Metropolitan Borough of Hackney
The Metropolitan Borough of Hackney was a Metropolitan borough of the County of London from 1900 to 1965. Its area became part of the London Borough of Hackney; the borough was one of twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs created by the London Government Act 1899. It was the successor to the vestry of the parish of Hackney, the local authority since 1894. Between 1855 and 1894 the parish had been administered with Stoke Newington as the Hackney District; the boundaries of Hackney with the neighbouring boroughs were adjusted in 1900: Hackney gained the east side of Bethune Road from Stoke Newington and the south side of Balls Pond Road from Islington. The boundary with Shoreditch was altered to run along the Regents Canal, Albion Road and Brougham Road, while the boundary with Bethnal Green, which had formed a straight line, was changed to follow the line of Gore Road. A further adjustment was made in 1908, when areas were exchanged with Tottenham Urban District, Middlesex, it had a border with Leyton Urban District in Essex to the east and to the north, from which it was divided by Hackney Marshes.
The metropolitan borough included the districts of Hackney and Lower Clapton, Homerton and Kingsland. It included Stoke Newington Common, the entire eastern side of Stoke Newington High Street; the metropolitan borough was coterminous with the ancient parish of Hackney. Statistics were compiled by the London County Council in 1901 to show population growth in London over the preceding century; the area of the borough in 1901 was 3,289 acres. The populations recorded in National Censuses were: Hackney Vestry 1801–1899 Metropolitan Borough 1900–1961 By comparison, after amalgamation with Shoreditch and Stoke Newington, to form the modern London Borough of Hackney, the combined area became 19.06 km² - 4,710 acres. In 1901 Hackney the population density was 16,475/km². Under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards; the Hackney Vestry was controlled by the Progressive Party, the grouping linked with the parliamentary Liberal Party. Opposition on the body was provided by the Conservative-backed Moderate Party.
The vestry had 119 members, with one third elected annually. In 1894 as its population had increased the incorporated vestry was re-divided into eight wards: Stamford Hill, Kingsland, Mare Street, South and Homerton; the London Government Act 1899 replaced the incorporated vestries with borough councils consisting of a mayor and councillors. All councillors were to be elected every three years. There was one alderman for every six councillors, these were elected by the council itself. Boundary commissioners were appointed under the London Government Act 1899 to divide the new boroughs into wards, to apportion councillors to each ward, it was decided to continue to use the eight vestry wards. The Moderates claimed that Stamford Hill and West Hackney wards were under-represented and should be given nine councillors, with the remaining six wards having six each. In the event, the commissioners apportioned 60 councillors between the eight wards: Clapton Park, Hackney and Stamford Hill having nine councillors and Downs, Kingsland and West wards having six a piece.
With 10 aldermen, the borough council thus had 70 members. The boundary changes seem to have favoured the Moderates, as at the first elections to the council on 1 November 1900 they won a majority with 37 seats to 18 won by the Liberal Party and Progressives, with 3 independent Conservative and 2 independent councillors returned. At the next election in 1903 the Progressives won control with 49 seats to 11 Conservatives. Three years the Conservatives ran under the Municipal Reform label. Municipal Reformers won 18 seats and independents supported by them won 20, giving them a majority over the Progressives with 22 seats; the Progressives regained the council in 1909 with a narrow majority, losing power to the Municipal Reform party again in 1912. The next elections, postponed until 1919 due to the First World War, were won by the Labour Party: Labour won 32 seats, Municipal Reform 15 and Progressives 13. At the next elections in 1922 a "Progressive Reform" anti-Labour alliance won all seats on the council, held them at the subsequent polls in 1925.
