Orange S. A. France Télécom S. A. is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 256 million customers worldwide and employs 95,000 people in France, 59,000 elsewhere, it is the twelfth largest mobile network operator in the world and the fourth largest in Europe after Vodafone, Telefónica and VEON. In 2015, the group had revenue of €40 billion; the company's head office is located in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. The current CEO is Stéphane Richard; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Orange has been the company's main brand for mobile, internet and IPTV services since 2006, it originated in 1994 when Hutchison Whampoa acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications during the early 1990s and rebranded it as "Orange". It became a subsidiary of Mannesmann in 1999 and was acquired by France Télécom in 2000; the company was rebranded as Orange in July 2013. In 1792, under the French Revolution, the first communication network was developed to enable the rapid transmission of information in a warring and unsafe country.
That was the optical telegraphy network of Claude Chappe. In 1878, after the invention of the electrical telegraph and the invention of the telephone, the French State created a Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs. Telephone Services were added to the ministry when they were nationalised in 1889. However, it was not until 1923 that the second'T' appeared and the department of P&T became PTT. In 1941, a General Direction of Telecommunications was created within this ministry. In 1944, the National Centre of Telecommunications Studies was created to develop the telecommunications industry in France. In the 1970s, France tried extra hard to make up its delay on other countries with the programme "delta LP", it was at the time. Moreover, with the help of French manufacturers, digital switching, the Minitel and the GSM standard were invented by engineers and CNET researchers. In 1982, Telecom introduced Minitel online ordering for its customers; until 1988, France Télécom was known as the direction générale des Télécommunications, a division of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
It became autonomous in 1990. This was in response to a European directive, aimed at making competition mandatory in public services from 1 January 1998; the 2 July 1990 Bill changed France Télécom into an operator of public law, with Marcel Roulet the first Chairman. Since the company has had a separate body corporate from the State and acquired financial autonomy, it was privatised by Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government starting on 1 January 1998. The French government, both directly and through its holding company ERAP, continues to hold a stake of 27% in the company. In addition, the government Conseil of Ministers names the CEO. In September 1995, Michel Bon was appointed to run France Télécom Group. In 1997, the capital of the new public company was floated whereas the dot-com bubble phenomenon made the stock exchanges bullish. A second share offering occurred in 1998. France Télécom got behind in the internationalization launched by its international competitors such as Vodafone, thus, it started looking for targets at the highest speculation rate of the dot-com bubble.
Moreover, its alliance with Deutsche Telekom based on a reciprocal capital contribution of 2% broke off when Deutsche Telekom announced that they were planning to do business with Telecom Italia without letting the French know – if this project ended up failing. In July 1991, Hutchison Telecom, a UK subsidiary of the Hong Kong-based conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa, acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications Ltd, who by had acquired a licence to develop a mobile network in the United Kingdom. Hutchison renamed Microtel to Orange Personal Communications Services Ltd, on 28 April 1994 the Orange brand was launched in the UK mobile phone market. A holding company structure was adopted in 1995 with the establishment of Orange plc. In April 1996, Orange went public and floated on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, majority owned by Hutchison, followed by BAe. In June 1996, it became the youngest company to enter the FTSE 100, valued at £2.4 billion. In October 1999 the German conglomerate Mannesmann AG acquired Orange for a price equivalent to €7,900 per customer, i.e. US$33 billion.
Mannesmann's acquisition of Orange triggered Vodafone to make a hostile takeover bid for Mannesmann. Shortly thereafter, in February 2000, Vodafone acquired Mannesmann for US$183 billion, decided to divest Orange because the EU regulations wouldn't allow it to hold two mobile licences. In August 2000, France Télécom bought Orange plc from Vodafone for a total estimated cost of €39.7 billion. At the time, France Télécom bought stakes in several other international firms, of which some have since been sold back. Through this process, France Télécom became the fourth biggest global operator; the mobile telephone operations of Orange plc were merged with the majority of the mobile operations of France Télécom, forming the new group Orange SA. On 13 February 2001, Orange SA was listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange with an initial public offering of 95 Euros per share, with a secondary listing in London. In May 2001, Orange SA was listed on the CAC 40, the benchmark stock market index of the top 40 French companies in terms of market capitalisation.
