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Line code

In telecommunication, a line code is a pattern of voltage, current, or photons used to represent digital data transmitted down a transmission line. This repertoire of signals is called a constrained code in data storage systems; some signals are more prone to error than others when conveyed over a communication channel as the physics of the communication or storage medium constrains the repertoire of signals that can be used reliably. Common line encodings are unipolar, polar and Manchester code. After line coding, the signal is put through a physical communication channel, either a transmission medium or data storage medium; the most common physical channels are: the line-coded signal can directly be put on a transmission line, in the form of variations of the voltage or current. The line-coded signal undergoes further pulse shaping and modulated to create an "RF signal" that can be sent through free space; the line-coded signal can be used to turn on and off a light source in free-space optical communication, most used in an infrared remote control.

The line-coded signal can be printed on paper to create a bar code. The line-coded signal can be converted to magnetized spots on a hard tape drive; the line-coded signal can be converted to pits on an optical disc. Some of the more common binary line codes include: Each line code has advantages and disadvantages. Line codes are chosen to meet one or more of the following criteria: Minimize transmission hardware Facilitate synchronization Ease error detection and correction Achieve a target spectral density Eliminate a DC component Most long-distance communication channels cannot reliably transport a DC component; the DC component is called the disparity, the bias, or the DC coefficient. The disparity of a bit pattern is the difference in the number of one bits vs the number of zero bits; the running disparity is the running total of the disparity of all transmitted bits. The simplest possible line code, gives too many errors on such systems, because it has an unbounded DC component. Most line codes eliminate the DC component – such codes are called DC-balanced, zero-DC, or DC-free.

There are three ways of eliminating the DC component: Use a constant-weight code. Each transmitted code word in a constant-weight code is designed such that every code word that contains some positive or negative levels contains enough of the opposite levels, such that the average level over each code word is zero. Examples of constant-weight codes include Manchester code and Interleaved 2 of 5. Use a paired disparity code; each code word in a paired disparity code that averages to a negative level is paired with another code word that averages to a positive level. The transmitter keeps track of the running DC buildup, picks the code word that pushes the DC level back towards zero; the receiver is designed. Examples of paired disparity codes include alternate mark inversion, 8B10B and 4B3T. Use a scrambler. For example, the scrambler specified in RFC 2615 for 64b/66b encoding. Bipolar line codes have two polarities, are implemented as RZ, have a radix of three since there are three distinct output levels.

One of the principle advantages of this type of code is that it can eliminate any DC component. This is important if the signal must pass through a long transmission line. Several long-distance communication channels have polarity ambiguity. Polarity-insensitive line codes compensate in these channels. There are three ways of providing unambiguous reception of 0 and 1 bits over such channels: Pair each code word with the polarity-inverse of that code word; the receiver is designed. Examples include alternate mark inversion, Differential Manchester encoding, coded mark inversion and Miller encoding. Differential coding each symbol relative to the previous symbol. Examples include MLT-3 encoding and NRZI. Invert the whole stream when inverted syncwords are detected For reliable clock recovery at the receiver, a run-length limitation may be imposed on the generated channel sequence, i.e. the maximum number of consecutive ones or zeros is bounded to a reasonable number. A clock period is recovered by observing transitions in the received sequence, so that a maximum run length guarantees sufficient transitions to assure clock recovery quality.

