Nevsky Prospekt (Saint Petersburg Metro)
Nevsky Prospekt is a station on the Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It serves the street of one of the largest in the city; the station was opened on July 1, 1963. While the station itself was designed by Mayofis and Maximov, the interior was designed by Getskin and Andreyev; the station has two sets of exits on Mikhailovskya Street. The station is linked to Gostiny Dvor via a transfer corridor that descends to the middle of the platform and a set of escalators at the platform's northern end. Nevsky Prospekt is considered one of the most congested stations in the entire Saint Petersburg Metro. Nevsky Prospekt is one of the more exotic locations used in Mornington Crescent, a game played in the BBC Radio 4 show I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue. Media related to Nevsky Prospekt metrostation at Wikimedia Commons
Moskovsky railway station (Saint Petersburg)
St. Petersburg-Glavny, is a railway station terminal in Russia, it is a terminus for the Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway and other lines running from Central and South Russia, Crimea and Eastern Ukraine. The oldest preserved station in the city, it was erected in 1844-51 to a design by Konstantin Thon; as Nicholas I of Russia was the reigning monarch and the greatest patron of railway construction in the realm, the station was named Nicholaevsky after him. Rechristened Oktyabrsky to memorialize the October Revolution in 1924, the station was not given its present name until 1930. Although large "Venetian" windows, two floors of Corinthian columns and a two-storey clocktower at the centre explicitly reference Italian Renaissance architecture, the building incorporates other features from a variety of periods and countries. A twin train station known as the Leningradsky railway station, was built to Thon's design at the other end of the railway, in Moscow. While Thon's facade remains fundamentally intact to this day, the station was expanded in 1869-79 and 1912.
It was redeveloped internally in 1950-52 and 1967. A bronze bust of Peter the Great in the main vestibule was unveiled in 1993, replacing a bust of Lenin; the station is served by the Mayakovskaya and Vosstaniya Square stations of the Saint Petersburg Metro, with both stations linked to the station building by an underground corridor. Emperor railway station, Pushkin town
Vasileostrovkaya - is a station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line in St Petersburg. It is named after Vasilyevsky Island. Media related to Vasileostrovskaya metrostation at Wikimedia Commons
Begovaya (Saint Petersburg Metro)
Begovaya is a Saint Petersburg Metro station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It opened on 26 May 2018 as a part of the extension of the line to the north from Primorskaya; the extension included Novokrestovskaya station as well. Begovaya is the northern terminus of the line, behind Novokrestovskaya; the station is on the right bank of the Neva, in a rectangle bounded by Savushkina Street, Primorsky Avenue. Begovaya Street, Turistskaya Street; the name of the station is given on the nearby street. Until June 23, 2014 the station had the design name "Savushkina Street". Renamed the resolution of the Government of St. Petersburg on June 23, 2014, according to the recommendations of the Toponymic Commission in connection with the location of the exit of the station near Begovaya Street "Begovaya" is a column multipass station of shallow ground. Architectural design is associated with the theme of the modern industrial urban environment, characteristic of the station's location area.
The architecture of the station was designed by architects N. V. Romashkin-Timanova and U. S. Sergeeva; the theme of architecture is revealed in the image of decorative lamps arranged on columns, stylized as "propellers." Their bodies are made of stainless steel. Built-in fluorescent lamps shine upward with reflection. Lamps of round shape illuminate the platform; the floors of the vestibules and the station are made of polished granite. The columns are faced with stainless steel sheets, the walls are covered with ceramic panels with plinths of polished black granite. For the most complete disclosure of the architectural and artistic concept of the station on the side walls and decorative glass compositions designed in the scale of station finishing were designed. Art panels were made using the technology of lenticular printing. For the safety of passengers, glazed fences with automatic sliding doors are installed along the edges of the platforms; the exit of passengers is carried out to the right side, as well as at the other metro stations with onshore platforms.
