Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. In the British Isles they are called lime trees, or lime bushes, although they are not related to the tree that produces the lime fruit. Other names include linden for the European species, basswood for North American species; the genus occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but the greatest species diversity is found in Asia. Under the Cronquist classification system, this genus was placed in the family Tiliaceae, but genetic research summarised by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has resulted in the incorporation of this genus, of most of the previous family, into the Malvaceae. Tilia species are large, deciduous trees, reaching 20 to 40 metres tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 to 20 centimetres across; as with elms, the exact number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise both in the wild and in cultivation. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with both male and female parts, pollinated by insects.
The genus is called lime or linden in Britain and linden, lime, or basswood in North America."Lime" is an altered form of Middle English lind, in the 16th century line, from Old English feminine lind or linde, Proto-Germanic *lendā, cognate to Latin lentus "flexible" and Sanskrit latā "liana". Within Germanic languages, English "lithe", German lind "lenient, yielding" are from the same root. "Linden" was the adjective, "made from linwood or lime-wood". Neither the name nor the tree is related to the citrus fruit called "lime". Another common name used in North America is basswood, derived from bast, the name for the inner bark. Teil is an old name for the lime tree. Latin tilia is cognate to Greek πτελέᾱ, ptelea, "elm tree", τιλίαι, tiliai, "black poplar" from a Proto-Indo-European word *ptel-ei̯ā with a meaning of "broad"; the Tilia's sturdy trunk stands like a pillar and the branches divide and subdivide into numerous ramifications on which the twigs are fine and thick. In summer, these are profusely clothed with large leaves and the result is a dense head of abundant foliage.
The leaves of all the Tilia species are heart-shaped and most are asymmetrical, the tiny fruit, looking like peas, always hang attached to a ribbon-like, greenish-yellow bract, whose use seems to be to launch the ripened seed-clusters just a little beyond the parent tree. The flowers of the European and American Tilia species are similar, except the American bears a petal-like scale among its stamens and the European varieties are devoid of these appendages. All of the Tilia species may be propagated by cuttings and grafting, as well as by seed, they grow in rich soil, but are subject to the attack of many insects. Tilia is notoriously difficult to propagate from seed. If allowed to dry, the seeds will take 18 months to germinate. In particular, aphids are attracted by the rich supply of sap, are in turn "farmed" by ants for the production of the sap which the ants collect for their own use, the result can be a dripping of excess sap onto the lower branches and leaves, anything else below. Cars left under the trees can become coated with a film of the syrup thus dropped from higher up.
The ant/aphid "farming" process does not appear to cause any serious damage to the trees. In Europe, some linden trees reached considerable ages. A coppice of T. cordata in Westonbirt Arboretum in Gloucestershire is estimated to be 2,000 years old. In the courtyard of the Imperial Castle at Nuremberg is a Tilia which, by tradition recounted in 1900, was planted by the Empress Cunigunde, the wife of Henry II of Germany circa 1000; the Tilia of Neuenstadt am Kocher in Baden-Württemberg, was estimated at 1000 years old when it fell. The Alte Linde tree of Naters, Switzerland, is mentioned in a document in 1357 and described by the writer at that time as magnam. A plaque at its foot mentions that in 1155 a linden tree was on this spot; the Najevnik linden tree, a 700-year-old T. cordata, is the thickest tree in Slovenia. The excellence of the honey of the far-famed Hyblaean Mountains was due to the linden trees that covered its sides and crowned its summit. Lime fossils have been found in the Tertiary formations of Grinnell Land, Canada, at 82° N latitude, in Svalbard, Norway.
Sapporta believed he had found there the common ancestor of the Tilia species of America. The linden is recommended as an ornamental tree when a mass of a deep shade is desired; the tree produces fragrant and nectar-producing flowers, the medicinal herb lime blossom. They are important honey plants for beekeepers, producing a pale but richly flavoured monofloral honey; the flowers are used for herbal teas and tinctures. Linden trees produce soft and worked timber, which has little grain and a density of 560 kg per cubic metre, it was used by Germanic tribes for constructing shields. It is a popular wood for intricate carving. In Germany, it was the classic wood for sculpture from the Middle Ages onwards and is the material for the elaborate altarpieces of Veit Stoss, Tilman Riemenschnei
The Lindenberg Medal is an award given to those who provide “conspicuous service to philately” because of their investigations and contributions to philatelic literature. It is considered by some as the Nobel Prize of Philately; the medal was authorized by the Berlin Philatelic Club in 1905 in honor of noted philatelist Judge Carl Lindenberg. Carl Lindenberg, a judge and major stamp collector in Germany, began collecting at age seven in 1857, headed the Berliner Philatelisten-Klub, initiated the Lindenberg medal in 1905, he was instrumental in exposing Fouré’s forgeries of German postal stationery and in giving the Reichsmuseum a cover with the Moldavian Bulls. Recipients of the medal include: Nils Strandell Edward Denny Bacon Dr. F. Diena M. Hancian Major E. B. Evans M. P. Castle Hans Kropf Pierre Mahe Franz Kalckhoff Judge V. Suppantschitsch Dr. José Marcó del Pont August Dietz Wolfgang Hellrigl Carroll Chase John Robert Boker, Jr. Herbert J. Bloch Soichi Ichida Emilio Diena Enzo Diena Charles Lathrop Pack Walter Dorning Beckton A.