RLL codes are defined by four main parameters: n, d, k. The first two, m/n, refer to the rate of the code, while the remaining two specify the minimal d and maximal k number of zeroes between consecutive ones; this is used in both telecommunication and storage systems that move a medium past a fixed recording head. RLL bounds the length of stretches of repeated bits during which the signal does not change. If the runs are too long, clock recovery is difficult. By modulating the data, RLL reduces the timing uncertainty in decoding the stored data, which would lead to the possible erroneous insertion or removal of bits when reading the data back; this mechanism ensures that the boundaries between bits can always be found, while efficiently using the media to reliably store the maximal amount of data in a given space. Early disk drives used simple encoding schemes, such as RLL FM code, followed by RLL MFM code which were used in hard disk drives until the mid-1980s and are still used in digital optical discs such as CD, DVD, MD, Hi-MD and Blu-ra

Max Huber (graphic designer)

Max Huber was an influential Swiss graphic designer. Max Huber was born in Baar, Switzerland in 1919, he graduated from Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich under the name Hans Williman. In his formative years, he met Werner Bischof, Josef Müller-Brockmann, Carlo Vivarelli and Hans Falk, his career began in 1935 in Zurich, where he worked for an advertising agency and with Emil Schultness at Conzett&Huber. He met Hans Neuburg. With the beginning of World War II – in order to avoid being drafted in the Swiss army – he moved to Milan to join Studio Boggeri; when Italy entered the war in 1941, Huber was forced to move back to Switzerland, where he began a collaboration with Werner Bischof and Emil Schultness for the influential art magazine Du. He joined the group Allianz, in 1942, he exhibited his abstract work at the Kunsthaus Zurich with Max Bill, Leo Leuppi, Richard Lohse and Camille Graeser. With the end of the war, he went back to Milan; the Italian publisher Einaudi appointed him to creative director for the publishing house.

The job put him in contact with the post-war Italian intelligentsia: Cesare Pavese, Natalia Ginzburg, Elio Vittorini, Franco Fortini, Ettore Sottsass, Achille Castiglioni and Albe Steiner. The following years were marked by some of his most influential designs. With Albe Steiner, he worked for the VIII Triennale di Milano. A keen jazz fan, he designed a series of stunning records covers, music magazines and the set stage for a jazz festival, he met Louis Armstrong. In 1948, he designed the seminal poster for the Autodromo Nazionale di Monza Grand Prix and two years the corporate identity for the supermarket chain La Rinascente. With Achille Castiglioni, he designed large-scale installations for Eni and Montecatini. In 1954, he was awarded the prestigious Compasso d’oro. In 1958, he traveled to the US as a speaker to the First International Seminar on Typography. In 1965, the Nippon Design Committee organised an exhibition of his work at Matsuya Design Gallery in Tokyo; this trip was the beginning of the designer's close ties with Japan, that would culminate with him marrying the artist and illustrator Aoi Kono.

In his years, he alternated between commercial commissions, personal visual experimentation and teaching graphic design at Scuola Umanitaria in Milan, at Scuola Politecnica di Design in Milan and at CSIA in Lugano. He died in Mendrisio in 1992. M.a.x.museo, a museum dedicated to his name and preserving his personal archive, opened in Chiasso in 2005. Max Huber | Progetti Grafici 1936_1981, Electa, CL 35-0704-1 Lo Studio Boggeri | 1933-1981, Electa, CL 35-0686-X Max Huber, Phaidon Press, ISBN 978-0-7148-4547-0 Biography on Max Huber at Max Huber by Museo Cantonale d’Arte Lugano

Flora mirabilis

Flora mirabilis is an opera in three acts composed by Spyros Samaras to an Italian-language libretto by Ferdinando Fontana. Described in the libretto as a Legenda, the opera is an allegorical fairy tale set in medieval Sweden, it premiered at the Teatro Carcano in Milan on 16 May 1886 and was performed again the following year at La Scala. Flora mirabilis was Samara's first opera to be performed outside his native Greece and proved to be his greatest success, playing in multiple opera houses in Italy and abroad. A 20th-century description of Flora mirabilis in Gelli's Dizionario dell'Opera points out that despite having a Greek composer trained in France and a story set in medieval Sweden, the opera adhered quite to the characteristic elements of late 19th-century Italian opera—folkloric dances, large choruses, lengthy orchestral passages used to set both the geographical and the psychological atmosphere. Flora mirabilis was Samaras's first collaboration with the Italian librettist Ferdinando Fontana who became a lifelong admirer of his music and went on to provide the libretti for Samaras's operas Medgè and Lionella.

