A non-commissioned officer is a military officer who has not earned a commission. Non-commissioned officers obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. In contrast, commissioned officers hold higher ranks than NCOs, have more legal responsibilities, are paid more, have more non-military training such as a university diploma. Commissioned officers earn their commissions without having risen through the enlisted ranks; the NCO corps includes all grades of corporal and sergeant. The naval equivalent includes all grades of petty officer. There are different classes of non-commissioned officer, including junior non-commissioned officers and senior non-commissioned officers; the non-commissioned officer corps is referred to as "the backbone" of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel. Additionally, they are the leaders responsible for executing a military organization's mission and for training military personnel so they are prepared to execute their missions.
NCO training and education includes leadership and management as well as service-specific and combat training. Senior NCOs are considered the primary link between enlisted personnel and the commissioned officers in a military organization, their advice and guidance are important for junior officers and in many cases to officers of all senior ranks, who begin their careers in a position of authority without practical knowledge and experience. In the Australian Army, lance corporals and corporals are classified as junior NCOs, while sergeants and warrant officers are classified as senior NCOs. In the New South Wales Police Force, NCOs perform supervisory and coordination roles; the ranks of probationary constable through to leading senior constable are referred to as "constables". All NCOs within the NSW Police are given a warrant of appointment under the Commissioner's hand and seal. All officers within the Australian Defence Force Cadets are non-commissioned. ADFC officers are appointed by the Director-General of their respective branch.
In the Canadian Forces, the Queen's Regulations and Orders formally defined a non-commissioned officer as "A Canadian Forces member holding the rank of Sergeant or Corporal." In the 1990s, the term "non-commissioned member" was introduced to indicate all ranks in the Canadian Forces from recruit to chief warrant officer. By definition, with the unification of the CF into one service, the rank of sergeant included the naval rank of petty officer 2nd class, corporal includes the naval rank of leading seaman. NCOs are divided into two categories: junior non-commissioned officers, consisting of corporals/leading seamen and master corporals/master seamen. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the accepted definition of "NCO" reflects the international use of the term. Junior non-commissioned officers billet with privates and seamen. Conversely, senior non-commissioned officers billet with warrant officers; as a group, NCOs rank below warrant officers. The term "non-commissioned members" includes these ranks.
In the Finnish Defence Force, NCO's includes all ranks from corporal to sergeant major. Ranks of lance corporal and leading seaman are considered not to be NCO ranks; this ruling applies to all branches of service and to the troops of the Border Guard. In France and most former French colonies, the term sous-officier is a class of ranks between the rank-and-file and commissioned officers. Corporals belong to the rank-and-file. Sous-officiers include two subclasses: "subalternes" and "supérieurs". "Sous-officiers supérieurs" can perform various functions within a regiment or battalion, including commanding a platoon or section. In Germany and German-speaking countries like Austria, the term Unteroffizier describes a class of ranks between normal enlisted personnel and officers. In this group of ranks there are, in Germany, two other classes: Unteroffiziere mit Portepee and Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee, both containing several ranks, which in Austria would be Unteroffiziere and Höhere Unteroffiziere.
In the New Zealand Defence Force, a non-commissioned officer is defined as: " In relation to the Navy, a rating of warrant officer, chief petty officer, petty officer, or leading rank.
Fire and movement
Fire and movement, or fire and maneuver, is the basic modern military low-level unit tactic used to maneuver on the battlefield in the presence of the enemy when under fire. It involves heavy use of all available cover, highly-coordinated exchanges of rapid movement by some elements of the squad or platoon while other elements cover this movement with suppression fire, it is used both to advance on enemy positions as part of an attack, or withdrawal from current positions under attack by the enemy. The moving and supporting elements may be teams or individuals, may and continuously exchange roles until the entire unit completes the maneuver objective; some members will specialize more in different roles within fire and movement as fits their range, equipment and ability to maneuver. This is applied to standard infantry tactics, but forms of this are used with armored fighting vehicles or when supported by artillery or airpower; the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus was the first to use the tactic in wartime, in the Thirty Years' War, against his Habsburg opponents.