The 1928 election was run on party lines: the Municipal Reform party won control with 31 seats, other Anti-Labour candidates won 15, Labour won 12 and Progressives 1. In 1931 Municipal Reformers won all but one seat, held by Labour. Labour gained control of the borough council in 1934, held power for the rest of the borough's existence. In 1934 they won. In 1937 the borough's ward boundaries were redrawn: sixteen wards were created, each represented by three councillors. To the forty-eight councillors thus elected were added 8 aldermen. Labour won 41 seats in 1937 to Municipal Reform's 7. Local elections were postponed due to the Second World War, from 1945 the only non-Labour councillors were Communists: 1 was elected in 1945, 2 in
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
You Ain't Goin' Nowhere
"You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" is a song written by Bob Dylan in 1967 in Woodstock, New York, during the self-imposed exile from public appearances that followed his July 29, 1966 motorcycle accident. A recording of Dylan performing the song in September 1971 was released on the Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Vol. II album in November of that year, marking the first official release of the song by its author. An earlier 1967 recording of the song, performed by Dylan and the Band, was issued in 1975 on the album The Basement Tapes; the Byrds recorded a version of the song in 1968 and issued it as a single. The Byrds' version is notable for being the first commercial release of the song, predating Dylan's first release by three years. A cover by Byrds members Roger McGuinn and Chris Hillman reached the top 10 of the Hot Country Songs charts in 1989; the song has been covered by many other artists, including Joan Baez, Unit 4 + 2, Earl Scruggs, Old Crow Medicine Show, Counting Crows, the Dandy Warhols, Tedeschi Trucks Band, Loudon Wainwright III, Glen Hansard with Markéta Irglová.
Starting in June 1967 and ending in October 1967, Bob Dylan's writing and recording sessions with the Band in Woodstock, New York, were the source of many new songs that were circulated as demos by Dylan's publisher for fellow artists to record. "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" was written and recorded during this period and features lyrics that allude to the singer waiting for his bride to arrive and a final premarital fling. The original version found on 1975's The Basement Tapes album was recorded with the Band in the basement of their house in West Saugerties, New York, called "Big Pink". A first take recorded during the Basement Tapes sessions includes improvised nonsense lyrics such as "Just pick up that oil cloth, cram it in the corn / I don't care if your name is Michael / You're gonna need some boards / Get your lunch, you foreign bib"; this alternate take was released in 2014 on The Bootleg Series Vol. 11: The Basement Tapes Complete. On September 24, 1971, Dylan re-recorded three songs from the Basement Tapes sessions for inclusion on his Greatest Hits Vol. II album—"You Ain't Goin' Nowhere", "I Shall Be Released", "Down in the Flood"—with Happy Traum playing bass and electric guitar, as well as providing vocal harmony.
Traum notes that "they were popular songs... that wanted to put his own stamp on." The lyrics of this performance of "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" differed from both the Basement Tapes versions, played upon a mistaken lyric in the Byrds' cover version of three years earlier. The 1971 version was released on the compilations The Essential Bob Dylan and Dylan, although the latter album's liner notes erroneously state that it is the 1967 version; the Byrds' recording of "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" was released as a single on April 2, 1968, some three years prior to any commercial release of the song by Dylan. It was the lead single from the Byrds' 1968 country rock album, Sweetheart of the Rodeo, reached number 74 on the Bllboard Hot 100 chart and number 45 on the UK Singles Chart; the Byrds' version of the song features musical contributions from session musician Lloyd Green on pedal steel guitar. Although it is not as famous as their cover version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man", the Byrds' recording of "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" is considered by critics to be the band's best Dylan cover.
The song was selected as a suitable cover by the Byrds after their record label, Columbia Records, sent them some demos from Dylan's Woodstock sessions. Included among these demos were the songs "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" and "Nothing Was Delivered", both of which were recorded by the Byrds in March 1968, during the Nashville recording sessions for Sweetheart of the Rodeo. Author Johnny Rogan has commented that despite the change in musical style that the country-influenced Sweetheart of the Rodeo album represented for the band, the inclusion of two Dylan covers on the album forged a link with their previous folk rock incarnation, when Dylan's material had been a mainstay of their repertoire; the Byrds' recording of the song caused a minor controversy between its author. Dylan's original demo of "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" contained the lyric "Pick up your money, pack up your tent", mistakenly altered in the Byrds' version, by guitarist and singer Roger McGuinn, to "Pack up your money, pick up your tent".
Dylan expressed mock-annoyance at this lyric change in his 1971 recording of the song, singing "Pack up your money, put up your tent McGuinn/You ain't goin' nowhere." McGuinn replied in 1989 on a new recording of the song included on the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's Will the Circle Be Unbroken: Volume Two album, adding the word "Dylan" after the same "Pack up your money, pick up your tent" lyric. McGuinn and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's 1989 recording of the song, which featured the Byrds' former bass player Chris Hillman, was released as a single and peaked at number six on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart in 1989, as well as number eleven on the Canadian country music charts published by RPM. In spite of the involvement of the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, the single release was credited to McGuinn and Hillman alone. After its appearance on Sweetheart of the Rodeo, "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" would go on to become a staple of the Byrds' live concert repertoire, until their final disbandment in 1973.