George Leotsakos and other authors have compared the musical idiom and proto-verismo displayed in Flora to that of Puccini whose first two operas, Le Villi and Edgar had libretti by Fontana. Like Flora, Le Villi and Edgar were based on northern European medieval legends, a particular passion of Fontana's; the premiere of Flora mirabilis at the Teatro Carcano in May 1886 proved to be a great success with both the composer and the librettist brought to the stage for multiple curtain calls. The lead roles of Lidia and Valdo were sung by Ernestina Bendazzi-Secchi and her future husband Alfonso Garulli. Flora mirabilis was performed the following year at La Scala conducted by Franco Faccio and ran for 11 performances with Garulli reprising the role of Valdo and Emma Calvé as Lidia; the opera was subsequently performed in multiple Italian opera houses as well as in Cologne and Vienna. The opera's premiere in Samaras' native Greece took place in Corfu on 5 February 1889, it was performed in Athens that year during the celebrations for the wedding of Crown Prince Constantine, receiving a total of 16 performances there.

The full score to Flora mirabilis was lost in 1943 when Samaras's publisher Casa Sonzogno was hit during the Allied bombing of Milan. However, copies of the piano/vocal score are extant. Although forgotten in modern times, the opera was revived in 1979 in a production by the Greek National Opera at the Olympia Theatre in Athens, its most famous melody, "Dance of the Flowers" was performed on its own at a concert conducted by Samaras himself for the 1896 Olympics in Athens and was performed again in 2011 by the Philharmonic Society of Corfu as part of the commemorations for the 150th anniversary of Samaras's birth. Complete libretto published by Sonzogno for the La Scala performances in 1887

The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films

The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films is a 2014 documentary film and directed by Hilla Medalia and written by Medalia and Daniel Sivan. The film explores the effect of two Israeli cousins, Menahem Golan and Yoram Globus, on Hollywood by producing films and starting one of the most successful independent production companies, Cannon Films. Apart from Golan and Globus, other Hollywood personalities appearing in the film include Sylvester Stallone, Jon Voight, Charles Bronson, Chuck Norris, Michael Dudikoff, Billy Drago, Andrey Konchalovskiy and Franco Zeffirelli; the film had its world premiere at 2014 Cannes Film Festival on May 16, 2014 in Cannes Classics section. In the 1980s, two Israeli cousins influenced Hollywood by producing over 300 films and starting one of the most successful independent production companies, Cannon Films, their complex and differing personalities made them successful and led to their downfall. The film received mixed to positive reviews from the critics upon its premier at Cannes.

Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter criticized the film, writing "It rather disingenuously ignores two major issues. First, Cannon had bad taste in movies. Second, there’s precious little discussion, except in the most general terms, of the company’s suspected financial shenanigans." Concluded that " A little love for Golan and Globus."Tom Christie gave the film a negative review for Indiewire, writing "There's nothing special about Hilla Medalia's documentary, The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films, other than its subjects, Menahem Golan and Yorum Globus."However, Alissa Simon of Variety gave the film a positive review, calling it "both an affectionate tribute and a cautionary tale" and "a solid celebration of Menachem Golan, Yoram Globus and their famous filmmaking empire."Craig Skinner wrote in his review for Film Divider that "The Go-Go Boys presents a fascinating portrait that goes beyond the films and tells an enthralling story of two men who grasped the American Dream in all four hands.

