Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponents net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of six each, one goaltender. A fast-paced, physical sport, ice hockey is most popular in areas of North America, Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity. In North America, the National Hockey League is the highest level for mens hockey, the Kontinental Hockey League is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the governing body for international ice hockey. The IIHF manages international tournaments and maintains the IIHF World Ranking, there are ice hockey federations in 74 countries. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules were developed, such as shinny and ice polo.
The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey began in the 1880s, and professional ice hockey originated around 1900. The Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion, in international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in mens competition at the Olympics, in the annual Ice Hockey World Championships,177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. In Russia and the Ukraine, where hockey can refer to bandy, the name hockey has no clear origin. The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word hockey when he translated the proclamation in 1720, the 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called hokie—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves. A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage.
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word derives from the Scots Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his caman or hurley is always called a puck. Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times, in Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the closely related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on a surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age. It was played with a curved bat, a wooden or leather ball
Power play (sporting term)
Power play is a sporting term used in many various games. In several team sports, situations arise where following a rules infraction, the term power play is commonly applied to the state of advantage the unpenalized team enjoys during this time. Specialized tactics and strategies can apply while a team is on the power play, in ice hockey, a team is said to be on a power play when at least one opposing player is serving a penalty, and the team has a numerical advantage on the ice. Up to two players per side may serve in the penalty box, giving a team up to a possible 5-on-3 power play, if a goaltender commits a foul, another player who was on the ice at the time of the penalty serves. There are two types of penalties that can result in a play for the non-offending team and major. For such penalties, the player is ruled off the ice. A power play resulting from a minor penalty ends if the team more players on the ice scores. If the penalty is instead a double minor, a goal scored by the team with advantage ends the first minor penalty, so that 2 goals by the team with more players are needed to end the power play.
If a player is given a penalty, a power play occurs, but if the team on the power play scores. Major penalties only end when five minutes have elapsed or the game has ended, if a team is still on a power play at the end of a regulation period, or at the end of a playoff overtime period, the power play will continue into the following period. Misconduct penalties, and game misconduct penalties allow for substitution of the offending player, however in practice and game misconduct penalties are often assessed in addition to a major or minor penalty. A match penalty results in the player being ejected for the balance of the game. The power play does not end if the team scores a goal, identical to major penalties. A goal scored by the team during a power play is called a short-handed goal. If a power play ends without a goal against the shorthanded team, if a team scores on the power play, it is said to have converted the power play. During a power play, the team may launch the puck to the opposite end of the rink.
Depending on the infraction, the penalty may release early if a goal is scored by either team, or may be non-releasable, the term extra man is used more frequently than powerplay. In box lacrosse, a powerplay is very similar to ice hockey and this situation is often called an extra man offense or man up, or man down, depending on the team penalised
Gridiron football, or North American football, is a form of football primarily played in the United States and Canada. The predominant forms of football are American football and Canadian football. The grid system was abandoned in favor of the system of lines and hash marks used today. Gridiron football developed in the late 19th century out of the games now known as rugby football. Walter Camp is credited with creating many of the rules that differentiate gridiron football from its older counterparts, because the two sets of lines had the same spacing and were perpendicular, they divided the field into squares, resembling a checkerboard or gridiron pattern. The word gridiron, in use since the 14th century, refers to a grid for cooking food over a fire. As described in Outdoor Sports and Games, by Claude H. Miller, at each end are goal posts set 18 feet 6 inches apart, with a crossbar 10 feet above the ground. The field is marked off in chalk lines similar to a tennis court, the centre of the field where the play starts is 55 yards from either end.
The lines on a football field make an effect and have given to the field the name of gridiron. As a result, the name of the field, was applied to the game itself, the ball would be snapped in the grid in which it was downed on the previous play. The grid system was abandoned in favor of the system of lines and hash marks used today. Especially outside of the U. S. and Canada, the gridiron and gridiron football are often used to distinguish the North American sport from other codes of football. Gridiron is the word for the sport in Australia and New Zealand. In the United States and Canada, the game is known unambiguously as football, association football is known in these countries as soccer and rugby football, seldom encountered in the U. S. is known as rugby or, especially in Canada, English rugby. American football is the most common and widely known of the football codes. It is played with players to a side, four downs. The premier professional league in the United States, the National Football League, has its own distinct code, colleges in the United States generally play under the code defined in NCAA Football Rules and Interpretations.