Fire and movement became important when more and more rifled muskets and breech-loading weapons followed by machine guns, were fielded on the battlefields of the 19th century. The increased accuracy and rate of fire translated into more firepower, allowing smaller units to operate more independently; this marked the transition from first- to second-generation warfare that saw the increasing application of fire and movement on the tactical level. During the First Boer War, it was a standard Boer tactic, contributed to a series of victories, culminating at the Battle of Majuba Hill. According to Stephen Biddle, the effective use of fire and maneuver was the key to ending the stalemates on the lines of the Western Front during the final months of World War I. Since that time, he argues, mastery of fire and maneuver has been one of the central components of successful military tactics in modern land warfare. Fire and movement can be performed by any unit made up of at least two soldiers; the first part of the military unit suppresses the enemy by firing from behind cover, while the second advances.
After a short time, the advancing unit will halt behind cover and open fire, allowing the first unit to advance. The two parts of the unit will repeat the cycle. Enemy suppression can be achieved with direct and/or indirect fire from combat support units. Artillery and armor are a few examples of combat support units used in fire and movement. In the United States military, a basic fire and movement tactic is called overwatch. There exists several variations of overwatch adding further description to more describe the specific maneuver. A unit fires upon an enemy to distract or suppress them allowing another unit to assault, flank or encircle the enemy; the enemy will be pinned down and cannot react, will be forced to take cover until the flanking unit engages them. Heavy and continuous suppressive fire keeps an opponent in a defensive posture and therefore limits the enemy's overall firepower. Suppressive fire prevents the enemy from properly assessing the attack and organizing a coherent and coordinated defense or counter-attack.
While a base of fire is set up, the second unit will advance to cover in front, in the process setting up a new base of fire at this point. After a new base of fire has been set up, the first unit will advance, under cover of the new fire base, to a new position and set up another base of fire; these actions are repeated. At this point they engage directly with the enemy with grenade-throwing, close-quarters battle techniques, hand-to-hand combat; this tactic was used in Bravo Two Zero. A small unit of SAS soldiers is attacked from the rear in open desert by a mechanized unit of the Iraq Army. Turning to face the threat, the SAS fought in a series of bounds and over watches while utilizing overwhelming firepower to get within hand grenade range, thereby eliminating the attack from the rear; the tactic is used in the Michael Mann film Heat. After a bank robbery is foiled by police, the criminal gang use their overwhelming firepower to escape; the film is cited as one of the most realistic depictions of fire and movement in cinema, has been shown to Army and Special Forces members as a classic example of the practice.
Ex-Special Air Service member Andy McNab was a technical advisor for the film. Infiltration tactics Bounding overwatch Center Peel Overwatch Siege
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
The formation of a shield wall is a military tactic, common in many cultures in the Pre-Early Modern warfare age. There were many slight variations of this tactic among these cultures, but in general, a shield wall was a "wall of shields" formed by soldiers standing in formation shoulder to shoulder, holding their shields so that they abut or overlap; each soldier benefits from the protection of his neighbours' shields as well as his own. This tactic was known to be used by many ancient armies including the Persian Sparabara, Greek hoplite, Macedonian phalanx, Roman legion, though its origin and spread is unknown, it may have developed independently more than once. Although little is recorded about their military tactics, the Stele of the Vultures depicts Sumerian soldiers in a shield wall formation during the third millennium BC. By the seventh century BC, shield walls in ancient Greece are well-documented; the soldiers in these shield wall formations were called hoplites, so named for their heavy weaponry.
They were equipped with three-foot shields made from wood sometimes covered in bronze. Instead of fighting individual battles in large skirmishes, hoplites fought as cohesive units in this tight formation with their shields pushing forward against the man in front; the left half of the shield was designed to cover the unprotected right side of the hoplite next to them. The worst, or newest, fighters would be placed in the middle front of the formation to provide both physical and psychological security. In a phalanx, the man at the right hand of each warrior had an important role; this made it so that all the shields thus formed a solid battle line. The second row's purpose was to kill the soldiers of the first line of an enemy shield wall, thus break the line. All the other rows were weight for the pushing match that always occurred when each side tried to break the other's wall; when a wall was broken, the battle turned into a single-combat melee in which the side whose wall collapsed had a serious disadvantage.