They may not have always been working towards something, worth the effort, but whatever they did, they did it with passion." Electric Boogaloo: The Wild, Untold Story of Cannon Films, a 2014 Australian-American documentary film The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films on IMDb The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films at Rotten Tomatoes

Buona domenica

Buona domenica is a music album by the Italian singer-songwriter Antonello Venditti, released in 1979. All songs written by Antonello Venditti."Buona domenica" "Stai con me" "Robin" "Scusa, devo andare via" "Modena" "Mezzanotte" "Donna in bottiglia" "Kriminal" Antonello Venditti: Piano, Vocals Sandro Centofanti: Piano Maurizio Guarini: Synthesizers Andrea Carpi: Acoustic Guitars Renato Bartolini: Acoustic and Twelve-String Guitars, Mandolin Rodolfo Lamorgese: Acoustic Guitars, Harmonica Claudio Prosperini, Fabio Pignatelli, Massimo Morante: ELectric Guitars Carlo Siliotto: Violin Marco Vanozzi: Electric and Double Bass Agostino Marangolo, Duilio Sorrenti, Marcello Vento, Walter Gonini, Walter Martino: Drums Gato Barbieri, Marco Valentini: Saxophone Produced by Michaelangelo Romano Recorded by

Jan Martyniak

Jan Martyniak became the archbishop and Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Przemyśl–Warsaw in Poland on its establishment on 24 May 1996 and was archbishop of the Eparchy of Przemyśl, recreated after the fall of communism in 1991. Born in Spasie near Stary Sambor a farming family Vasyl and Maria Zygmunts. Baptism and Confirmation received 24 June 1939 in the Greek Catholic church in Terszowie. Years were spent in a family Spasie, where the religious life of the inhabitants of dominant influence was the famous monastery of St. Onofrio Basilian Fathers in nearby Ławrowie. Father of the future Metropolitan drafted during World War II the Soviet Army, was killed in a German POW camp near Dresden. In 1946, along with his mother and brothers forced to leave their homeland in the deportation action. Family settled in a village in the district of New Waliszów bystrzyckim in Lower Silesia, he completed his primary education in 1954 High School in Bystrica, obtaining a matriculation certificate in 1958.

Wishing to devote himself to the clerical state, he studied theology at the Seminary in Wroclaw and graduated in 1964, receiving ordained by Archbishop Boleslaw Kominek. He worked as a curate in the parish of the Roman Catholic Church. Guardian Angels in Walbrzych. After a year of pastoral work aimed to study in Italy, but authorities refused to issue him a passport. In this situation, began his studies in the field of apologetics at Catholic Theological Academy in Warsaw. Deepened their knowledge of the Institute of Primate of the inner life. In the years 1969–70 assistant at the Major Seminary in Wroclaw, in 1973 took up lecturing in Gorzow branch of the Catholic Theological Academy. In 1974 he became pastoral outpost Greek Catholic Church in Legnica. Soon, he became dean. On 22 December 1981 Polish Primate Jozef Glemp gave him the job of vicar general of the faithful of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite for the Southern Vicariate. On 20 July 1989 Vardimissany appointed titular bishop and auxiliary bishop of the Polish primate, the Ordinary for the faithful of the Eastern rites in Poland by Pope John Paul II.

On 16 September 1989 he was ordained bishop of Jasna Gora. January 16, 1991 marked the Ordinary reactivated after 45 years of the Diocese of Przemysl of the Byzantine-Ukrainian rite of the Holy See. May 31, 1996 appointed Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Uniate metropolitan formed Przemysl-Warsaw Ukrainian Greek Catholic church by Pope John Paul II. Ingres to the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Przemysl was held August 17, 1996. In 2005 he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Polish Rebirth in 2007 - the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise V Class. In 2009, the World Union Army Volhynia District asked the Archbishop Stanislaw Dziwisz, Kazimierz Nycz and Jozef Michalik, to support the protest against the behavior of John Martyniak and the Greek Catholic Bishop Volodymyr Juszczak, accusing them of slander persons of Father Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski, the falsification of history and the development of proper ground for the rebirth of Ukrainian nationalism. 1. Указ Президента України № 739/2007. 2. 27 Division Army Volyn" Information Bulletin, No. 1, January–March 2009, Warsaw, pp. 51–54. Http://