Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau. After World War II its headquarters moved to Frankfurt am Main, in 1967 AEG joined with its subsidiary Telefunken AG creating Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken. In 1985 Daimler-Benz purchased the AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft, which was renamed to AEG Aktiengesellschaft, the remains of AEG became part of Adtranz and Deutsche Aerospace. After acquiring the AEG household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH in 1994, in 2005 Electrolux obtained the rights to the brand name AEG, the AEG name is licensed to various brand partners under the Electrolux Global Brand Licensing programme. In 1883 Emil Rathenau founded Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in Berlin, initially producing electrical equipment, the company soon became involved in AC electric transmission systems.
In 1907 Peter Behrens was appointed as consultant to AEG. This led to the creation of the initial corporate identity, with products. The company expanded in the first half of the 20th century, during the same period it entered the automobile and airplane markets. Electrical equipment for railways was produced during this time, beginning a history of supplying the German railways with electrical equipment. After WWII, the company lost its businesses in the part of Germany. After a merger in 1967 the company was renamed Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken, the company experienced financial difficulties during the 1970s, resulting in the sale of some assets. In 1983 the consumer electronics division Telefunken Fernseh und Rundfunk GmbH was sold, under Daimler-Benz ownership, the former AEG companies eventually become part of the newly named Adtranz in 1995 and the AEG name was no longer used. Electrolux, which had acquired the household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH of AEG in 1994.
The company originated in 1882, when Emil Rathenau acquired licences to use some of Thomas Edisons lamp patents in Germany, the Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft was founded in 1883 with the financial backing of banks and private individuals, with Emil Rathenau as company director. In 1884, Munich-born engineer Oskar von Miller joined the executive board, the original factory was located near Stettiner Bahnhof. In 1887 the Company acquired land in the Berlin-Gesundbrunnen area on which the Weddingsche Maschinenfabrik was previously located, in the same year, in addition to a restructuring and expansion of the production range, the AEG name was adopted. In 1887 Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrowolsky joined the company as chief engineer, becoming vice-director and his work on polyphase electric power led him to become the worlds leading engineer in three-phase electric power systems at the end of the 1880s. This success marked one of beginnings of the use of alternating current for electrification in Germany
Guangzhou, traditionally romanised as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Guangzhou is currently, the third city in mainland China, behind Beijing and Shanghai, holds sub-provincial administrative status. In 2015 the citys area was estimated to have a population of 13,501,100. Some estimates place the population of the area of the Pearl River Delta Mega City as high as 44 million without the Hong Kong SAR and 54 million including it. Guangzhou is ranked as a Beta+ Global city, in recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of foreign residents and illegal immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, as well as from Africa. This has led to it being dubbed the Capital of the Third World, the migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40 percent of the citys total population in 2008. Long the only Chinese port accessible to foreign traders, the city fell to the British during the First Opium War.
No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, for the three consecutive years 2013–2015, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city on the Chinese mainland. Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, which was simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s, before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhous districts. The origin of the name is uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a commandery. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi, under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. Under the Qing, it was known to its inhabitants as simply The Provincial Capital. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is 穗, after its nickname Rice City, the former name City of the Immortals came from the same story.
The more recent City of Flowers is usually taken as a reference to the areas greenery. The English name Canton derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was used in English in reference to Guangdong generally. It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in use until the gradual adoption of pinyin
Bombardier Movia is a family of metro train built by Bombardier Transportation. The structure and body shell are fully customisable for the needs of each system that orders it, unlike most traditional metro trains, they usually have full-width gangways between carriages, allowing passengers to walk the entire length of the train. The design was developed by Adtranz which was acquired by Bombardier in 2001, guangzhou Metro, Shanghai Metro, and Shenzhen Metro all use Movia 456 trains, while Bucharest Metro use the Movia 346. Movia trains are on order and entering service for the London Underground, Toronto Subway, Singapore MRT has accepted an order of 92 C951 trains, one of the largest orders in Singapore. Shanghai Metro -134 six-car units, Shenzhen Metro -22 six-car units. Delhi Metro 614 cars - Phase II Metrorex 44 trains SBSTransit 92 three car trains, on the MRT Downtown Line in 2013 C951 Bangkok BTS Skytrain 17 four-car units. Delivered on June 25,2010 and enter service late 2010 on the Silom line running between the National Stadium and Wongwian Yai stations.
London Underground 47 trains - Movia tube stock,8 car for the Victoria Line 191 trains - Movia sub-surface stock,7 or 8 car for the Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City and Circle Lines
Rapid transit, known as heavy rail, subway, tube, or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains and they are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little use of land, variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. The worlds first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a railway in 1863. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, china has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world. The worlds longest single-operator rapid transit system by length is the Shanghai Metro.
