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Line Islands

The Line Islands, Teraina Islands or Equatorial Islands, are a chain of atolls and coral islands. Kingman Reef is submerged and Filippo Reef is shown on some maps, although its existence is doubted; the islands were formed by volcanic activity and are located in the central Pacific Ocean, south of the Hawaiian Islands. The 11 islands stretch for 2,350 kilometres in a northwest–southeast direction, making it one of the longest island chains of the world. Eight of the islands form part of Kiribati, while the remaining three are United States territories grouped with the United States Minor Outlying Islands. Only Kiritimati and Tabuaeran atolls and Teraina Island have a permanent population; the International Date Line passes through the Line Islands. The Line Islands that are part of Kiribati are in the world's farthest forward time zone, UTC+14:00; the time of day is the same as in the U. S. state of Hawaii. The time is 26 hours ahead of some other islands in Oceania like Baker Island, which uses UTC−12:00.

Most 18th-century visitors to these isles overlooked the tell-tale signs of former Polynesian settlement. This is true of Captain Cook, who landed on Kiritimati in 1777, Captain Fanning during his visits to Teraina and Tabuaeran in 1798. Archaeologists have since identified remains of coral marae platforms and/or village complexes on all three, as well as on Malden, Millennium Atoll and Flint Island; these remains are dateable as far back as the 14th century, show that the inhabitants of the Line Islands were more than just castaways. Whaling ships were regular visitors to the islands in the 19th century, in search of water and provisions; the first recorded visit was by the whaler Coquette to Christmas Island in 1822. The islands of Fanning and Washington were annexed as part of the British Colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands in 1916, followed in 1919 by the similar annexation of Christmas Island. However, these annexations were contested by the government of the United States, citing its Guano Islands Act of 1856, which allowed for wide-ranging territorial claims.

The latter claims persisted until relinquished under the Treaty of Tarawa, which recognised Kiribati's sovereignty over the majority of the Line Islands chain. In the meantime, the Line Islands featured in biennial reports furnished by the Colony's resident commissioner to the Colonial Office and Parliament in London; the group is geographically divided into three subgroups. The Central Line Islands are sometimes grouped with the Southern Line Islands; the table below lists the islands from North to South. * The lagoon areas marked with an asterisk are contained within the island areas of the previous column because they are, unlike in the case of a typical atoll, inland waters sealed off from the sea. Kiritimati is the largest atoll in the world in terms of land area; the islands were annexed by the UK in 1888 with a view to laying the Pacific cable, with Tabuaeran as a relay station. The cable was laid and was operational between 1902 and 1963 except for a short period in 1914. Copra and "Petfish" are the main export products.

On December 23, 1994, the Republic of Kiribati announced a change of time zone for the Line Islands, to take effect December 31, 1994. This adjustment moved the International Date Line over 1,000 kilometers to the east within Kiribati, placing all of Kiribati on the Asian or western side of the date line, despite the fact that Caroline's longitude of 150 degrees west corresponds to UTC−10 rather than its official time zone of UTC+14. Caroline Island now one day ahead; this move made Caroline Island both the easternmost land in the earliest time zone, one of the first points of land which would see sunrise on January 1, 2000 — at 5:43 a.m. as measured by local time. The stated reason for the move was a campaign promise of Kiribati President Teburoro Tito to eliminate the confusion of Kiribati straddling the Date Line and therefore being in two different days. However, Kiribati officials were not reluctant to attempt to capitalize on the nation's new status as owners of the first land to see sunrise in 2000.

