Joseph City, Arizona
Joseph City is an unincorporated community located in Navajo County, United States. It is located on Interstate 40 about eighty miles east of Flagstaff and about thirty-five miles west of Petrified Forest National Park. In 2010, there were 1,386 inhabitants, it is the site of a famous Route 66 landmark. Joseph City was settled in 1876 by colonists from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; this band of 73 pioneers was led by Captain William C. Allen, they traveled to the Little Colorado River basin of Arizona. Joseph City was one of four Little Colorado River colonies; the other colonies were Brigham City and Obed. Joseph City is the only remaining colony; the hardest trial for the new colonists was trying to get water for their crops. This meant; this was difficult due to the flooding season. The first dam was built in 1876, shortly after the colonists arrived in the area. For the next eighteen years the colonists built ten more dams; the eleventh dam was built in 1894. This dam lasted for twenty-nine years.
In 1923, the eleventh dam was destroyed and the colonists were forced to build a new dam. This dam still stands and directs water to the inhabitants still in the city; the name of the colony changed two times since its colonization. The area settled by Captain Allen's group was called Allen's Camp, in honor of their leader. There was a name change in January 1878 to St. Joseph; this change was brought about. This name was suggested in order to honor Joseph Smith founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. In 1923 there was a final name change to Joseph City. Due to mail and freight shipment confusions, the Santa Fe Railway, that ran through Saint Joseph, asked that St. Joseph, Arizona change its name; the residents of the town voted and the name became Joseph City. Joseph City is located at 34°57′21″N 110°20′02″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.41 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.01 square miles of it is water. Joseph City has a semi-arid climate with cold to cool hot summers.
Although the mean snowfall is 0.16 metres, the median is zero, so the majority of winters do not have measurable snow. Joseph City is served by the Joseph City Unified School District. Two schools, Joseph City Elementary School, Joseph City High School, serve the community, their schools have a high AIMS standard. The current Superintendent of Joseph City Unified School District is Bryan Fields. Though Joseph City has high education standards, their athletics struggle quite a bit in recent years. Pictured are the following: The Historic St. Joseph City Bridge was built in 1912 over the Little Colorado River and located on Obed Road, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places listed on September 30, 1988, ref.: #88001633, Ella’s Frontier Store and warehouse located on Main Street between 3rd. Street and O’Connell Lane; the structure was built in 1927 out of telephone Poles. Historic Marker and ruins on Main Street which indicates where the Mormon Old Fort was once located; the Jackrabbit Trading Post was established in 1949 and is located on Route 66.
Little Colorado River The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Arizona
The pinyon or piñon pine group grows in the southwestern United States in New Mexico and Utah. The trees yield edible nuts, which are a staple food of Native Americans, eaten as a snack and as an ingredient in New Mexican cuisine; the name comes from the Spanish pino piñonero, a name used for both the American varieties and the stone pine common in Spain, which produces edible nuts typical of Mediterranean cuisine. Harvesting techniques of the prehistoric American Indians are still used today to collect the pinyon seeds for personal use or for commercialization; the pinyon nut or seed is high in calories. Pinyon wood when burned, has a distinctive fragrance, making it a common wood to burn in chimeneas. Pinyon pine trees are known to influence the soil in which they grow by increasing concentrations of both macronutrients and micronutrients; some of the species are known to hybridize, the most notable ones being P. quadrifolia with P. monophylla, P. edulis with P. monophylla. The two-needle piñon is the official state tree of New Mexico.