The Roman scutum was a large shield designed to fit with others to form a shield wall, though not overlap. Roman legions used an extreme type of shield wall called a testudo formation that covered front and above. In this formation, the outside ranks formed a dense vertical shield wall and inside ranks held shields over their heads, thus forming a tortoise-like defense, well-protected from missile weapons. Although effective against missiles, this formation was slow, vulnerable to being isolated and surrounded by swarms of enemy soldiers. Caesar, in De Bello Gallico, describes the Germans as fighting in a tight phalanx-like formation with long spears jutting out over their shields. In the late Roman and Byzantine armies, similar formations of locked shields and projecting spears were called fulcum, were first described in the late 6th-century Strategikon. Roman legions were well-trained, used short stabbing-swords in the close-quarters combat that resulted when their shield-walls contacted the enemy.
As Auxiliaries were less well-armed, a shield-wall with spearmen was used to provide a better defence. The shield-wall was used in many parts of Northern Europe, such as England and Scandinavia. In the battles between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes in England, most of the Saxon army would have consisted of the inexperienced Fyrd — a militia composed of free peasants; the shield-wall tactic suited such soldiers, as it did not require extraordinary skill, being a shoving and fencing match with weapons. The first three ranks of the main wall would have been made up of select warriors, such as Huscarls and Thegns, who carried heavier weapons and wore armour. There would have been nobles, such as Thegns and Earls, who would have had their own armoured retainers and bodyguards. However, the vast majority of opponents in such battles were armed with spears, which they used against the unprotected legs or faces of their opponents. Soldiers would use their weapons to support each other by stabbing and slashing to the left or the right, rather than just ahead.
Short weapons, such as the ubiquitous seax, could be used in the tight quarters of the wall. Limited use of archery and thrown missile weapons occurred in opening stages of shield-wall battles, but were decisive to the outcome; the drawback of the shield-wall tactic was that, once breached, the whole affair tended to fall apart rather quickly. Trained fyrdmen gained morale from being shoulder-to-shoulder with their comrades, but fled once this was compromised. Once the wall was breached, it could prove difficult or impossible to re-establish a defensive line, panic might well set in among the defenders. Although the importance of cavalry in the Battle of Hastings portended the end of the shield-wall tactic, massed shield-walls would continue to be employed right up to the end of the 12th century in areas that were unsuitable for large scale mounted warfare, such as Scandinavia, the Swiss Alps and Scotland; the tactic was used at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, where the well-armed Saxon army hit the Viking army of King Harald Sigurdsson of Norway unaware.
The Vikings were not wearing as much armour, having left their mail behind on the ships and wearing only their helmets, after a bloody shield-wall-versus-shield-wall battle, fled in panic. Both sides lost 5-6000 each. Both sides at the Battle of Hastings are depic
Frederick the Great
Frederick II ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving sovereignty over most Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule, he became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people and the rest of Germany. In his youth, Frederick was more interested in philosophy than the art of war. Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.
He was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics and logistics. Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism, he modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for men not of noble status to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Frederick encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia, although he enacted oppressive measures against Polish Catholic subjects in West Prussia. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored as well as allowing complete freedom of the press and literature. Frederick is buried at Sanssouci in Potsdam; because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a great power in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick's "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was more extolling. Frederick remained an admired historical figure through the German Empire's defeat in World War I; the Nazis glorified him as a great German leader pre-figuring Adolf Hitler, who idolized him. Associations with him became far less favorable after the fall of the Nazis due to his status as one of their symbols. However, by the 21st century a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great general and enlightened monarch returned opinion of him to favour. Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
He was baptised with only one name and was not given any other names. The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, as his two previous grandsons had both died in infancy. With the death of his father in 1713, Frederick William became King in Prussia, thus making young Frederick the crown prince; the new king wished for his daughters to be educated not as royalty, but as simple folk. He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who became Madame de Rocoulle, he wished that she educate his children. Frederick William I, popularly dubbed as the Soldier-King, had created a large and powerful army led by his famous "Potsdam Giants" managed his treasury finances and developed a strong, centralized government. However, he possessed a violent temper and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia with absolute authority; as Frederick grew, his preference for music and French culture clashed with his father's militarism, resulting in Frederick William beating and humiliating him.