Other Pacific nations, including Tonga and New Zealand's Chatham Islands, protested the move, objecting that it infringed on their claims to be the first land to see dawn in the year 2000. In 1999, in order to further capitalize upon the massive public interest in celebrations marking the arrival of the year 2000, Caroline Island was renamed Millennium Island. Although uninhabited, a special celebration was held on the island, featuring performances by Kiribati native entertainers and attended by Kiribati president Tito. Over 70 Kiribati singers and dancers traveled to Caroline from the capital Tarawa, accompanied by 25 journalists; the celebration, broadcast by satellite worldwide, had an estimated audience of up to one billion viewers. Media related to Line Islands at Wikimedia Commons

Ōshima (Aomori)

Ōshima is a rocky island off the northern coast of Natsudomari Peninsula in Mutsu Bay. The island is a part of Hiranai in Aomori Prefecture; the island has 3 km of coastline and an area of 0.16 km2. It is a part of the Asamushi-Natsudomari Prefectural Natural Park; the island lies only 200 meters north of Natsudomari Peninsula in Mutsu Bay. It was once possible to walk from the island to the peninsula at low-tide, but erosion made this impossible over time; the island is forested on its southern half. The grassland was used for pastoral farming. During the time the Tsugaru clan ruled the area, the island was known as Ōmasaki, reflecting that it was viewed as a cape rather than an island due to being able to walk to the island during low-tide. In May 1949, a lighthouse was built on the northern side of the island; the island was designated as a part of Asamushi-Natsudomari Prefectural Natural Park in June 1953. No automobile traffic is allowed on Ōshima. There is a parking lot along Aomori Prefecture Route 9 and bus stop for the Hiranai Town Bus on the northern tip of Natsudomari Peninsula that serves the vicinity of the island.

The island is accessible from the peninsula by a concrete footbridge that connects to a trail that spans the length of the island. 夏泊半島(大島・椿山)Natsudomari Peninsula, Ōshima- Hiranai Town Website

Mount Wellington Tin Mine

Mount Wellington Tin mine, two miles east of the village of St Day in Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, opened in 1976 and was the first new mine in the region in many years. With the fall of tin prices and the withdrawal of pumping subsidies, the mine closed in 1991. An attempt to revive the mine occurred when an individual tried to transform it into a visitor attraction, but his endeavour failed; the site was bought by Mount Wellington Mine Ltd in early 2007, who removed the remaining headgear stump, have proceeded to renovate the site. There are a number of tenants who operate in the renewable energy sector such as Kensa Heat Pumps, R-Eco and Geoquip Marine. Further works on site are planned. During the 1920s, three brothers called Wellington worked the old Wheal Andrew lodes close to surface; the brothers were mining in a small way, working with primitive plant and operations, taking ore to a Cornish stamps down the valley to be treated for its tin content. Captain Josiah Paull, of the Mines and Metallurgical Club in London, reported that the ore the Wellingtons were breaking was yielding an average of 30 lb. of black tin per ton.

The workings around the shaft they were working were crushed at a date, putting the shaft out of action, “being only ordinary Cornish miners”, the Wellingtons did not have the money to either open up the adit or put down another shaft. In 1935 Mount Wellington Ltd, backed by the British Non-ferrous Mining Corp Ltd, acquired the rights on United and Consolidated Mines, Wheal Clifford and Wheal Andrew. On 5 February shares in Mount Wellington Mine Ltd were advertised for sale. During the 1930s further shafts and mining buildings were built at Mount Wellington the mine acquired mining rights to the adjacent mines. However, by the end of the decade, milling was being suspended due to low tin prices, it faced difficulties extracting the ore at sufficient quantities to show a profit. On 16 December 1939 work stopped at Mount Wellington Mine due to lack of finance. In 1963 International Mine Services Ltd of Toronto became interested in the mineral potential of Cornwall. By 1967 exploratory drilling began at Mount Wellington Mine and by 1969 a contract to sink No.1 Wellington Shaft and erect buildings was awarded to Thyssen by Cornwall Tin & Mining Ltd.