M. Tracey Woodward Mekeel’s Weekly Stamp News
Lindenberg im Allgäu
Lindenberg im Allgäu is the second largest town of the district of Lindau in Bavaria, Germany. It is an acknowledged air health resort; the town was first mentioned in 857, when two nobles donated in "Lintiberc" to the monastery of St. Gall. In 1570, the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg acquired the demesne of the heirless sovereignty of Altenburg, including Lindenberg, back a consolidation of about 70 farms; the city fell to Bavaria in 1805 as part of Napoleon's Treaty of Pressburg As early as 1656 straw hats from Lindenberg were sold by peddling and in markets. In 1755, the production and shipping of straw hats became organized; the hat industry has declined in recent decades and now has hardly any economic importance. Hat making is still remembered today in an annual "Huttag" as well as in a hat museum. Lindenberg has a Mittelschule, a Realschule and a Gymnasium; the Humboldt-Institut for German as a foreign language runs a boarding school for international students. The Bavarian Red Cross runs Elderly Care in Lindenberg.
The Waldsee is one of the highest moors in Germany at 765.4 m. It was established as a fish pond in the Middle Ages, but today it is used as a swimming area. Important employers are: Liebherr-Aerospace Lindenberg GmbH Mayser GmbH & Co. KG Lindenberg im Allgäu is twinned with: 1999: Vallauris-Golfe-Juan France 2003: Saline, Michigan USA Heike Allgayer and molecular biologist Arthur Burkhard (born 1928], picture journalist Anton Fehr, agricultural scientist and politician Otto Geßler and president of the German Red Cross Klaus Gietinger, film director and script writer Stephan Huber, sculptor Markus Miller, football goalkeeper Johann Georg Specht, architect Werner Specht and chansonnier Tobias Steinhauser, Cyclist
Udo Lindenberg is a German singer, rock musician and composer. Lindenberg started his musical career as a drummer. In 1969, he founded his first band Free Orbit and appeared as a studio and guest musician. In 1970 he collaborated as a drummer with jazz saxophonist Klaus Doldinger in Munich. In 1971 Passport, a band released its first album, with Lindenberg on drums, he played drums for the theme music for the German TV series Tatort. The first LP by the Jazz rock group Emergency was released in 1971 but met with little commercial success; the LP Lindenberg was unsuccessful. In the following year, the first LP in German was released: Daumen im Wind, featuring the single "Hoch im Norden", which became a radio hit in northern Germany; the year 1973 brought a breakthrough with the album Andrea Doria and the singles "Alles klar auf der Andrea Doria" and "Cello". With over 100,000 copies sold, Lindenberg received the largest record deal of any German-language musician up to that time. Lindenberg was earning a special place in the new German-language music of the 70s, finding a niche between internationally oriented Krautrock and mainstream pop music of the Schlager variety.
German-language rock had been confined to predominantly political message bands whose music was directed at a narrow audience. Lindenberg's brash style, everyday subject matter and his feel for language were an unprecedented combination in German-language music, his pioneering work helped other artists such as Stefan Waggershausen and Marius Müller-Westernhagen get record deals of their own. In 1973 Lindenberg first went on tour with his Panikorchester. 1976 was one of Udo Lindenberg's most productive years. Besides the LP Galaxo Gang he released a record under the name Das Waldemar Wunderbar Syndicat, a first Best of Panik Udo and the first in a series of foreign-language releases,No Panic, on which Lindenberg translated his songs into English. In the same year with the song "Rock ’n’ Roll Arena in Jena", Lindenberg first mentioned a Panic Orchestra tour of the GDR. In 1976, Lindenberg produced her first two albums, she was a guest artist and co-author of the 1977 LP Panische Nächte and the 1978 Dröhnland Symphonie.