The worlds largest single rapid transit service provider by both length of revenue track (665 miles and number of stations is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. One of these terms may apply to a system, even if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway, in the US, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways, whereas the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. In that vein, Chicagos commuter rail system, serving the area, is called Metra. Exceptions in naming rapid transit systems are Washington DCs subway system the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, and the Miami Metrorail, the opening of Londons steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant, experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam, in 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, which was fully underground. Both railways were merged into London Underground. The 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset, budapest in Hungary and Glasgow and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services, hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems
Tianhe District is one of the eleven districts of Guangzhou in the province of Guangdong. In Chinese, the name Tianhe literally means a river in the sky/heavens and it is bordered by Yuexiu District on the west, Baiyun District on the north and Huangpu District on the east. Haizhu District is on its south, though they are separated by the Pearl River, Tianhe became a district in the 1980s as the city expanded its size. Back then, it was east of Dongshan District and it was more suburban like if not rural like, even though a majority of colleges and universities in the city were located in the district, the rest of the district was mostly composed of rice fields. Symbolic landmarks of Guangzhou located in Tianhe District are, Citic Plaza, Guangzhou International Finance Center, Guangzhou Opera House, the 6th and 9th of The National Games of the Peoples Republic of China, and the 2010 Asian Games were held in Tianhe District, Guangzhou. Prehistoric population settled in what is now Longdong Subdistrict in the Neolithic Period, eastern Han tombs were discovered in Tianhe.
During the Song Dynasty, Tianhe area was called Dashuixu, the area of modern Tianhe District was part of Panyu County for more than two thousand years. The area was put under Guangzhous administration between 1937 and 1958. By the liberation of Guangzhou, there were two districts in Tianhe area, namely Shahe and Shipai, in 1951 both districts were merged into the newly established Baiyun District, while five years Baiyun was further merged with Huangpu and Xinjiao Districts to form suburban district. In 1960 Jiaoqu was dissolved and the area consisting of modern Tianhe became Huangpu District, in 1985 part of Jiaoqu was split, and Tianhe District was established then. In 1987 Tonghe Town was put into Baiyun District, in 1992 Yangji Cun was put into Dongshan District. By 1994, Kemulang and Fenghuang Farms along with Shadongcun and Erduicun were placed under Tianhes jurisdiction, in 2000, former Xintang, Mubei and Yushu Farms were placed under Tianhe and the farms gradually became subdistricts.
The first big project built in the district during the 1980s was the Tianhe Sports Center when the city was selected to host the Sixth National Games in 1986, the complex includes a stadium of 65,000 seats, a gymnasium and an indoor swimming pool. Its construction had a impact on the development of the district. Soon other projects followed and rice fields gave away to residential complexes called xiaoqu, the construction of xiaoqu began in the mid and late eighties and most of them had residential buildings of no more than 10 stories. Each floor was kept to no more than four units due to the lack of elevators since they would increase the construction cost. Also, due to the number of residential buildings – some xiaoqu had more than 20 residential buildings – a lot of land was needed. The building of Guangzhou East Railway Station in 1990 further contributed to the growth of the district, the old Guangzhou Railway Station is 10 km to the west and was the terminus for trains to and from Beijing and Hong Kong
An overhead line or overhead wire is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses, or trains. Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires situated over rail tracks, the feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid. Electric trains that collect their current from overhead lines use a device such as a pantograph and it presses against the underside of the lowest overhead wire, the contact wire. Current collectors are electrically conductive and allow current to flow through to the train or tram, non-electric locomotives may pass along these tracks without affecting the overhead line, although there may be difficulties with overhead clearance. Alternative electrical power transmission schemes for trains include third rail, ground-level power supply and this article does not cover regenerative braking, where the traction motors act as generators to retard movement and return power to the overhead. To achieve good high-speed current collection, it is necessary to keep the wire geometry within defined limits.
This is usually achieved by supporting the wire from a second wire known as the messenger wire or catenary. This wire approximates the path of a wire strung between two points, a catenary curve, thus the use of catenary to describe this wire or sometimes the whole system. This wire is attached to the wire at regular intervals by vertical wires known as droppers or drop wires. It is supported regularly at structures, by a pulley, the whole system is subjected to a mechanical tension. As the contact wire makes contact with the pantograph, the insert on top of the pantograph is worn down. The straight wire between supports will cause the wire to cross over the whole surface of the pantograph as the train travels around the curve, causing uniform wear. On straight track, the wire is zigzagged slightly to the left. The movement of the wire across the head of the pantograph is called the sweep. The zigzagging of the line is not required for trolley poles. Depot areas tend to have only a wire and are known as simple equipment or trolley wire.
When overhead line systems were first conceived, good current collection was only at low speeds. Compound equipment - uses a second wire, known as the auxiliary