In June 2001 the France Telecom Mobile brands Itinéris, OLA, Mobicarte were replaced by the Orange brand. On 21 November 2003, France Telecom withdrew the 13.7% of Orange's shares traded on the Pari
Intuitive Surgical Inc. is an American corporation that develops and markets robotic products designed to improve clinical outcomes of patients through minimally invasive surgery, most notably with the da Vinci Surgical System. The company is part of the NASDAQ-100 and S&P 500; as of September 30, 2017, there was an installed base of 4,271 units worldwide – 2,770 in the United States, 719 in Europe, 561 in Asia, 221 in the rest of the world. The research that led to the development of the da Vinci Surgical System was performed in the late 1980s at non-profit research institute SRI International. In 1990, SRI received funding from the National Institutes of Health. SRI developed a prototype robotic surgical system that caught the interest of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, interested in the system for its potential to allow surgeons to operate remotely on soldiers wounded on the battlefield. In 1994, Dr. Frederic Moll became interested in the SRI System. At the time, Moll was employed by Guidant.
He tried to interest Guidant in backing it, to no avail. In 1995, Moll was introduced to John Freund, who had left Acuson Corporation. Freund negotiated an option to acquire SRI's intellectual property and incorporated a new company that he named Intuitive Surgical Devices, Inc. At that point Freund and Robert Younge wrote the business plan for the company and raised its initial venture capital. Early investors included the Mayfield Fund, Sierra Ventures, Morgan Stanley; the company refined the SRI System into a prototype known as "Lenny", ready for testing in 1997. As the company's prototypes became more advanced, they were named using da Vinci themes. One was named "Leonardo", another was "Mona"; the final version of the prototype was nicknamed the da Vinci Surgical System, the name stuck when the system was commercialized. After further testing, Intuitive Surgical began marketing this system in Europe in 1999, while awaiting FDA approval in the United States; the company raised $46 million in an initial public offering in 2000.
That same year, the FDA approved use of the da Vinci Surgical System for general laparoscopic surgery, which can be used to address gallbladder disease and gastroesophageal disease. In 2001, the FDA approved use of the system for prostate surgery; the FDA has subsequently approved the system for thoracoscopic surgery, cardiac procedures performed with adjunctive incisions, gynecologic procedures. Shortly before going public, Intuitive Surgical was sued for patent infringement by Computer Motion, its chief rival. Computer Motion had gotten into the robotic surgery field earlier than Intuitive Surgical, with its own system, the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System. Although the ZEUS system was approved in Europe, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration had not yet approved it for any procedure at the time that the FDA first approved the da Vinci system; the uncertainty created by the litigation between the companies was a drag on each company's growth. In 2003, Intuitive Surgical and Computer Motion agreed to merge, thus ending the litigation between them.
The ZEUS system was phased out in favor of the da Vinci system. Before the buyout of Computer Motion, the stock of Intuitive was selling at around $14 per share, adjusted for stock splits. After the merger, the stock price rose primarily because of the growth in systems sold and the number of surgical procedures performed. For the fiscal year 2017, Intuitive Surgical reported earnings of US$660 million, with an annual revenue of US$3.129 billion, an increase of 15.7% over the previous fiscal cycle. Intuitive Surgical's shares traded at over $307 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$58 billion in November 2018; the da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system. The system is controlled by a surgeon from a console, it is used for prostatectomies and for cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures. The da Vinci System has been designed to improve upon conventional laparoscopy, in which the surgeon operates while standing, using hand-held, long-shafted instruments, which have no wrists.
The da Vinci System consists of a surgeon's console, in the same room as the patient and a patient-side cart with four interactive robotic arms controlled from the console. Three of the arms are for tools that hold objects, act as a scalpel, bovie, or unipolar or bipolar electrocautery instruments; the fourth arm is for an endoscopic camera with two lenses that gives the surgeon full stereoscopic vision from the console. The surgeon sits at the console and looks through two eye holes at a 3-D image of the procedure, meanwhile maneuvering the arms with two hand controllers. Right sided foot controls operate the energy supplied to the instruments to cauterize, coagulate, or cut the tissue. Left sided foot controls help to move the endoscopic camera in or out and therefore bring the surgical image closer or further away; the da Vinci System scales and translates the surgeon's hand movements into more precise micro-movements of the instruments, which operate through small incisions in the body. By providing surgeons with superior visualization, enhanced dexterity, greater precision and ergonomic comfort, the da Vinci Surgical System makes it possible for more surgeons to perform minimally invasive procedures involving complex dissection or reconstruction.
