Metrication or metrification is conversion to the metric system of units of measurement. Worldwide, there has been a long process of independent conversions of countries from various local and traditional systems, beginning in France during the 1790s and spreading over the following two centuries, but the metric system has not been adopted in all countries and sectors. Whilst most countries in the world are using the metric system as their official system of weights and measures, some countries have not committed to adopting it, or have adopted it as their official system but have not completed the process of full metrication. Most countries have adopted the metric system over a transitional period where both units are used for a set period of time; some countries such as Guyana, for example, have adopted the metric system, but have had some trouble over time implementing it. Antigua and Barbuda "officially" metric, is moving toward total implementation of the metric system, but slower than expected.
The government had announced that they have plans to convert their country to the metric system by the first quarter of 2015. Other Caribbean countries such as Saint Lucia are metric but are still in the process toward full conversion. In the United Kingdom the metric system is the official system for most regulated trading by weight or measure purposes, but some imperial units remain the primary official unit of measurement; as of 2018 the UK has only metricated. According to the US Central Intelligence Agency's online The World Factbook, the metric system has not been adopted by Myanmar and the US; the United States use US customary units as does Liberia. Myanmar uses the Burmese units of measurement. According to The Observer, Liberia are committed to adopting the metric system in the future; some sources now identify Liberia as metric, the government of Myanmar has stated that the country would metricate with a goal of completion by 2019. Both Myanmar and Liberia are metric countries, trading internationally in metric units.
Sierra Leone switched to selling fuel by the litre in May 2011. The European Union used the Units of Measure Directive to attempt to achieve a common system of weights and measures and to facilitate the European Single Market. Throughout the 1990s, the European Commission helped accelerate the process for member countries to complete their metric conversion processes. Among them is the United Kingdom where laws in some or all contexts mandate or permit many imperial measures, such as miles and yards for road-sign distances, road speed limits in miles per hour, pints of beer, inches for clothes; the United Kingdom secured permanent exemptions for the mile and yard in road markings, for the pint of draught beer sold in pubs. In 2007, the European Commission announced that it was to abandon the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods, to allow dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely; the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada have some active opposition to metrication where updated weights and measures laws would make obsolete historic systems of measurement.
Other countries, like France and Japan, that once had significant popular opposition to metrication now have complete acceptance of metrication. The Roman empire used the pes measure; this was divided into 12 unciae. The libra was another measure that had wide effect on European weight and currency long after Roman times, e.g. lb, £. The measure came to vary over time. Charlemagne was one of several rulers who launched reform programmes of various kinds to standardise units for measure and currency in his empire, but there was no real general breakthrough. In medieval Europe, local laws on weights and measures were set by trade guilds on a city-by-city basis. For example, the ell or elle was a unit of length used in Europe, but its length varied from 40.2 centimetres in one part of Germany to 70 centimetres in The Netherlands and 94.5 centimetres in Edinburgh. A survey of Switzerland in 1838 revealed that the foot had 37 different regional variations, the ell had 68, there were 83 different measures for dry grain, 70 measures for fluids and 63 different measures for "dead weights".
When Isaac Newton wrote Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687, he quoted his measurements in Parisian feet so readers could understand the size. Examples of efforts to have local intercity or national standards for measurements include the Scottish law of 1641, the British standard imperial system of 1824, still used in the United Kingdom. At one time Imperial China had standardised units for volume throughout its territory, but by 1936 official investigations uncovered 53 values for the chi varying from 200 millimetres to 1250 millimetres. However, revolutionary France was to produce the definitive International System of Units which has come to be used by most of the world today; the desire for a single international system of measurement came from growing international trade and the need to apply common standards to goods. For a company to buy a product produced in another country, they need to ensure that the product would arrive as described; the medieval ell was abandoned in part.
One primary advantage of the International Sy
In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, now most made of plastic, but frequently made of metal, wood or seashell, which secures two pieces of fabric together. In archaeology, a button can be a significant artifact. In the applied arts and in craft, a button can be an example of folk art, studio craft, or a miniature work of art. Buttons are most attached to articles of clothing but can be used on containers such as wallets and bags. However, buttons may be sewn onto garments and similar items for purposes of ornamentation. Buttons serving as fasteners work by slipping through a fabric or thread loop, or by sliding through a buttonhole. Other types of fastenings include zippers and magnets. Buttons and button-like objects used as ornaments or seals rather than fasteners have been discovered in the Indus Valley Civilization during its Kot Diji phase as well as Bronze Age sites in China, Ancient Rome. Buttons made from seashell were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BC.
Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing with thread. Ian McNeil holds that: "The button, in fact, was used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley, it is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old."Functional buttons with buttonholes for fastening or closing clothes appeared first in Germany in the 13th century. They soon became widespread with the rise of snug-fitting garments in 13th- and 14th-century Europe. Since at least the seventeenth century, when box-like metal buttons were constructed for the purpose, buttons have been one of the items in which drug smugglers have attempted to hide and transport illegal substances. At least one modern smuggler has tried to use this method. Making use of the storage possibilities of metal buttons, during the World Wars, British and U. S. military locket buttons were made. Because buttons have been manufactured from every possible material, both natural and synthetic, combinations of both, the history of the material composition of buttons reflects the timeline of materials technology.
Buttons can be individually crafted by artisans, craftspeople or artists from raw materials or found objects, or a combination of both. Alternatively, they can be the product of low-tech cottage industry or can be mass-produced in high-tech factories. Buttons made by artists are art objects, known to button collectors as "studio buttons". In 1918 the U. S. Government made an extensive survey of the international button market, which listed buttons made of vegetable ivory, glass, silk, cotton-covered crochet, snap fasteners, enamel, buckhorn, horn, leather, pressed cardboard, mother-of-pearl, porcelain, tin, xylonite, cloth-covered wooden forms, papier-mâché. Vegetable ivory was said to be the most popular for suits and shirts, papier-mâché far and away the commonest sort of shoe button. Nowadays, hard plastic, seashell and wood are the most common materials used in button-making. Over 60 % of the world's button supply comes from Yongjia County, China. Fashions in buttons have reflected trends in applied aesthetics and the applied visual arts, with buttonmakers using techniques from jewellery making, sculpture, printmaking, metalworking and others.
The following are just a few of the construction and decoration techniques that have been used in button-making: Shank buttons have a hollow protrusion on the back through which thread is sewn to attach the button. Button shanks may be made from a separate piece of the same or a different substance as the button itself, added to the back of the button, or be carved or moulded directly onto the back of the button, in which latter case the button is referred to by collectors as having a'self-shank'. Flat or sew-through buttons have holes. Flat buttons may be attached by sewing machine rather than by hand, may be used with heavy fabrics by working a thread shank to extend the height of the button above the fabric. Stud buttons are composed from an actual button, connected to a second, button-like element by a narrow metal or plastic bar. Pushed through two opposing holes within what is meant to be kept together, the actual button and its counterpart press it together, keeping it joined. Popular examples of such buttons are shirt cufflinks.
Snap fasteners are metal round discs pinched through the fabric. They are found on clothing, in particular on denim pieces such as pants and jackets, they are more securely fastened to the material. As they rely on a metal rivet attached securely to the fabric, pressure buttons are difficult to remove without compromising the fabric's integrity, they are made of two couples: the female stud couple. Each couple has rear side. Covered buttons are fabric-covered forms with a separate back piece that secures the fabric over the knob. Mandarin buttons or frogs are knobs made of intricately knotted strings. Mandarin buttons are a key element in Mandarin dress. Pairs of mandarin buttons worn as cuff l
The millimetre or millimeter is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, the SI base unit of length. Therefore, there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre. One millimetre is equal to 1000000 nanometres. A millimetre is equal to 5⁄127 of an inch. Since 1983, the metre has been defined as "the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second". A millimetre, 1/1000 of a metre, is therefore the distance travelled by light in 1/299792458000 of a second. A common shortening of millimetre in spoken English is "mil"; this can cause confusion since in the United States, "mil" traditionally means a thousandth of an inch. For the purposes of compatibility with Chinese and Korean characters, Unicode has symbols for: millimetre - code U+339C square millimetre - code U+339F cubic millimetre - code U+33A3In Japanese typography, these square symbols were used for laying out unit symbols without distorting the grid layout of text characters.