In contrast, Frederick's mother Sophia was polite and learned. Her father, George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, succeeded to the British throne as King George I in 1714. Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. In spite of his father's desire that his education be religious and pragmatic, the young Frederick, with the help of his tutor Jacques Duhan, procured for himself a three thousand volume secret library of poetry and Roman classics, French philosophy to supplement his official lessons. Although Frederick William I was raised a Calvinist, he feared. To avoid the possibility of Frederick being motivated by the same concerns, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination. Although Frederick was irreligious, he to some extent appeared to adopt this tenet of Calvinism; some scholars have speculated. In the mid-1720s, a double marriage was proposed. Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to arrange Frederick and his sister Wilhelmine with Amelia and Frederick, the children of her brother, King George II of Great Britain.
Fearing an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain, Field Marshal von Seckendorff, the Austrian ambassador in Berlin, bribed the Prussian Minister of War, Field Marshal von Grumbkow, the Prussian ambassador in Lon
Terrain or relief involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface. The term bathymetry is used to describe underwater relief, while hypsometry studies terrain relative to sea level; the Latin word terra means "earth." In physical geography, terrain is the lay of the land. This is expressed in terms of the elevation and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affects distribution. Over a large area, it can affect climate patterns; the understanding of terrain is critical for many reasons: The terrain of a region determines its suitability for human settlement: flatter, alluvial plains tend to have better farming soils than steeper, rockier uplands. In terms of environmental quality, agriculture and other interdisciplinary sciences. Complex arrays of relief data are used as input parameters for hydrology transport models to allow prediction of river water quality. Understanding terrain supports soil conservation in agriculture. Contour ploughing is an established practice enabling sustainable agriculture on sloping land.
Terrain is militarily critical because it determines the ability of armed forces to take and hold areas, move troops and material into and through areas. An understanding of terrain is basic to both offensive strategy. Terrain is important in determining weather patterns. Two areas geographically close to each other may differ radically in precipitation levels or timing because of elevation differences or a "rain shadow" effect. Precise knowledge of terrain is vital in aviation for low-flying routes and maneuvers and airport altitudes. Terrain will affect range and performance of radars and terrestrial radio navigation systems. Furthermore, a hilly or mountainous terrain can impact the implementation of a new aerodrome and the orientation of its runways. Relief refers to the quantitative measurement of vertical elevation change in a landscape, it is the difference between maximum and minimum elevations within a given area of limited extent. The relief of a landscape can change with the size of the area over which it is measured, making the definition of the scale over which it is measured important.
Because it is related to the slope of surfaces within the area of interest and to the gradient of any streams present, the relief of a landscape is a useful metric in the study of the Earth's surface. Relief energy, which may be defined inter alia as "the maximum height range in a regular grid", is an indication of the ruggedness or relative height of the terrain. Geomorphology is in large part the study of the formation of topography. Terrain is formed by concurrent processes: Geological processes: Migration of tectonic plates and folding, mountain formation, volcanic eruptions, etc. Erosional processes: glacial, wind and gravitational. Extraterrestrial: meteorite impacts. Tectonic processes such as orogenies and uplifts cause land to be elevated, whereas erosional and weathering processes wear the land away by smoothing and reducing topographic features; the relationship of erosion and tectonics reaches equilibrium. These processes are codependent, however the full range of their interactions is still a topic of debate.
