1909. He died of heart failure a month at age 34. Marian and her family moved into the home of her father's parents, Grandpa Benjamin and Grandma Isabella Anderson, her grandfather had experienced emancipation in the 1860s. He was the first of the Anderson family to settle in South Philadelphia, when Anderson moved into his home the two became close, he died just a year. Anderson attended Stanton Grammar School, graduating in the summer of 1912, her family, could not afford to send her to high school, nor could they pay for any music lessons. Still, Anderson continued to perform wherever she could and learn from anyone, willing to teach her. Throughout her teenage years, she remained active in her church's musical activities, now involved in the adult choir, she joined the Baptists' Young People's Union and the Camp Fire Girls which provided her with some limited musical opportunities.
The directors of the People's Chorus and the pastor of her church, Reverend Wesl
Clarissa "Clara" Harlowe Barton was a pioneering nurse who founded the American Red Cross. She was a hospital nurse in the American Civil War, a teacher, patent clerk. Nursing education was not formalized at that time and she did not attend nursing school, so she provided self-taught nursing care. Barton is noteworthy for doing humanitarian work at a time when few women worked outside the home, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973. Clara Barton was born on December 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts, her father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman who inspired his daughter with patriotism and a broad humanitarian interest. He was a soldier under the command of General Anthony Wayne in his crusade against the Indians in the northwest, he was the leader of progressive thought in the Oxford village area. Barton's mother was Sarah Stone Barton; when she was three years old, Barton was sent to school with her brother Stephen, where she excelled in reading and spelling.
At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts. When Barton was ten years old, she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe head injury, she learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him. She continued to care for David, he made a full recovery. Her parents tried to help cure her timidity by enrolling her to Colonel Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a catastrophe. Barton would not eat, she was brought back home to regain her health. Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member: a paternal cousin of Clara's had died and left his wife with four children and a farm; the house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be repaired. Barton was persistent in offering assistance, much to the gratitude of her family. After the work was done, Barton was at a loss because she had nothing else to help with, to not feel like a burden to her family.
She began to play with her male cousins and, to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such activities as horseback riding. It was not until after she had injured herself that Barton's mother began to question her playing with the boys. Barton's mother decided, she invited one of Clara's female cousins over to help develop her femininity. From her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well. To assist Barton with overcoming her shyness, her parents persuaded her to become a schoolteacher, she achieved her first teacher's certificate at only 17 years old. This profession interested Barton and helped motivate her. Successful projects such as this gave Barton the confidence needed when she demanded equal pay for teaching. Barton became an educator in 1838 for 12 years in schools in West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher and knew how to handle rambunctious children the boys, since as a child she enjoyed her male cousins' and brothers' company, she learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her classroom since they respected her.
After her mother's death in 1851, the family home closed down. Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the Clinton Liberal Institute in New York. In this college town, she developed many friendships that broadened her point of view on many issues concurring at the time; the principal of the institute admired her work. This friendship lasted for many years turning into a romance; as a writer, her terminology was easy to understand. Her writings and bodies of work could instruct the local statesmen. No one could exceed her outstanding service in peace. While teaching in Hightstown, Barton learned about the lack of public schools in Bordentown, the neighboring city. In 1852, she was contracted to open a free school in Bordentown, the first free school in New Jersey, she was successful, after a year she had hired another woman to help teach over 600 people. Both women were making $250 a year; this accomplishment compelled the town to raise nearly $4,000 for a new school building.
Once completed, Barton was replaced as principal by a man elected by the school board. They saw the position as head of a large institution to be unfitting for a woman, she was demoted to "female assistant" and worked in a harsh environment until she had a nervous breakdown along with other health ailments, quit. In 1855, she moved to Washington D. C. and began work as a clerk in the US Patent Office. For three years, she received much slander from male clerks. Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, in 1856, under the administration of James Buchanan, she was fired because of her "Black Republicanism". After the election of Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service. On April 19, 1861, the Baltimore Riot resulted in the first
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th