In 1974 Mount Wellington mine, controlled by the Cornwall Tin and Mining Corporation, situated a few miles to the west of Truro on the opposite side of the Bissoe Valley, to the neighbouring Wheal Jane mine, was to go ahead with the proposed tin mining operation. It was the third new tin mine in Cornwall in three years; the erection of the concentrating plant commenced in preparation for receiving its first ore from underground in January 1976. The operation will cost some £4-25 million to finance and qualified for a 20% grant from the U. K. Government; the initial throughput was forecast to be 0'2 million tonnes/annum in an all-gravity plant to provide about 1,600 tonnes of tin metal and some copper and silver. The shaft was to be deepened from 210m to 310m; the mine was planned to have a life of some 25 years, the workforce planned was up to 300. However, on 20 April 1978 Mount Wellington Mine closed. No more ore came up Wellington's No.1 shaft after this date. No. 1 shaft was retained for machinery access.

The Wellington site was sold by the Administrators of Cornwall Tin & Mining Ltd to a Falmouth-based scrap dealer. In August 1979 Carnon Consolidated, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Zinc, acquired Wheal Jane from Consolidated Gold Fields Ltd. RTZ used William Press to renovate Wheal Jane's mill. Carnon bought the freehold of Wellington's No.1 shaft area, together with Wellington's Engineering Building from the scrap dealer. £10m was allocated to renovate both mines. In 1979, Billiton Minerals Ltd, a Shell subsidiary, bought Hydraulic Tin of Bissoe, who worked alluvial tin and mine waste tailings. Billiton bought the rest of buildings, including the Mill at Mount Wellington Mine, they bought the Wheal Maid valley and the tailings dam and lagoon. Wellington's offices, some land for storage of plant, were leased from Billiton by Thyssens. Thyssens used Wellington as a base for their work at South Crofty and Geevor mine. In June 1980 production at Jane recommenced; the following year, a new 7” MDPE pipeline was laid between Wellington and the Tailings Dam at Wheal Maid.

Old mine waste was sluffified and pumped into Wellington's Mill, where it was re-processed to obtain minerals. In 1982 Carnon Consolidated purchased Billiton's freehold interest in the Mount Wellington, Wheal Maid and Hydraulic Tin sites. By 1984 100% of South Crofty had been purchased by Carnon Consolidated, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Zinc, the three mines of Crofty, Mount Wellington and Wheal Jane operated as one unit. Production at Wheal Jane had restarted in 1980 reaching 1499 tonnes of tin in 1981 and 1863 tonnes in 1984; the Wheal Maid Decline was started, on land owned by Mount Wellington Mine. 1984 operations produced an estimated 35,000 tons of ore. The length of the Decline is 655 meters, reached over towards Cornwall County Council's waste dump at United Downs; the Decline suffered from ingress of Methane gas from the dump, which gave rise to safety concerns over possible underground fires or explosion. In March 1991 Wheal Jane, incorporating Mount Wellington Mine, the Wheal Maid Decline and the Wheal Maid Tailings Lagoons, were closed for the last time.

On 16 January 1992 the UK's most infamous mine water outburst disaster occurred when 320 million litres of untreated acidic mine water and sludge burst from the Nangiles adit at the Wheal Jane Mine site in Cornwall into the Carnon R

Mystery Date (game)

Mystery Date is a board game from the Milton Bradley Company released in 1965, conceived by Marvin Glass and created by Henry Stan. Marketed to girls 6 to 14 years of age, it has been reissued in 1970, 1999, 2005, it is popularly referenced as a trope in TV and film. Mystery Date can be played with 3, or 4 players; the object of the game is to acquire a desirable date, while avoiding the "dud". The player must assemble an outfit by acquiring three matching color-coded cards, which must match the outfit of the date at the "mystery door"; the date is revealed by opening the plastic door on the game board. The five possible dates are the "formal dance" date, the "bowling" date, the "beach" date, the "skiing" date, the "dud"; the date to be avoided is the poorly dressed "dud". He is wearing slovenly attire, his hair is tousled, his face sports a beard shadow. In the 1970s game, a "picnic" date replaces the "bowling" date. If the player's outfit does not match the date behind the door, the door is closed and play continues.