Youth games generally follow NFHS code with modifications, adult semi-pro and minor professional, touch, etc. may follow any one of these codes or use their own rules
Grinder (ice hockey)
In ice hockey, a grinder is a player better known for his hard work and checking than his scoring. A grinder is often a player who has limited offensive skills, the grinder is not in the spotlight as would be the offensively skilled scoring stars, but they are often fan favorites due to their work effort in games. Thus the grinder is often the player who, by their willingness to endure the abuse of going into the corners to dig out the puck. It is common belief in hockey that a team needs a balance of scoring stars and grinders. While grinder often refers to a player of lesser offensive skills, NHL Hall of Fame inductee Bobby Clarke of the 1970s and 80s Philadelphia Flyers was considered a grinder, but was a highly productive offensive player. While a grinder plays a style of hockey they are distinguished from an enforcer, whose role is more physical intimidation. A grinder refers specifically to a style of hockey which is within the rules of the game. Sometimes grinder is used in combination with mucker to describe a player as a mucker, in this context, mucker is largely synonymous with grinder.
Bobby Clarke was a significant factor in Team Canadas victory in the 1972 Super Series as was Mike Eruzione as Captain for United States Olympic team in the 1980 Miracle on Ice victory, Clarke received the Selke Trophy as best defensive forward late in his playing career. In 2012, the Hockey News named Dave Bolland of the NHL Chicago Blackhawks as Best Grinder
Penalty (ice hockey)
A penalty in ice hockey is a punishment for an infringement of the rules. Most penalties are enforced by detaining the offending player within a penalty box for a set number of minutes, Penalties are called and enforced by the referee, or in some cases the linesmen. The offending team usually may not replace the player on the ice, the opposing team is said to be on a power play, having one player more on the ice than the short-handed team. The short handed team is said to be penalty killing until the penalty expires, while standards vary somewhat between leagues, most leagues recognize several common degrees of penalty, as well as common infractions. The statistic used to track penalties was traditionally called Penalty Infraction Minutes and it represents the total assessed length of penalties each player or team has accrued. The first codified rules of hockey, known as the Halifax Rules, were brought to Montreal by James Creighton, who organized the first indoor hockey game in 1875. Two years later, the Montreal Gazette documented the first set of Montreal Rules, the only penalty outlined by these rules was that play would be stopped, and a bully would take place.
Revised rules in 1886 mandated that any player in violation of rules would be given two warnings, but on a third offence would be removed from the game. It was not until 1904 that players were ruled off the ice for infractions, at that time, a referee could assess a two-, three- or five-minute penalty, depending on the severity of the foul. By 1914, all penalties were five minutes in length, reduced to three minutes two years later, and the player was given an additional fine. When the National Hockey League was founded in 1917, it mandated that a team could not substitute for any player who was assessed a penalty, the penalty was shortened to two minutes for the 1921–22 season, while five- and ten-minute penalties were added two years later. A minor penalty is the least severe type of penalty, a minor penalty is two minutes in length. The offending player is sent to the penalty box and in most cases, if the offending player is the goaltender or a team is given a bench minor penalty, any skater who was on the ice at the time of the infraction may serve the penalty. A team with an advantage in players will go on a power play.
If they score a goal during this time, the penalty will end, in hockeys formative years, teams were shorthanded for the entire length of a minor penalty. The NHL changed this rule following the 1955–56 season where the Montreal Canadiens frequently scored multiple goals on one power play. Most famous was a game on November 5,1955, when Jean Béliveau scored three goals in 44 seconds, all on the power play, in a 4–2 victory over the Boston Bruins. Coincidental minor penalties occur when a number of players from each team are given a minor penalty at the same time
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
Checking (ice hockey)
Checking in ice hockey is any one of a number of defensive techniques, aimed at disrupting an opponent with possession of the puck, or separating them from the puck entirely. It is usually not a penalty and this is often referred to as simply checking or hitting and is only permitted against an opponent with possession of the puck. Body checking can be penalized when performed recklessly, hip-checking When a player drops to a near-crouching stance and swings his hips toward an opposing player, sending the opponent off balance, often falling to the ice. Mostly done up against the boards, a hit at or below the knees is considered an infraction in the National Hockey League, and called clipping. Shoulder-checking A player puts his shoulder into his opponent to muscle the opponent out of position, the elbow must be tucked in, or the player risks taking a penalty for elbowing. Poke checking Using the stick to poke the puck away from an opponent, mostly done while the defensive player goes straight at the puck carrier and hitting the puck out of his possession before making physical contact.