For the patient, a da Vinci procedure can offer all the potential benefits of a minimally invasive proce
Hôpital civil, Strasbourg
The Hôpital civil de Strasbourg is one of the oldest medical establishments in France. Today it is a major component of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg, a teaching hospital, the biggest employer in Alsace, with over 11,000 employees, ranking fourth in France in terms of quality. According to the 1143 charter of Bishop Burcard, preserved in the municipal archives of the city of Strasbourg, the hospital was founded in the year 1119, although another source refers to a hospital in 1105; the first building was located close to the cathedral, in the street. A religious brotherhood Augustinian, took care of the sick and destitute. Being a religious establishment, with a mission to care for the needy, the hospital turned nobody away; the Great Interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1254 to 1273, was a period of great instability in Alsace. The hospital gave asylum to a large influx of refugees from the countryside, where feuding lords burnt a number of villages. During the 14th century, the population of Strasbourg was decimated by the plague.
It was decided to move the hospital outside of the city walls. A new hospital was constructed just outside the city gate that became to be known as the "Porte de l'Hôpital"; the hospital was devastated by fire on 6 November 1716 started by a washerwoman with a candle. It was rebuilt between 1717 and 1725. Two new buildings were opened in the hospital grounds in 2008, which together are known as the "Nouvel Hôpital civil", covering 90,000 square metres; the inauguration, in the presence of the French Nicolas Sarkozy, took place on 6 January 2009. The new blocks include 715 beds; the equipment includes a Da Vinci robotic surgical system. The Strasbourg city walls of 1340 included seven gates. Of these only one remains, the Porte de l'hôpital or Spitaltor, including a 14th-century external fresco; this city gate is located at the entrance of the old hospital, next to the Erhard Chapel. It was classified a monument historique in 1929; the Protestant Chapel at the hospital entrance, dedicated to St Erhard, was built in 1428.
The wine cellars, which date from 1395, are a tourist attraction in their own right. Over the centuries, many patients paid for their care by leaving parcels of land that have grown to constitute a vast area of vineyards; the 1716 fire that destroyed most of the hospital, spared the wine cellars. The cellars produce some 150,000 bottles a year of Gewürztraminer, Muscat and Pinot Gris; the historic cellar is renowned for the quality of its wines but does no advertising and reinvests all its profits in the purchase of medical equipment. In the 18th century, the Hospital of Strasbourg was the largest Domaine in Alsace and selling wine as a side business. Patients were given two litres of wine a day. One of the barrels contains what is reputed to be the oldest wine on earth, dating from 1472. Adolph Kussmaul, doctor Bernhard Naunyn, internist Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, pioneer of tropical medicine, Nobel Prize in 1907 Otto Wilhelm Madelung, doctor Joseph von Mering, physician Albrecht Kossel, Nobel Prize in 1910 Paul Ehrlich, Nobel Prize in 1908 Oskar Minkowski, doctor Otto Loewi, Nobel Prize in 1936 René Leriche, surgeon Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Nobel Prize in 1922 Jacques Marescaux, head of digestive surgery department Recht, Roland.
Charles Augustus Lindbergh was an American aviator, military officer, inventor and environmental activist. At age 25 in 1927, he went from obscurity as a U. S. Air Mail pilot to instantaneous world fame by winning the Orteig Prize: making a nonstop flight from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, New York, to Paris, France. Lindbergh covered the 33 1⁄2-hour, 3,600-statute-mile flight alone in a single-engine purpose-built Ryan monoplane, the Spirit of St. Louis. Lindbergh's flight was not the first transatlantic flight. Lindbergh's flight was, the first solo, non-stop transatlantic flight, one made between two major cities, by a man 25 years of age. Lindbergh was an officer in the U. S. Army Air Corps Reserve, he received the United States' highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, for the feat, many other awards and other forms of recognition from many countries. Lindbergh's achievement spurred interest in both commercial aviation and air mail, he devoted much time and effort to promoting such activity.