Genetic differentiation in the pinyon pine has been observed associated to insect herbivory and environmental stress. There are eight species of true pinyon: Pinus cembroides – Mexican pinyon Pinus orizabensis – Orizaba pinyon Pinus johannis – Johann's pinyon Pinus culminicola – Potosi pinyon Pinus remota – Texas pinyon or papershell pinyon Pinus edulis – two-needle piñon or Colorado pinyon Pinus monophylla – single-leaf pinyon Pinus quadrifolia – Parry pinyon; these additional Mexican species are related, called pinyons: Pinus rzedowskii – Rzedowski's pine Pinus pinceana – weeping pinyon Pinus maximartinezii – big-cone pinyon Pinus nelsonii – Nelson's pinyonThe three bristlecone pine species of the high mountains of the southwestern United States, the lacebark pines of Asia are related to the pinyon pines. The seeds of the pinyon pine, known as "pine nuts" or "piñóns", are an important food for American Indians living in the mountains of southwestern United States and northern Mexico. All species of pine produce edible seeds, but in North America only pinyon produces seeds large enough to be a major source of food.
The pinyon has been a source of food since the arrival of Homo sapiens in the Great Basin and American Southwest. In the Great Basin, archaeological evidence indicates that the range of the pinyon pine expanded northward after the Ice Age, reaching its northernmost limit in southern Idaho about 4000 BCE. Early Native Americans undoubtedly collected the edible seeds, but, at least in some areas, evidence of large quantities of pinyon nut harvesting does not appear until about 600 CE. Increased use of pinyon nuts was related to a population increase of humans and a decline in the number of game animals, thereby forcing the Great Basin inhabitants to seek additional sources of food; the suitability of pinyon seeds as a staple food is reduced because of the unreliability of the harvest. Abundant crops of cones and seeds occur only every two to seven years, averaging a good crop every four years. Years of high production of seed tend to be the same over wide areas of the pinyon range. In 1878, naturalist John Muir described the Indian method of harvesting pinyon seeds in Nevada.
In September and October, the harvesters knocked the cones off the pinyon trees with poles, stacked the cones into a pile, put brushwood on top, lit it, scorched the pinyon cones with fire. The scorching loosened the seeds; the cones were dried in the sun until the seeds could be extracted. Muir said the Indians watched the pinyon trees year-round and could predict the scarcity or abundance of the crop months before harvest time. In 1891, B. H. Dutcher observed the harvesting of pinyon seeds by the Panamint Indians in the Panamint Range overlooking Death Valley, California; the harvesting method was similar to the foregoing, except that the pinyon seeds were extracted after the cones had been scorched in the brushwood fire. Both the above accounts described a method of extracting the seeds from the green cones. Another method is to leave the cones on the trees until they are dry and brown beat the cones with a stick, knocking the cones loose or the seeds loose from the cones which fall to the ground where they can be collected.
The nomadic hunter-gathering people of the Great Basin consumed their pinyon seeds during the winter following harvest. Each pinyon cone produces 10 to 30 seeds and a productive stand of pinyon trees in a good year can produce 250 pounds on 1 acre of land. An average worker can collect about 22 pounds of unshelled pinyon seed in a day's work. Production per worker of 22 pounds of unshelled pinyon seeds—more than one-half that in shelled seeds—amounts to nearly 30,000 calories of nutrition; that is a high yield for the effort expended by hunter-gatherers. Moreover, the pinyon seeds are high in fat in short supply for hunter-gatherers; the pinyon jay takes its name from the tree, pinyon nuts form an important part of its diet. It is important for regeneration of pinyon woods, as it stores large numbers of the seeds in the ground for use, excess seeds not used are in an ideal position to grow into new trees; the Mexican jay is important for the dispersal of some pinyon species, as, less is the Clark's nutcracker.
Many other species of animal eat pinyon nuts, without di
Holbrook is a city in Navajo County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 5,053; the city is the county seat of Navajo County. Holbrook was founded in 1881 or 1882, when the railroad was built, named to honor the first chief engineer of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad; the Holbrook area was inhabited first by the Anasazi Puebloans the Navajo and Apache. In 1540 Coronado searched for the Seven Cities of Cibola and camped some sixty miles east of Holbrook. Coronado sent an expedition west to find the Colorado River, they crossed the Little Colorado some twenty-five miles east of Holbrook and found a wonderland of colors they named "El Desierto Pintada" - The Painted Desert; the expedition was led by the Hopis to the Grand Canyon. After the Mexican–American War ended in 1848 the area was ceded to the United States. From 1851 to 1857 the U. S. Army sent three expeditions along the 35th parallel, the third led by Lt. Beale who created a ten foot wide wagon road.