The 1999 version of the game includes an "electronic talking phone" to converse with the dates. Future Captain America actor Chris Evans is on the "beach" date; the book Timeless Toys described Mystery Date as if it was the result of crossing "Barbie in all her high-fashion glory with 1965's biggest game show, Let's Make a Deal". Calling it an example of "simple, yet ingenious" quality associated with Marvin Glass, it is now considered "one of the most sought-after games from the'60s". Having played it as a child, Michelle Slatalla of The New York Times in the 2000s retrospectively called the game's premise "politically incorrect". Mystery Date 1965 television commercial Mystery Date at BoardGameGeek Mystery Date at gamepart. Com

Dora the Explorer

Dora the Explorer is an American animated television series created by Chris Gifford, Valerie Walsh Valdes and Eric Weiner that premiered on Nickelodeon on August 14, 2000. The series is produced by Nickelodeon Animation Studio and is one of the longest-running series that aired on the Nick Jr. block. The series centers around Dora, a seven-year-old Latina girl, with a love of embarking on quests related to an activity that she wants to partake of or a place that she wants to go to, accompanied by her talking purple backpack and anthropomorphic monkey companion named Boots; each episode is based around a series of cyclical events that occur along the way during Dora's travels, along with obstacles that she and Boots are forced to overcome or puzzles that they have to solve relating to riddles, the Spanish language, or counting. Common rituals may involve Dora's encounters with Swiper, a bipedal, anthropomorphic masked thieving fox whose theft of the possessions of others must be prevented through fourth wall-breaking interaction with the viewer.

To stop Swiper, Dora must say "Swiper no swiping" three times. However, on occasions where Swiper steals the belongings of other people, the viewer is presented with the challenge of helping Boots and Dora locate the stolen items. Another obstacle involves encounters with another one of the program's antagonists. Known for the constant breaking of the fourth-wall depicted in every episode, the audience is presented to two primary landmarks that must be passed before Dora can reach her destination being challenged with games or puzzles along the way; the episode always ends with Dora reaching the locale, singing the "We Did It!" Song with Boots in triumph. On numerous occasions, television specials have been aired for the series in which the usual events of regular episodes are altered, threatened, or replaced. Said specials will present Dora with a bigger, more whimsical adventure than usual or with a magical task that must be fulfilled, or even offer a series of different adventures for Boots and Dora to travel through.

They might be presented with an unusual, difficult task, not featured in average episodes, or challenge Dora with a goal that must be achieved. Sometimes, the specials have involved the debut of new characters, such as the birth of Dora's superpowered twin baby siblings and the introduction of the enchanted anthropomorphic stars that accompany Dora on many of her quests. Dora Márquez: Kathleen Herles, Caitlin Sanchez, Fátima Ptacek Boots: Harrison Chad, Regan Mizrahi, Koda Gursoy Backpack: Sasha Toro, Alexandria Suarez Isa the Iguana: Ashley Fleming, Lenique Vincent, Skai Jackson Tico the Squirrel: Jose Zelaya, Jean Carlos Celi Benny the Bull: Jake Burbage, Matt Gumley Explorer Stars: Christiana Anbri, Henry Gifford, Katie Gifford, Aisha Shickler, Muhammed Cunningham, Jose Zeleya Diego: Felipe and Andre Dieppa, Jake T. Austin, Brandon Zambrano, Jacob Medrano Elaine Del Valle – Val the Octopus, various Eileen Galindo – Mrs. Marquez Chris Gifford – Big Red Chicken, Grumpy Old Troll, various K. J. Sanchez Adam Sietz – Boots' Daddy, various Leslie Valdes Marc Weiner – Map, Swiper John Leguizamo Cheech Marin Ricardo Montalbán Esai Morales – Mr. Marquez Amy Principe Irwin Reese Chita Rivera Antonia Rey Paul Rodriguez Frankie Grande Johnny Weir, Hilary Duff, Jewel Kilcher Mel Brooks Alan Cumming Sara Ramirez The show was developed out of Nickelodeon's desire to "come up with the next big hit" similar to the network's other hit preschool shows at the time Little Bear and Blue's Clues.

