Line of scrimmage

In gridiron football, a line of scrimmage is an imaginary transverse line beyond which a team cannot cross until the next play has begun. Its location is based on the spot where the ball is placed after the end of the most recent play and following the assessment of any penalty yards. A line of scrimmage is parallel to the goal lines and touches one edge of the ball where it sits on the ground prior to the snap. Under NCAA, NFHS rules, there are two lines of scrimmage at the outset of each play: one that restricts the offense and one that restricts the defense; the area between the two lines is called the neutral zone. Only the offensive player who snaps the ball is allowed to have any part of his body in the neutral zone. For there to be a legal beginning of a play, at least seven players on the offensive team, including two eligible receivers, must be at, on or within a few inches of their line of scrimmage. In American football, the set distance of the line of scrimmage between the offense and defense is 11 inches, the length of the ball.

In Canadian football, the set distance of the line of scrimmage is 1 yard, more than three times as long as the American line. Many fans and commentators refer colloquially to the entire neutral zone as the "line of scrimmage," although this is technically not correct. In the NFL rulebook, only the defensive-side restraining line is considered a line of scrimmage. Referees, when explaining a penalty, will refer to "the previous spot" instead of the "line of scrimmage" to avoid confusion. Modern video techniques enable broadcasts of American football to display a visible line on the screen representing the line of scrimmage; the line is tapered according to the camera angle and gets occluded by players and other objects as if the line were painted on the field. The line may represent the line of scrimmage or the minimum distance that the ball must be moved for the offensive team to achieve a first down; the line of scrimmage first came into use in 1880. Developed by Walter Camp, it replaced a contested scrimmage that had descended from the game's rugby roots.

This uncontested line of scrimmage would set into motion many more rules that led to the formation of the modern form of gridiron football. Scrummage Glossary of American football Walter Camp, formal creator of the line of scrimmage in 1880 Comparison of Canadian and American football

Cupressus dupreziana

Cupressus dupreziana, the Saharan cypress, or tarout, is a rare coniferous tree native to the Tassili n'Ajjer mountains in the central Sahara desert, southeast Algeria, where it forms a unique population of trees hundreds of kilometres from any other trees. There are only 233 specimens of the largest about 22 m tall; the majority are estimated to be over 2000 years old, with little regeneration due to the increasing desertification of the Sahara. Rainfall totals in the area are estimated to be about 30 mm annually; the largest one is named Tin-Balalan is believed to be the oldest tarout tree with a circumference of 12 meters or 36 feet. This species is distinct from the allied Cupressus sempervirens in its much bluer foliage with a white resin spot on each leaf, the smaller shoots being flattened in a single plane, it has smaller cones, only 1.5–2.5 cm long. Cupressus atlantica is more similar, is treated as a variety of the Saharan cypress by some authors; as a result of its isolation and low population, the Saharan cypress has evolved a unique reproductive system of male apomixis whereby the seeds develop from the genetic content of the pollen.

There is no genetic input from the female "parent". The Moroccan cypress does not share this characteristic; the Saharan cypress is cultivated in southern and western Europe, in part for ex situ genetic conservation, but as an ornamental tree. An international arboretum is being established in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia within which will be established forests of rare and endangered species from throughout the world. One of these forests is dedicated to Cupressus dupreziana and 1300 of the trees have been propagated for planting in late 2007. Stewart, P. J. 1969. Cupressus dupreziana, threatened conifer of the Sahara. Biological Conservation 2: 10-12. Pichot, C. Fady, B. & Hochu, I. 2000. Lack of mother tree alleles in zymograms of Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus embryos. Ann. For. Sci. 57: 17–22. Full article Pichot, C. El Maátaoui, M. Raddi, S. & Raddi, P. 2001. Surrogate mother for endangered Cupressus. Nature 412: 39. Zsolt Debreczy. Kathy Musial. Conifers Around the World. DendroPress.

P. 1089. ISBN 9632190610. Gymnosperm Database: Cupressus dupreziana Arboretum de Villardebelle - photos of trees in the Sahara - A Cypress in the Sahara Conifers Around the World: Cupressus dupreziana - Tarout Cartoonist Michael Leunig's life as a guerrilla gardener on the curly and narrow "Talking Plants", Radio National, Australian Broadcasting Corporation

Fred Titmuss

Frederick Titmuss was an English footballer who played as a full-back for Southampton, Plymouth Argyle and St Austell, made two appearances for England. He joined Southampton as soon as hostilities were over and made a handful of appearances in friendly matches before the resumption of league football. Although Titmuss considered himself to be a left-winger, he was soon converted into an outstanding left-back, he played his first competitive match on the opening day of the 1919–20 Southern League season and formed a partnership with Tom Parker, who were described as "the best pair of backs in the South". Southampton were champions of Division Three in 1922 conceding only 21 goals, with Titmuss an ever-present. According to Holley & Chalk's "Alphabet of the Saints", "his speciality was the slide tackle although his perfect positional play meant that such'last ditch' defending was hardly needed." Southampton Football League Third Division South champions: 1921–22 Plymouth Argyle career details Fred Titmuss at