On Lindenbergs Rock Revue and Horst Königstein "Germanized" rock classics from Little Richard to The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, went on a big tour. The number 1 hit "We Gotta Get out of This Place" was released with German lyrics; the subsequent Dröhnland-Symphonie-Tour was staged by Peter Zadek as a big multimedia stage show with a plethora of costumed extras. The result was Lindenberg's first live album Livehaftig. In 1979, Der Detektiv was the second Rock Revue, in which more international hits such as "Candle in the Wind" by Elton John, "Born to Be Wild" by Steppenwolf, "My Little Town" and "As Time Goes By" were "Germanized". 1997 was published "Belcanto - Udo Lindenberg & das Deutsche Filmorchester Babelsberg" which included hits like "Horizont", "Bis ans Ende der Welt" along with a song by Bertold Brecht and Udo's own interpretation of The Windmills of Your Mind - "Under the drunkard moon". One of his most famous songs is "Sonderzug nach Pankow", an adaptation of Chattanooga Choo Choo, released as a single on 2 February 1983.
It originated from the refusal of eastern German authorities to allow Lindenberg to perform in the GDR. In September 1987, he presented a custom Ibanez guitar to former East German leader, Erich Honecker, during his visit to the West German city of Wuppertal. On 3 June 2011, Lindenberg performed at Kampnagel unplugged; the recording was released as an album within the MTV Unplugged series. Lindenberg was the 8th German artist in that series; the album became the second No.1 album for Lindenberg, awarded platinum status for 200,000 units sold after two weeks. The second single from the album "Cello" went to No. 4, giving Lindenberg the highest chart position in German singles charts ever. Lindenberg has worked collaboratively with various local and international recording artists such as on a number of projects, he lives in Hamburg in the Hotel Atlantic. His somewhat hoarse voice is the result of too much liquor and cigarettes. In 1989, he survived a heart attack. In 2010, he designed two postage stamps, based on his songs "Andrea Doria" and "Sonderzug nach Pankow", for the Deutsche Post.
For 2014 he announced his first Stadium Tour in Germany. From 1 February to 2 April 2015 an exhibition entitled "Porsche. Panic. Power" took place in the Porsche Museum in Zuffenhausen and showed numerous exhibits from Lindenbergs private collection. Lindenberg opened the exhibition with a concert in the museum. D: Germany, A: Austria, CH: Switzerland 1Udo Lindenberg & Pascal2Freundeskreis feat. Udo Lindenberg3Nena & Friends 4Udo Lindenberg feat. Inga Humpe5Udo Lindenberg feat. Clueso6Udo Lindenberg feat. Jan Delay D: Germany, A: Austria, CH: Switzerland 1 Udo Lindenberg & Panikorchester2 Udo Lindenberg & Das Deutsche Filmorchester Babelsberg Bundesbeauftragter für die Stasi-Unterlagen: Udo rocks for world peace; the concert 1983 in the Stasi files. Berlin 2013. – free download of the documentation (108 page
Lindenberg is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Lindenberg belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Lambrecht; this “street village” – by some definitions, a “thorpe” – is believed to have arisen about 1100 from a castle that belonged to the Bishopric of Speyer. In the late 13th century, Lindenberg passed as a fief to the Lords of Frankenstein. In 1550, the castle was destroyed. Lindenberg has an autonomous Catholic parish, to which belong both the Parish Church of Saint Mary Immaculate and Saint Cyriacus’s Pilgrimage Chapel. Together with the neighbouring centre of Lambrecht there exists a Protestant parish. In 2007, 45.6% of the inhabitants were Evangelical and 34.5% Catholic. The rest adhered to none; the council is made up of 16 council members, who were elected at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman. The municipal election held on 7 June 2009 yielded the following results: The Mayor is Reiner Koch.
The German blazon reads: Von Gold und Rot gespalten, rechts aus einer anstoßenden roten Zinnenmauer wachsend eine grüne Linde, deren Laub belegt ist mit einem goldenen Schild, darin eine rote Hirschstange, links der heilige Cyriacus mit goldenem Nimbus und in goldenem Ornat, in der Rechten eine grüne Traube mit zwei Blättern, in der Linken einen grünen Palmzweig haltend. The municipality’s arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Per pale Or in base a wall masoned and embattled of three gules, issuant from the middle merlon a lime tree vert in whose crown an inescutcheon of the field charged with a stag’s attire of the second, gules Saint Cyriacus in his glory vested and crined of the first holding in his dexter hand a bunch of grapes with two leaves and in his sinister hand a palm frond, all of the third; the arms were approved by the Interior Ministry in Mainz in 1959. The lime tree, or linden is a canting charge for Lindenberg; the wall represents the long-vanished castle, the inescutcheon in the tree represents the castle’s owners, the Lords of Hirschhorn.
Saint Cyriacus recalls the chapel near the castle. Community life is based on six secular and three denominational clubs, as well as the Lindenberg Volunteer Fire Brigade. Furthermore, there are Catholic and Evangelical women’s leagues and a Catholic Elizabeth Association. There are in the municipality a few handicraft businesses. There are two public houses and two pensions. “St. Cyriakus” Catholic daycare centre – The centre cares for up to 45 preschool- and school-age children. Grundschule Lindenberg Lindenberg in the district’s Web pages