The area was known after a spring a dozen miles northeast of Holbrook. Soon afterwards a store and saloon were established at the confluence of the Rio Puerco and Little Colorado Rivers two miles east of Holbrook, the area became known as Horsehead Crossing. In 1876 Mormons emigrated from Utah and began settlements near Horsehead Crossing on both the Little Colorado and Rio Puerco rivers. During 1881 and 1882, railroad tracks were laid down and a railroad station was built to supply wood and water and to freight supplies south to Fort Apache; the community was named Holbrook after the first engineer of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The railroad sold a million acres to a Boston investment group which established the Aztec Land and Cattle Company, better known as the Hashknife Outfit, it leased another million acres of government land and became one of the largest cattle ranches to exist. Holbrook became its headquarters and grew into a cow-town; the Hashknife Outfit hired cowboys. Rustling of cattle and horses over two million acres plagued the Hashknife Outfit.
With cowmen, farmers and outlaws competing for the same land, a range war ensued, called both the Pleasant Valley War and the Tonto Basin War. It killed as many men as any of the western range wars. Many of the events that played out during the Pleasant Valley War up to 1887 occurred in and around Holbrook, including the famous Holbrook Shootout. On September 4, 1887 Commodore Perry Owens, the Apache County Sheriff, came to Holbrook to arrest Andy Blevins for horse theft. Sheriff Owens insisted on confronting the Blevins brothers alone, knowing there would be a shootout. Sheriff Owens went to the Blevins house, knocked on the door and when Blevins asked what he wanted, announced he'd come to arrest Blevins. Blevins resisted a shootout occurred. Blevins, two brothers, a friend, Blevins horse were all shot - all died except one brother. Owens emerged unscathed despite being shot at from a half-dozen feet away. Owens single-handedly taking on four men made him a western legend rivaling the Earp Brothers and Texas John Slaughter as lawmen of the west.
Holbrook was known as "the town too tough for women and churches" and in 1914 was said to be the only county seat in the U. S. that didn't have a church. The original railroad station was replaced by the Santa Fe Depot in 1892. Navajo County was divided off of Apache County in 1895 and Holbrook became the county seat. Many lawmen and cowboys from the area became Rough Riders with Teddy Roosevelt in the late 1800s, but by 1902 The Hashknife Outfit was bankrupt and the land was sold to the Babbitt brothers. President Roosevelt named the Petrified Forest a National Monument in 1906. Holbrook was incorporated in 1917. Most of the Beale Wagon Road became Route 66 in 1926 and passed through both the Petrified Forest and Holbrook. Tourism started taking over the economy. Arizona is famous for its huge Meteor Crater, but Holbrook witnessed its own small meteor event. In the evening of July 19, 1912, a smoke trail appeared in the sky and soon after, at 7:15 PM, a meteorite with an estimated mass of 190 kilograms exploded high in the atmosphere.