The stations "Begovaya" and "Novokrestovskaya" are connected by a double-track tunnel. "Живые панно: станции метро «Беговая» и «Новокрестовская» оформят уникальными объемными композициями". 16 April 2018
Obukhovo (Saint Petersburg Metro)
Obukhovo is a station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line of Saint Petersburg Metro, opened on July 10, 1981. The station is named after the nearby factory, which hosted a rebellion in 1901. Media related to Obukhovo metrostation at Wikimedia Commons
5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways
Railways with a railway track gauge of 5 ft were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States. This gauge is commonly called Russian gauge because this gauge was chosen as the common track gauge for the Russian Empire and its neighbouring countries; the gauge was redefined by Soviet Railways to be 1,520 mm. The primary region where Russian gauge is used is the former Soviet Union and Finland, with about 225,000 km of track. Russian gauge is the second most common gauge in the world, after 1,435 mm standard gauge. In 1748, the Wylam waggonway was built to a 5 ft gauge for the shipment of coal from Wylam to Lemington down the River Tyne. In 1839, the Eastern Counties Railway was constructed. In 1844, both lines were converted to 1,435 mm standard gauge. In 1903, the East Hill Cliff Railway, a funicular, was opened. In 1827, Horatio Allen, the chief engineer of the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, prescribed the usage of 5 ft gauge and many other railroads in Southern United States adopted this gauge.
The presence of several distinct gauges was a major disadvantage to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. In 1886, when around 11,500 miles of 5 ft gauge track existed in the United States all of the railroads using that gauge were converted to 4 ft 9 in; the first railway built in Russia was built in 1837 to 6 ft gauge for a 17 km long "experimental" line connecting the Imperial Palaces at Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk. While of no practical importance the railway did demonstrate that this gauge was viable; the second railway in the Russian Empire was the Warsaw–Vienna railway, built to 1,435 mm and commenced construction in 1840. For the building of Russia's first major railway, the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway, engineer Pavel Melnikov hired as consultant George Washington Whistler, a prominent American railway engineer. Whistler recommended 5 ft on the basis that it was cheaper to construct than 6 ft while still offering the same advantages over 1,435 mm and that there was no need to worry about a break-of-gauge since it would never be connected to the Western European railways.
Colonel P. P. Melnikov, of the Construction Commission overseeing the railway, recommended 6 ft following the example of the first railway and his study of US Railways. Following a report sent by Whistler the head of the Main Administration of Transport and Buildings recommended 5 ft and it was approved for the railway by Tsar Nicholas I on February 14, 1843; the next lines built were approved with this gauge but it was not until March 1860 that a Government decree stated all major railways in Russia would be 5 ft gauge. It is and incorrectly believed that Imperial Russia chose a gauge broader than standard gauge for military reasons, namely to prevent potential invaders from using the rail system. In 1841 a Russian army engineer wrote a paper stating that such a danger did not exist since railways could be made dysfunctional by retreating or diverting forces; the construction of the Warsaw–Vienna railway in 1,435 mm was so it could be connected to the Western European network, in that case to reduce Poland's dependence on Prussia for transport.
For the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway, which became the benchmark, the choice of track gauge was between 5 ft and the wider 6 ft, not standard gauge 1,435 mm. However, it was just not selected with that in mind; when a railway has wooden sleepers, it is easy to make the gauge narrower by removing the nails and placing them back at a narrower position, something Germany did during WWII. Destroying river bridges had a larger effect; the 5-foot gauge became the standard in the whole Russian Empire, its successor Soviet Union. That includes the Baltic states, Belarus, the Caucasian and Central Asian republics, in the once Soviet-influenced Mongolia. Russian engineers used it on the Chinese Eastern Railway, built in the closing years of the 19th century across the Northeastern China entry to provide a shortcut for the Transsiberian Railway to Vladivostok; the railway's southern branch, from Harbin via Changchun to Lüshun, used the Russian gauge, but as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 its southernmost section was lost to the Japanese, who promptly regauged it to standard gauge.
This formed a break of gauge between Changchun and Kuancheng, until the rest of the former Chinese Eastern Railway was converted to standard gauge, too. Unlike in South Manchuria, the Soviet Union's reconquest of southern Sakhalin from Japan did not result in regauging of the railway system. Southern Sakhalin has continued with the original Japanese 1,067 mm gauge with the Russian gauge railway, constructed in the northern part of the island in 1930-1932; the railway has no fixed connection with the mainland, rail cars coming from the mainland port of Vanino on the Vanino-Kholmsk train ferry have their bogies changed in the Sakhalin port of Kholmsk. In 2004 and 2008 plans were put forward to convert it to Ru
Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo II (Saint Petersburg Metro)
Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo II is a station on the Pravoberezhnaya Line of Saint Petersburg Metro, opened on December 30, 1985. Media related to Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo 2 at Wikimedia Commons