Sweep checking Using the stick in a motion to knock the puck away from opponents or deter them from passing. Stick checking Using the stick to interfere with an opponents stick, forechecking It refers to skating done in the offensive zone, often to recover possession of the puck after a dump in or turnover. Backchecking Rushing back to the zone in response to an opposing teams attack. Players often try to rub up behind the player with the puck to bother them, at the same time they try to hit the puck away with their stick. Cross-checking The act of checking an opponent with the shaft of the held in both hands and with arms extended. This is illegal and earns a minor or major penalty depending on the severity of the infraction, lift checking A player lifts or knocks an opponents stick upwards with his/her stick followed immediately by an attempt to steal the puck. This may be used by a defenseman to keep a player from deflecting shots when both players are positioned in front of the net. Press checking A type of hockey stick check used to stop or control the movement of a stick by placing stick pressure over the top of the opponents stick.
Charging, hitting from behind and boarding are examples of illegal hits, charging occurs when a player takes three or more strides going into the check, and sometimes includes leaving the feet to deliver the hit. Boarding is when a check violently throws a defenseless player into the boards, in womens ice hockey, any body checking is a penalty and is not allowed in leagues with young children. Mens amateur leagues typically allow checking unless stipulated otherwise in league rules, some intramural university leagues do not permit body checking, in order to avoid injury and incidents of fighting. Leaning against opponents is an alternative to body checking but can be penalized for holding if abused, many studies have been done regarding injuries in hockey that have caused stricter rule enforcement in the past few years
A face-off is the method used to begin play in ice hockey and some other sports. The two teams line up in opposition to other, and the opposing skaters attempt to gain control of the puck after it is dropped between their sticks by an official. Face-offs are generally handled by centres, although some wingers handle face-offs and very rarely, one of the referees drops the puck at centre ice to start each period and following the scoring of a goal. The linesmen are responsible for all other face-offs, one player from each team stands at the face-off spot to await the drop of the puck. All teammates must be lateral to or behind the player taking the face-off, where the face-off occurs at one of the five face-off spots that have circles marked around them, only the two opposing players responsible for taking the face-off may be in the circle. This is not mandatory and other formations are seen—especially where the face-off is in one of the four corner face-off spots, face-offs are typically conducted at designated places marked on the ice called face-off spots or dots.
There are nine such spots, two in each attacking zone, two on each end of the zone, and one in the centre of the rink. Face-offs did not always take place at the marked face-off spots, if a puck left the playing surface, for example, the face-off would take place wherever the puck was last played. On June 20,2007, the NHL Board of Governors approved a change to NHL Rule 76.2, the rule now requires that all face-offs take place at one of the nine face-off spots on the ice, regardless of what caused the stoppage of play. Rule 76.2 dictates that, with some exceptions, an official may remove the player taking the face-off if the player or any players from the same team attempt to gain an unfair advantage during the face-off. When a player is removed, one of the not originally taking the face-off is required to take the face-off. In the NHL, the player from the team is required to place his stick on the ice for the face-off first when it takes place at the centre-line dot. For all other face-offs, the player from the team must place his stick first.
Before the leagues 2015–16 season, the player was required to place his stick first on all face-offs. In the first organized ice hockey rules, both faced the centre line of the ice rink, like the winners do today. At that time, another forward position existed, the rover, who faced forward like centres did today, face-offs were first called faces of the puck, or a puck-off. In bandy, the game is restarted with a face-off when the game has been temporarily interrupted, the face-off is executed on the place where the ball was situated when the game was interrupted. If the ball was inside the penalty area when the game was interrupted, in a face-off one player of each team place themselves opposite each other and with their backs turned to their own end-lines