Land surface parameters are quantitative measures of various morphometric properties of a surface. The most common examples are used to derive slope or aspect of a terrain or curvatures at each location; these measures can be used to derive hydrological parameters that reflect flow/erosion processes. Climatic parameters are based on the modelling of solar air flow. Land surface objects, or landforms, are definite physical objects that differ from the surrounding objects; the most typical examples airlines of watersheds, stream patterns, break-lines, pools or borders of specific landforms. Applications of global navigation satellite systems Cartographic relief depiction Digital terrain model Geographic information system Geomorphometry Hypsometry Isostasy Physical terrain model Relief ratio Subterranea Terrain awareness and warning system Terrane Topography Boots on the ground. On military terrain from the perspective of the combat soldier. By Professor Derek Gregory Google Maps Bing Maps The dictionary definition of terrain at Wiktionary
A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range and striking power. Because many pole weapons were adapted from farm implements or other tools, contain little metal, they were cheap to make and available; this peasant rebellions the world over. Pole arms can be divided into three broad categories: those designed for extended reach and thrusting tactics used in pike square or phalanx combat. Spears, guandaos, poleaxes, harpoons, tridents, war scythes and javelins are all varieties of pole arms. Pole arms were common weapons on post-classical battlefields of Europe, their range and impact force made them effective weapons against armored warriors on horseback, because they could penetrate armor. The Renaissance saw a plethora of different varieties. Pole arms in modern times are constrained to ceremonial military units such as the Papal Swiss Guard or Yeomen of the Guard, or traditional martial arts.
Chinese martial arts in particular have preserved a wide variety of techniques. The classification of pole weapons can be difficult, European weapon classifications in particular can be confusing; this can be due to a number of factors, including uncertainty in original descriptions, changes in weapons or nomenclature through time, mistranslation of terms, the well-meaning inventiveness of experts. As well, all pole arms developed from one weapon, the spear. For example, the word'halberd' is used to translate the Chinese ji and a range of medieval Scandinavian weapons as described in sagas, such as the atgeir. In the words of the arms expert Ewart Oakeshott, Staff-weapons in Medieval or Renaissance England were lumped together under the generic term "staves" but when dealing with them in detail we are faced with terminological difficulty. There never seems to have been a clear definition of. To add to this, we have various nineteenth century terminologies used by scholars. We must remember too.
While men-at-arms may have been armed with custom designed military weapons, militias were armed with whatever was available. These may not have been mounted on poles and described by one of more names; the problems with precise definitions can be inferred by a contemporary description of Royalist infantry which were engaged in the Battle of Birmingham during the first year of English Civil War. The infantry regiment that accompanied Prince Rupert's cavalry were armed:with pikes, half-pikes, hedge-bills, Welsh hooks, pitchforks, with chopping-knives, pieces of scythes. Falx Rhomphaia Kontos Dory Sarissa Xyston Ji, the Chinese halberd, was used as a military weapon in one form or another from at least as early as the Shang dynasty until the end of the Qing dynasty; the ji resembles a Chinese spear with a crescent blade attached to the head, as sort of an axe blade. Sometimes double-bladed with 2 crescent blades on opposing sides of the spearhead, it was created by combining the dagger-axe with a spear.
The dagger-axe, or gee is a type of weapon, in use from Shang dynasty until at least Han dynasty China. It consists of a dagger-shaped blade made of bronze mounted by the tang to a perpendicular wooden shaft: a common Bronze Age infantry weapon used by charioteers; some dagger axes include a spear-point. There is a variant type with a divided two-part head, consisting of the usual straight blade and a scythe-like blade. Other rarities include archaeology findings with 2 or sometimes 3 blades stacked in line on top of a pole, but were thought as ceremonial pole arms. Though the weapon saw frequent use in ancient China, the use of the dagger-axe decreased after the Qin and Han dynasties; the Ji combines the dagger axe with a spear. By the medieval Chinese dynasties, with the decline of chariot warfare, the use of the dagger-axe was nonexistent. A Guan dao or Kwan tou is a type of Chinese pole weapon. In Chinese it is properly called a Yanyue dao; some believed it comes from the late Han Era and used by the late Eastern Han Dynasty general Guan Yu, but archaeological findings so far showed that Han dynasty armies were using straight single-edged blades, as curved blades came several centuries later.
There is no reason to believe. Besides, historical accounts of the Three Kingdoms era had several specific records of Guan Yu thrusting his opponents down in battles, instead of cutting them down with a curved-blade. Alternatively the guan dao is known as Chun Qiu Da Dao, again related to Guan Yu's loyal image depicted in the Ming dynasty novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, but poss