On a metric ruler, the smallest measurements are millimetres. High-quality engineering rules may be graduated in increments of 0.5 mm. Digital callipers are capable of reading increments as small as 0.01 mm. Microwaves with a frequency of 300 GHz have a wavelength of 1 mm. Using wavelengths between 30 GHz and 300 GHz for data transmission, in contrast to the 300 MHz to 3 GHz used in mobile devices, has the potential to allow data transfer rates of 10 gigabits per second; the smallest distances the human eye can resolve is around 0.02 to 0.04 mm the width of a human hair. A sheet of paper is between 0.07 mm and 0.18 mm thick, with ordinary printer paper or copy paper a tenth of a millimetre thick. Metric system Orders of magnitude Submillimeter
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
Obsolete German units of measurement
The obsolete units of measurement of German-speaking countries consist of a variety of units, with varying local standard definitions. Some of these units are still used in everyday speech and in stores and on street markets as shorthand for similar amounts in the metric system. For example, some customers ask for one pound of something; the metric system became compulsory on 1 January 1872, on 1 January 1876, in Austria. Some obsolete German units have names similar to units that were traditionally used in other countries, that are still used in the United Kingdom and the United States. Before the introduction of the metric system in German every town had its own definitions of the units shown below. Towns posted local definitions on a wall of the city hall. For example, the front wall of the old city hall of Rudolstädt has two marks which show the "Rudolstädter Elle", the proper length of the Elle in that city. By 1810 there were 112 different standards for the Elle around Germany. A German geographic mile is defined as 1⁄15 equatorial degrees, equal to 7,420.54 m.
A common German mile, land mile, or post mile was defined in various ways at different places and different times. After the introduction of the metric system in the 19th century, the Landmeile was fixed at 7,500 m, but before there were many local and regional variants: The Rute or Ruthe is of Carolingian origin, was used as a land measure. Many different kinds of Ruthe were used at various times in various parts of the German-speaking world, they were subdivided into differing numbers of local Fuß, were of many different lengths. One source from 1830 lists the following: One hour's travel, used up to the 19th century. In Germany 1⁄2 Meile or 3.71 km. After 1722 in Saxony 1⁄2 post mile = 1000 Dresden rods = 4531 m. In Switzerland 16,000 ft or 4.88 km. 6 feet, after introduction of the metric system 10 feet. Regional variants from 1.75 m in Baden to 3 m in Switzerland. The Lachter was the most common unit of length used in mining in German-speaking areas, its exact length varied from place to place but was between 1.9 and 2.1 metres.
Distance between elbow and fingertip. In the North 2 feet, In Prussia 17⁄8 feet, in the South variable 2 1⁄2 feet; the smallest known German Elle is the longest 811 mm. The Fuß or German foot varied from place to place in the German-speaking world, with time. In some places, more than one type of Fuß was in use. One source from 1830 gives the following values: Usually 1⁄12 foot, but 1⁄11 and 1⁄10. 1⁄12 inch, but 1⁄10. For firewood, 2.905 m3 In general, the Nösel was a measure of liquid volume equal to half a Kanne. Volume varied depending on whether it was beer or wine, its subdivisions were the Viertelnösel. Actual volumes so measured, varied from one state or one city to another. Within Saxony, for example, the "Dresden jar" held 1 US quart or 0.95 litres or 0.83 imperial quarts, so a nösel in Dresden was about 1 US pint. The full volume of a "Leipzig jar" measured 1.2 liters. 1⁄320 Ahm = 1⁄64 Eimer = 1⁄16 Viertel = 1⁄8 Stübchen = 1⁄4 Kannen = 1⁄2 Quartiers = 1 Nösel = 2 Halbnöseln = 4 ViertelnöselnThe nösel was used in minor commerce, as well as in the household to measure meal and such.
These units of measure were valid in Saxony until 1868, when the metric system was introduced. The old measures have continued in private use for decades. One interesting modification was introduced in Thuringia. There, the nösel was, by extension a measure of area, their SI Origins. Springer, Berlin 2003. ISBN 1-85233-682-X Helmut Kahnt, Bernd Knorr: Alte Masse, Münzen und Gewichte.. Bibliographisches Institut Mannheim/Wien/Zürich 1987. Wolfgang Trapp: Kleines Handbuch der Maße, Zahlen Gewichte und der Zeitrechnung. Von. Reclam Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1996. ISBN 3-15-008737-6 Günther Scholz, Klaus Vogelsang: Kleines Lexikon: Einheiten, Formelzeichen. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1991 ISBN 3-343-00500-2 Johann Christian Nelkenbrechers Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns: enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen, des Wechsel-Courses, Respect-Tage und anderer zur Handlung gehörigen Dinge. Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1769: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Düsseldorf 2004. ISBN 3-936755-58-2 William Tate.