An estimated 16,000 or more minor fragments rained down over Navajo County in an area about 6 miles east of Holbrook. The primary explosion was heard at least 40 miles away and one of the witnesses in Holbrook seventeen-year-old Pauline McCleve, described the event as the loudest sound she heard; the largest piece of the Holbrook Meteorite, recovered was found shortly after. It resides at Arizona State University in Tempe; the Holbrook meteorite was found to be of the chondrite type. Holbrook is located at 34°54′26″N 110°9′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.4 square miles, all of it land. Holbrook has a semi-arid climate with cold to cool hot summers. Although the mean snowfall is 0.16 metres, the median is zero, so the majority of winters do not have measurable snow. There are high; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,917 people, 1,626 households, 1,195 families residing in the city. The population density was 318.4 people per square mile. There were 1,906 housing units at an average density of 123.4 per square
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Show Low, Arizona
Show Low is a city in Navajo County, United States. It lies at an elevation of 6,345 feet; the city was established in 1870 and incorporated in 1953. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 10,660. According to a legend, the city's unusual name resulted from a marathon poker game between Corydon E. Cooley and Marion Clark; the two men were equal partners in a 100,000-acre ranch. After the game seemed to have no winner in sight, Clark said, "If you can show low, you win." In response, Cooley turned up the deuce of clubs and replied, "Show low it is."As a tribute to the legend, Show Low's main street is named "Deuce of Clubs" in remembrance. In 2002, a large forest fire, the Rodeo-Chediski fire, forced an evacuation; the fire was extinguished less than a half mile from the city's border, Show Low was spared. The city is near extensive forests, is a popular recreational area. Show Low is located at 34°14′37″N 110°2′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.9 square miles, of which, 27.9 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
It is located 270 miles from both Why, Arizona And Nothing, Arizona. Winters in Show Low bring highs between 45 °F and 55 °F, with lows below freezing between November and March, averaging in the 20s December through February, in the low 30s for November and March. In the summer, highs in Show Low average 85 °F, with an occasional day above 90 °F not uncommon for the city; as the sun sets in the summertime, temperatures plummet sometimes upwards of 30 degrees. This nightly temperature swing results in summertime lows ranging between 50 °F and 60 °F. Show Low has reached below-freezing temperatures every month at least once in its history except July and August, where temperatures have only reached 38 °F and 37 °F respectively. Show Low has twice reached 100 °F, its record high temperature: once on May 31, 1969, again on July 14, 2003. Show Low's record low temperature of -25 °F was set on January 8, 1971. Show Low averages about 18.3 inches of rain per year. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,695 people, 2,885 households, 2,117 families residing in the city.
The population density was 859 people per square mile. There were 7186 housing units at an average density of 155.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.3% White, 0.4% Black or African American, 3.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 9.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,885 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,356, the median income for a family was $36,397. Males had a median income of $28,882 versus $24,590 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,536. About 11.7% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Show Low Regional Airport provides passenger airline service through Boutique Air to Phoenix and to Denver through Farmington, New Mexico; the airport is commonly used for air cargo, air-taxi, as a fixed-base operator for general aviation. The city maintains a minor public transportation operation in conjunction with neighboring Pinetop-Lakeside. Two shuttles service multiple retail, high-traffic, government offices and the airport and nearby Hon-Dah casino. Show Low Shuttle provides 24/7, non-stop, door to door shuttle service from Show Low to any city in Arizona. All of the city is a part of the Show Low Unified School District.
A portion of the city is within the boundaries of the Blue Ridge Unified School District. Schools that serve the SLUSD portion of the city include Linden Elementary, Nikolaus Homestead Elementary, Whipple Ranch Elementary, White Mountain Institute, Show Low Junior High School, Show Low High School. Show Low is home to one of Northland Pioneer College's four regional campuses, the White Mountain Campus. According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Dan Deublein, American actor from the television series Beverly Hills, 90210. George Takei, American actor from the television series Star Trek. Mike Furyk, American golfer Jim Furyk's father Paul Ulibarri, professional disc golfer David Collins-Rivera, voice actor, podcaster Schools, Show Low Unified School District Retrieved July 24, 2009 Arizona Handbo
Heber-Overgaard is a census-designated place in Navajo County, United States. Situated atop the Mogollon Rim, the community lies at an elevation of 6,627 feet; the population was 2,822 at the 2010 census. Heber and Overgaard are technically two unincorporated communities, but as of the 1990 census, their close proximity has led to the merged name of "Heber-Overgaard". Heber was settled in 1883, by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the town is named after either Heber J. Grant or Heber C. Kimball, both prominent members of the LDS church. Overgaard, adjoining Heber, was settled c 1936 and was named after the owner of the first sawmill, Niels Kristian Overgaard. Heber-Overgaard's early economy was founded on dry farming and ranching while tourism and timbering are the basis for present day industry. In March 1873, Mormon pioneers from Utah were sent to the Little Colorado River area under the direction of Horton D. Height. In 1876, a large group of these settlers established four settlements on the Little Colorado River, which they named Brigham City, Sunset and Allen's Camp.