The Byrds re-recorded "You Ain't Goin' Nowhere" in 1971 with Earl Scruggs, as part of the Earl Scruggs, His Family and Friends television special, this version was included on the program's accompanying soundtrack album. The song was perfor
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Simon John Breckenridge Nicol is an English guitarist, multi-instrumentalist and record producer. He was a founding member of British folk rock group Fairport Convention and is the only founding member still in the band, he has been involved with the Albion Band and a wide range of musical projects, both as a collaborator, producer and as a solo artist. He has received several awards for his career. Born in Muswell Hill, North London, Nicol was the son of a General practitioner, who died in 1964, he began to play guitar at age 11 and left school at 15. In 1966 he was asked to join local band the Ethnic Shuffle Orchestra by bass guitarist Ashley Hutchings, soon left his job at a local cinema to play full-time, they rehearsed above his father's old surgery in Fairport House, which gave its name to the band he and Hutchings formed with Richard Thompson and Shaun Frater as Fairport Convention in 1967. As Thompson emerged as the lead guitarist, Nicol moved towards rhythm duties and occasional backing vocals.
After some line-up changes the band enjoyed a degree of commercial success in their early years, with three albums and appearing on Britain's most popular music programme Top of the Pops in 1969 with the single "Si Tu Dois Partir", which reached number 21 in the UK Charts. Nicol contributed his first composition to the band for the second album What We Did on Our Holidays, the short instrumental'End of a Holiday'. Besides contributing rhythm guitar and backing vocals to this album Nicol played the autoharp on some songs. Nicol was injured in the accident that killed drummer Martin Lamble on 12 May 1969, but when he and the band were recovered they recorded what is considered their masterpiece and the most important single album in British folk rock and Lief, credited as the key recording in the creation of the British folk rock genre and which helped institute a major surge of interest in British folk music. After the release of the album Hutchings and vocalist Sandy Denny left the band, joined full-time by Dave Swarbrick on fiddle and by bassist Dave Pegg.
While Swarbrick, with his knowledge of traditional music, emerged as the leading figure in the band, Nicol had to shoulder a larger share of the vocal duties on the next album Full House. When Thompson left soon after, Nicol had to take over lead guitar duties. Although never happy with this role, it was thought at the time that he acquitted himself well, he demonstrated that he was a multi-instrumentalist playing bass guitar and dulcimer. He began song writing on the next two albums Angel Delight and "Babbacombe" Lee.'Breakfast in Mayfair' on the latter was his first solo song composition with the band and one of the tracks that made it onto the History of Fairport Convention compilation album. He took over some of the production duties on Babbacombe Lee, but his efforts were not well received by the band and this, together with unhappiness with having to fill Thompson's shoes, led him to decide to move on and in 1971 he left the band, the last of the original members to do so. Just about the time that Nicol left Fairport Convention, Hutchings had quit Steeleye Span and began to work on the first incarnation of the Albion Country Band to provide backing for his wife Shirley Collins.
Nicol joined the long list of musicians, including former Fairport members Richard Thompson and Dave Mattacks, to contribute to No Roses considered one of the most important British folk rock albums. In 1972 Simon Nicol was part of the by now reduced six-piece-line up of the Albion Country Band featuring vocalists Royston Wood and Steve Ashley, Sue Draheim on fiddle, Ashley Hutchings on bass guitar and Dave Mattacks on drums; this band played a session for BBC Radio 1 and contributed one lengthy song to Steve Ashley's debut album. Along with Dave Mattacks, Ashley Hutchings, singer Royston Wood and multi-instrumentalist Steve Ashley and American fiddler Sue Draheim Nicol teamed up with Richard Thompson and Linda Peters to form the trio Hokey Pokey in 1973. In 1974 this trio expanded into the band Sour Grapes, assembled to tour in support of the Thompsons' I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight album; that year Nicol played on and co-produced the Thompsons' Hokey Pokey album. In 1973 he played on what is considered one of the seminal folk/jazz albums of all time, John Martyn's Solid Air.