The creators sought to combine both shows format, with the narrative focus of Little Bear combined with the interactivity of Blue's Clues. The creators further developed the concept by observing preschoolers with the creators coming to the conclusion that " they are little explorers"Dora is a Latina. According to a Nickelodeon spokesman, "she was developed to be pan-Latina to represent the diversity of Latino cultures"; the character was not planned to be Latina although after an executive at Nickelodeon attended a conference about the lack of Latino representation, the creators were asked if they could include such elements. At first there was hesitancy, but they realized that they had "a great opportunity" and the character was designed as such. Nickelodeon at first did not like the antagonist Swiper, at first with researchers stating that "he was bad modeling and unsettling to kids". On March 8, 2009, Mattel and Nickelodeon announced that Dora will receive a tweenage makeover, switching from a young age to a teenage attending middle school.

It was announced that the new look would not be revealed until late 2009, but after a short controversy, the tween Dora was unveiled on March 16, 2009. In 2012, a CGI opening was created for new episodes of the series. In 2009, Mattel

Central–Wan Chai Bypass

The Central–Wan Chai Bypass is a four-kilometre trunk road running between Sheung Wan and Fortress Hill on Hong Kong Island. The original design consists of a 2.3 km dual three-lane tunnel running under new reclamation areas provided by the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project, connections to Connaught Road West flyover and Island Eastern Corridor. It substitutes Connaught Road Central, Harcourt Road, Gloucester Road and Victoria Park Road to be part of Route 4; the bypass opened to traffic on 20 January 2019. The project estimated to cost HK$28 billion, was approved by the Legislative Council finance committee in 2009, following a "decade of objections and legal challenges" from environmentalists and citizens concerned by further reclamation of Victoria Harbour. An Environmental Permit was issued under the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance and construction began the same year. Lawmakers were "shocked" in 2013 by cost overruns; the Transport and Housing Bureau requested HK$8 billion in extra funding, bringing the total bill to HK$36 billion.

Gary Fan, a member of LegCo's transport panel, asked: "Did the government deliberately underestimate the cost in order to get Legco to pass it?" The government bureau blamed unforeseen geotechnical difficulties as well as fluctuating labour and materials costs for the 28 per cent budget increase. On 15 September 2015 the Director of Highways announced that the Central–Wan Chai Bypass will not open in 2017 as anticipated, he blamed a large metal object, found on the seabed at the reclamation site in Wan Chai. As a result of the discovery, reclamation works were suspended for some time; the bypass starts from Rumsey Street Flyover at Sheung Wan. It enters a tunnel outside the International Finance Centre in Central heads east past the Tamar site in Admiralty with an interchange at Wan Chai, it continues to head east under the proposed reclamation areas of Wan Chai, Causeway Bay and Tin Hau. The original design to have the bypass via Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter leave the tunnel and connect with Island Eastern Corridor at Fortress Hill was amended so that the bypass would now emerge from the tunnel between the IEC carriageways, merging with them near Oil Street, Fortress Hill.

Ventilation is an indispensable part for the operation of the tunnel as it will supply fresh air to maintain good air-quality environment to the commuters inside the tunnel while discharge vitiated air in a controlled manner at pre-determined suitable locations of exhaust. The tunnel ventilation system is required to remove smoke in case of tunnel fire incidents, it is proposed to have three ventilation buildings sited near the western end, mid-length and eastern end of the Bypass to achieve the three objectives of supplying fresh air, extracting vitiated air and removing smoke during fire. To achieve an energy efficient ventilation system by shortening the air extraction path, the location of proposed East Ventilation Building needs to be as close to the tunnel portal as possible. Central and Wan Chai Reclamation Highways Department - Major Projects - Central-Wan Chai Bypass and Island Eastern Corridor Link Central-Wan Chai Bypass Project Website Two years time lapse record of Wan Chai section construction work Semi-submersible ship installing large precast unit Central – Wan Chai Bypass and Island Eastern Corridor Link construction sites