In Allen's Camp, a dam had been built on the Little Colorado River in April, but high waters in July washed it out. By August, many settlers had returned to Utah. Eight married couples and six single men were all. By 1882, the Obed settlement had collapsed and both Brigham City and Sunset were near collapse due to several years of drought. At this time, John Bushman, of Allen's Camp, was sent by Lot Smith president of the Little Colorado Stake, to scout the forests to the south in anticipation of relocation. Dry farming in the forested mountains was thought to be easier due to higher rain fall, lush grasses, plentiful timber. On December 6, 1882, Bushman set out for the forest with five brethren: W. C. Allen. H. Richards. C. Hansen. E. Shelley. Upon arrival they began digging wells in search of water; these men were joined by Hans Nielson, Lehi Heward and John Scarlet. By April 13, 1883, two cabins had been built and grain planted, but only four families remained. John Bushman never settled in the area, but he and his family contributed time and encouragement to the local settlers.
The first summer, houses were built, land cleared, corrals constructed. Crops were planted not only for food, but to barter for goods that could not be made at home; the growing season was four months long. In 1887, Lehi Heward relocated to Pine, Arizona, he was urged to do so, because of the Pleasant Valley War. Buckskin Canyon, where he had settled, was named after the buckskin chaps his wife Elisabeth had made for him. John Scarlet was next to leave in 1888, his wife Lulu had become ill in June 1885. This may have contributed to his subsequent departure. In 1887, he was mentioned to have joined the posses of Joe McKiney's, under-sheriff for C. P. Owens. In 1889, Nathan and Samuel Uriah Porter, arrived in Heber from St. Joseph, they grew crops of corn and potatoes between St. Joseph; the following year brought the Sharp families from nearby Wilford. Samuel Porter would describe the Penrods as anti-Mormon, the Sharps as dishonest. In 1898, Hans Nielson abandoned his estate on the west bank of the Black Canyon where today's SR 260 enters town.
Childless, Hans Nielson had been the first presiding elder for what became the Heber branch of the Joseph City Ward. James Shelley homesteaded land comprising the center of Heber and south down the Black Canyon. Of the original four pioneer families, starting out with four head of cattle, three daughters, a few worldly possessions and Margaret Shelley were the only family to make Heber a long term commitment. In 1882, Heber J. Grant was called as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve. Early on in his service in the quorum he made many trips to Arizona earning the title "The Arizona Apostle". On one such trip, he passed through the settlement on his way to Phoenix, stayed with the Shelleys in their cabin; the townspeople latter named their settlement after Mr. Grant. An alternative version of Heber's namesake history is that John W. N. Scarlett named the settlement after Heber C. Kimball, former Chief Justice of the State of Deseret; the post office in Heber was established in 1890, on September 11, 1890, James Shelley was appointed the first postmaster of Heber.
Mail was brought by buckboard every Wednesday from Holbrook to Heber. It was sorted and distributed; this duty was performed by James Shelley, in addition to being a farmer, cattleman and father. Marion and Clarence Owens came to farm in Heber with their families in 1891; the following year, two practicing polygamists arrived from Utah to escape prosecution. One was called "Brother Luck". In 1893, Joseph Porter arrived in Heber to help Samuel Porter, with his farm. In 1893, John Nelson occupied a ranch in Brookbank Canyon, the Baca family had settled near the head of Black Canyon. John Nelson and partner, Nicholas Valentine, were in the sheep business, the Porters hauled their wool to the Holbrook railroad. Nicholas Valentin died four years from a rabies bite acquired from a skunk. Many settlements were located in farmlands of Black Canyon. Potatoes, milk and large gardens were the livelihood of many families. Potato fields could be found down Buckskin Canyon, near the present day "Buckskin Artist Community".
Cornfields and large gardens could be found where the present day High School ball fields and "Tenney's Trailer Park" are located. All available land near town and in forests clearings was converted to farmland. Wilford, Jersey