When Hutchings tried to reform the Albion Band for an album in 1973, Nicol joined again, but the resulting work, Battle of the Field was not released until 1976. Nicol took part in some of sessions for Hutchings' next project the Etchingham Steam Band, but never formally joined the group. Instead, he added electric guitar and occasional drums to Hutchings' and accordionist John Kirkpatrick's project The Compleat Dancing Master which collects excerpts of English literature and both acoustic and electrified traditional dance music. In 1974-5 he played guitar on Cat Stevens' Numbers and formed a band with Chris Spedding, Pat Donaldson, Gerry Conway. However, this ` supergroup' proved abortive. Nicol produced the album Rough Diamonds for the regarded Jack the Lad, began to play with Swarbrick and Pegg in a low key trio, Three Desperate Mortgages, which toured student venues across Britain. In 1976 Nicol was the main guitarist on Ashley Hutchings' second Morris dance revival project, Son of Morris On.
This album featured Morris tunes Nicol had played with the Albion Country Band in 1972. Nicol came back to work with Fairport as a sound engineer on what was a solo project for Swarbrick, album Gottle O' Geer, he played s
Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U. S. folk rock emerged from the folk music revival and the influence that the Beatles and other British Invasion bands had on members of that movement. Performers such as Bob Dylan and the Byrds—several of whose members had earlier played in folk ensembles—attempted to blend the sounds of rock with their preexisting folk repertoire, adopting the use of electric instrumentation and drums in a way discouraged in the U. S. folk community. The term "folk rock" was used in the U. S. music press in June 1965 to describe the Byrds' music. The commercial success of the Byrds' cover version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and their debut album of the same name, along with Dylan's own recordings with rock instrumentation—on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde —encouraged other folk acts, such as Simon & Garfunkel, to use electric backing on their records and new groups, such as Buffalo Springfield, to form.
Dylan's controversial appearance at the Newport Folk Festival on 25 July 1965, where he was backed by an electric band, was a pivotal moment in the development of the genre. During the late 1960s in Britain and Europe, a distinct, eclectic British folk rock style was created by Pentangle, Fairport Convention and Alan Stivell. Inspired by British psychedelic folk and the North American style of folk rock, British folk rock bands began to incorporate elements of traditional British folk music into their repertoire, leading to other variants, including the overtly English folk rock of the Albion Band and Celtic rock. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term "folk rock" refers to the blending of elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the U. S. and UK in the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and songs by Bob Dylan with rock instrumentation, in a style influenced by the Beatles and other British Invasion bands; the term "folk rock" was coined by the U.
S. music press to describe the Byrds' music in June 1965, the month in which the band's debut album was issued. Dylan contributed to the creation of the genre, with his recordings utilizing rock instrumentation on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde. In a broader sense, folk rock encompasses inspired musical genres and movements in different regions of the world. Folk rock may lean more towards either folk or rock in instrumentation and vocal style, choice of material. While the original genre draws on music of Europe and North America, there is no clear delineation of which other culture's music might be included as influences; the term is not associated with blues-based rock music, African American music, Cajun-based rock music, nor music with non-European folk roots. There are some exceptions; the American folk-music revival began during the 1940s. In 1948, Seeger formed the Weavers, whose mainstream popularity set the stage for the folk revival of the 1950s and early 1960s and served to bridge the gap between folk, popular music, topical song.
The Weavers' sound and repertoire of traditional folk material and topical songs directly inspired the Kingston Trio, a three-piece folk group who came to prominence in 1958 with their hit recording of "Tom Dooley". The Kingston Trio provided the template for a flood of "collegiate folk" groups between 1958 and 1962. At the same time as these "collegiate folk" vocal groups came to national prominence, a second group of urban folk revivalists, influenced by the music and guitar picking styles of folk and blues artist such as Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Brownie McGhee, Josh White came to the fore. Many of these urban revivalists were influenced by recordings of traditional American music from the 1920s and 1930s, reissued by Folkways Records. While this urban folk revival flourished in many cities, New York City, with its burgeoning Greenwich Village coffeehouse scene and population of topical folk singers, was regarded as the centre of the movement. Out of this fertile environment came such folk-protest luminaries as Bob Dylan, Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Peter and Mary, many of whom would transition into folk rock performers as the 1960s progressed.