Lindburgh's historic flight and extraordinary celebrity status led to tragedy. In March 1932, his infant son, Charles Jr. was kidnapped and murdered in what American media called the "Crime of the Century" and was described by H. L. Mencken as "the biggest story since the Resurrection"; the case prompted the United States Congress to establish kidnapping as a federal crime once the kidnapper had crossed state lines with their victim. By late 1935, the hysteria surrounding the case had driven the Lindbergh family into voluntary exile in Europe, from which they returned in 1939. Before the United States formally entered World War II, Lindbergh was an advocate of non-interventionism, he supported the antiwar America First Committee, which opposed American aid to Britain in its war against Germany, resigned his commission in the United States Army Air Forces in 1941 after President Franklin Roosevelt publicly rebuked him for his views. He publicly supported the U. S. war effort after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and flew fifty combat missions in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a civilian consultant, though Roosevelt refused to reinstate his Air Corps colonel's commission.
In his years, Lindbergh became a prolific prize-winning author, international explorer and environmentalist. Lindbergh and his wife, the former Anne Morrow, were the parents of six children, he fathered seven more children as a result of several covert adulterous affairs with three German women beginning in 1957 when he was 55 years old. In 2003, twenty-nine years after Lindbergh's death and two years after his wife died, one of those children, Astrid Hesshaimer, revealed the story of Lindbergh's affairs. Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, on February 4, 1902, spent most of his childhood in Little Falls and Washington, D. C, he was the third child of Charles August Lindbergh who had emigrated from Sweden to Melrose, Minnesota as an infant, his only child with his second wife, Evangeline Lodge Land Lindbergh, of Detroit. Charles' parents separated in 1909. Lindbergh's father, a U. S. Congressman from 1907 to 1917, was one of the few Congressmen to oppose the entry of the U. S. into World War I.
His book, Why Is Your Country at War, which criticized the US' entry into the first World War, was seized by federal agents under the Comstock Act. It was posthumously reprinted and issued in 1934, under the title Your Country at War, What Happens to You After a War. Lindbergh's mother was a chemistry teacher at Cass Technical High School in Detroit and at Little Falls High School, from which her son graduated on June 5, 1918. Lindbergh attended over a dozen other schools from Washington, D. C. to California, during his childhood and teenage years, including the Force School and Sidwell Friends School while living in Washington with his father, Redondo Union High School in Redondo Beach, while living there with his mother. Although he enrolled in the College of Engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in late 1920, Lindbergh dropped out in the middle of his sophomore year and went to Lincoln, Nebraska, in March 1922 to begin flight training. From an early age, Lindbergh had exhibited an interest in the mechanics of motorized transportation, including his family's Saxon Six automobile, his Excelsior motorbike.
By the time he started college as a mechanical engineering student, he had become fascinated with flying, though he "had never been close enough to a plane to touch it". After quitting college in February 1922, Lindbergh enrolled at the Nebraska Aircraft Corporation's flying school in Lincoln and flew for the first time on April 9, as a passenger in a two-seat Lincoln Standard "Tourabout" biplane trainer piloted by Otto Timm. A few days Lindbergh took his first formal flying lesson in that same machine, though he was never permitted to solo because he could not afford to post the requisite damage bond. To gain flight experience and earn money for further instruction, Lindbergh left Lincoln in June to spend the next few months barnstorming across Nebraska, Colorado and Montana as a wing walker and parachutist, he briefly worked as an airplane mechanic at the Billings, municipal airport. Lindbergh left flying with the onset of winter
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Jacques Marescaux is a French doctor. He is Chairman of the endocrine surgery at the University Hospital, Strasbourg. 1948: Born in Clermont 1971: Major in the contest for the Internat 1977: Doctor in surgery 1980: He obtained a chair professor at the Universities digestive surgery. He was only 33 years old. 1989 - 1992: Director of special education Visceral surgery at the Medical School of Strasbourg. 1989 - 1992: Vice President of the regional council of the Inserm. Since 1989: Head of digestive and endocrine surgery University Hospitals of Strasbourg. Since 1994: Founding Director of the IRCAD and the EITS On September 7, 2001, he made New York a world first in TeleSurgery operating in the gallbladder of a patient, in Strasbourg; this was the Lindbergh Operation. Since 2002: Founding member of WeBSurg In March 2005, he participated, with prestigious colleagues: Pierre Chambon, Jean-Marie Lehn, Pascal Neuville and Charles Woler, the draft pole of competitiveness "Innovation Therapeutics", in the context of Alsace BioValley.
On April 2, 2007, he is believed to be the first in the world to operate a person without leaving a scar, removing the gallbladder of a patient older than 30 years without making incision of the skin and through a natural orifice