The Modern Cambist: Forming a Manual of Foreign Exchanges, in the Different Operations of Bills of Exchange and Bullion, According to the Practice of All Trading Nations, with Tables of Foreign Weights and Measures, Their Equivalents in English and French. Projekt zur Erschliessung historisch wertvo
A gunsmith is a person who repairs, designs, or builds guns. This occupation differs from an armorer who only replaces worn parts in standard firearms. A gunsmith does modifications and changes to a firearm that may require a high level of craftsmanship requiring the skills of a top level machinist, a skilled wood worker, an engineer, their level of craftsmanship requires several years of training and practical experience under a higher level gunsmith, attendance at a gunsmithing school, or both. A gunsmith does factory level repairs and renovations to restore a much used or deteriorated firearms to new condition, they may make alterations to adapt sporting guns to better fit the individual shooter that may require extensive modifications to the firearm's stocks and metal parts. These repairs and redesigns may require fabrication and fitting of non-available parts and assemblies, which the gunsmith fabricates themselves. Gunsmiths may renew metal finishes to new condition levels, or apply carvings and other decorative features to an otherwise finished gun.
The environment in which all this takes place varies depending on the specific locality, with some gun stores featuring one or a handful of individuals performing this work under their roof, some may work as individuals in their own, separate shop, or it may be a group of trained specialist craftspeople who each contribute their individual skill to manufacture crafted custom made firearms from basic metal and wood raw materials. Gunsmiths may be employed in: factories by firearms manufacturers in their in-house Custom Shop, armories by military or law-enforcement agencies, sporting goods stores, or small gunsmith shops, as either the owner, or as one of a handful of employees. To pursue the entirety of this trade, a gunsmith must possess skills as a parts fabricator, a metalworker or blacksmith, a woodworker and an artisan; those who are employed in small gunsmith shops must possess skills as small business operators. Due to the great breadth of subject matter to be mastered, many gunsmiths specialize in only a few of the skills required of the general gunsmith.
Alternatively, some gunsmiths learn many of the skills of the trade, but only apply them to a few weapon types. The primary technical responsibility of gunsmiths is to ensure that the guns work and function safely, they accomplish this first by always properly observing and demonstrating gun safety, in their handling procedures: both in their own actions, in the actions of their customers and the people around them. They accomplish this secondly by inspecting guns to ensure safe mechanical operation. Gunsmiths use their in-depth knowledge of guns to guide these inspections: either repairing deficiencies; some of the conditions a Gunsmith looks for when inspecting a firearm brought to them for repairs are: Improper Assembly Missing Parts Cracks: all cracked parts are cause for concern, but so in the chamber-area, bolt-lugs, or buttstock. Bore Obstructions: being either dented or bent barrels, or foreign material in barrels. Improper Headspace: dimensions concerning the relative locations of the chamber and the bolt are not within specified tolerances.
Improper Timing: Safety-Mechanism Malfunctions: allowing a gun with the safety mechanism engaged to unexpectedly fire. Worn Sear Edges: allowing a firearm to unexpectedly fire when the safety mechanism is disengaged. Firing-Pin Tips Deformed: leading to the possibility of primer-rupture; this list is not comprehensive. Many failure modes are dependent on the particular model of firearm. Disassemble, inspect, lubricate & reassemble. Remove corrosion and touch-up finish. Repair damaged parts with files & stones. Replace defective parts with factory-made replacements, hand-fitting as necessary. Add after-market customizations: sling-swivels recoil-pads iron-sights scopes grip caps butt plates Repair and re-finish wooden stock parts. Checker or re-checker grip areas. Deepen or clean up worn or damaged engravings & markings. Re-crown damaged muzzles on a lathe. Repair dented shotgun barrels. Install or repair rib on shotgun barrels, or repair double-barrel assemblies. Measure & correct head-space dimensions.
Check for excessive bore erosion. Troubleshoot and repair feeding, ejecting & firing problems. Test-fire guns with conventional loads to ensure proper operation. Fabricate wooden stocks to customer specifications and body dimensions. Fit same to existing receiver and barrel. Glass-bed actions to stocks to improve accuracy. Remove existing metal finish, re-blue metal parts. Fabricate replacement parts from metal stock. Modify trigger-pull weight through careful stoning of trigger mechanism parts. Fire proof-loads through weapons to ensure sufficient strength of parts under over-load conditions. Replace worn barrels, which have fired so many rounds that they are no longer of the specified caliber. Change caliber or cartridge of existing rifle, by changing barrel, modifying receiver. Re-cut rifling and chang