The vast majority of the urban folk revivalists shared a disdain for the values of mainstream American mass culture and led many folk singers to begin composing their own "protest" material. The influence of this folk-protest movement would manifest itself in the sociopolitical lyrics and mildly anti-establishment sentiments of many folk rock songs, including hit singles such as "Eve of Destruction", "Like a Rolling Stone", "For What It's Worth", "Let's Live for Today". During the 1950s and early 1960s in the UK, a parallel folk revival referred to as the second British folk revival, was led by folk singers Ewan MacColl and Bert Lloyd. Both viewed British folk music as a vehicle for leftist political concepts and an antidote to the American-dominated popular music of the time. However, it wasn't until 1956 and the advent of the skiffle craze that the British folk revival crossed over into the mainstream and connected with British youth culture. Skiffle renewed popularity of folk music forms in Britain and led directly to the progressive folk movement and the attendant B
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area; the name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany. Definitions of what constitutes; the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia, established in the 6th century consisted of the modern counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and expanded west into at least part of Cambridgeshire. The modern NUTS 2 statistical unit of East Anglia comprises Norfolk and Cambridgeshire; those three counties have formed the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia since 1976, were the subject of a possible government devolution package in 2016. Essex has sometimes been included in definitions of East Anglia, including by the London Society of East Anglians. However, the Kingdom of Essex to the south, was a separate element of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and did not identify as Angles but Saxons.
The county of Essex by itself forms a NUTS 2 statistical unit in the East of England region. Other definitions of the area have been proposed over the years. For example, the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1969, which followed the Royal Commission on the Reform of Local Government, recommended the creation of eight provinces in England; the proposed East Anglia province would have included northern Essex, southern Lincolnshire and a small part of Northamptonshire as well as Cambridgeshire and Suffolk. The kingdom of East Anglia consisted of Norfolk and Suffolk, but upon the marriage of the East Anglian princess Etheldreda, the Isle of Ely became part of the kingdom; the kingdom was formed about the year 520 by the merging of the North and the South Folk and was one of the seven Anglo-Saxon heptarchy kingdoms. For a brief period following a victory over the rival kingdom of Northumbria around the year 616, East Anglia was the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England, its King Raedwald was Bretwalda.
However, this did not last and over the next forty years East Anglia was defeated by the Mercians twice and continued to weaken in relation to the other kingdoms. In 794, Offa of Mercia had king Æthelberht killed and took control of the kingdom himself. Although independence was temporarily restored by rebellion in 825, on 20 November 869 the Danes killed King Edmund and captured the kingdom. By 917, after a succession of Danish defeats, East Anglia was incorporated into the Kingdom of England by Edward the Elder, afterwards becoming an earldom. Despite some engineering work in the form of sea barriers constructed by the Roman Empire, much of East Anglia remained marshland and bogs until the 17th century. From this point onward a series of systematic drainage projects using drains and river diversions along the lines of Dutch practice, converted the alluvial land into wide swathes of productive arable land. In the 1630s thousands of Puritan families from East Anglia settled in the American region of New England, taking much East Anglian culture with them that can still be traced today.
East Anglia, which based much of its earnings on wool and arable farming, was a rich area of England until the effects of the Industrial Revolution saw manufacturing and development shift to the Midlands and the North. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces constructed many airbases in East Anglia for the heavy bomber fleets of the Combined Bomber Offensive against Nazi-occupied Europe. East Anglia was ideally suited to airfield construction as it comprises large areas of open, level terrain and is close to mainland Europe; the reduced flight time to mainland Europe therefore reduced the fuel load required and enabled a larger bomb load to be carried. Building the airfields was a massive civil engineering project and by the end of the war there was one every 8 miles. Many of these airfields can still be seen today from aerial photographs, a few remain in use today, the most prominent being Norwich International Airport. Pillboxes, which were erected in 1940 to help defend the nation against invasion, can be found throughout the area at strategic points.
East Anglia is bordered to the north and east by the North Sea, to the south by the estuary of the River Thames and shares an undefined land border to the west with the rest of England. Much of northern East Anglia is flat, low-lying and marshy, although the extensive drainage projects of the past centuries make this one of the driest areas in the UK. Inland much of the rest of Suffolk and Norfolk is undulating, with glacial moraine ridges providing some areas of steeper areas relief; the supposed flatness of the Norfolk landscape is noted in literature, such as Noël Coward's Private Lives – "Very flat, Norfolk". On the north-west corner East Anglia is bordered by a bay known as The Wash, where owing to deposits of sediment and land reclamation, the coastline has altered markedly within historical times. Conversely, over to the east on the coast exposed to the North Sea the coastline is subject to rapid erosion and has shifted inland since historic times. Major rivers include Suffolk's Stour, running through country beloved of the painter John Const