In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person, on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. In early Buddhism, the term bodhisatta is used in the early texts to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being, "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is described as someone, still subject to birth, death, sorrow and delusion.
Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant; the oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara. During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirms that they will attain Buddhahood. Early Buddhist authors saw this story as indicating that the making of a resolution in the presence of a living Buddha and his prediction/confirmation of one's future Buddhahood was necessary to become a bodhisattva. According to Drewes, "all known models of the path to Buddhahood developed from this basic understanding."The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.
In the Theravāda Buddhavaṃsa, after receiving the prediction, Gautama took four asaṃkheyyas and a hundred thousand, shorter kalpas to reach Buddhahood. The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about, they held it took him three asaṃkhyeyas and ninety one kalpas to become a Buddha after his resolution in front of a past Buddha. During the first asaṃkhyeya he is said to have encountered and served 75,000 Buddhas, 76,000 in the second, after which he received his first prediction of future Buddhahood from Dīpankara, meaning that he could no longer fall back from the path to Buddhahood. Thus, the presence of a living Buddha is necessary for Sarvāstivāda; the Mahāvibhāṣā explains that its discussion of the bodhisattva path is meant to “stop those who are in fact not bodhisattvas from giving rise to the self-conceit that they are.”The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames: Natural, one first plants the roots of merit in front of a Buddha to attain Buddhahood.
Resolution, one makes their first resolution to attain Buddhahood in the presence of a Buddha. Continuing, one continues to practice. Irreversible, at this stage, one cannot fall back; the Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is “irreversible” from the attainment of Buddhahood. The Nidānakathā, as well as the Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiṭaka commentaries makes this explicit by stating that one cannot use a substitute for the presence of a living Buddha, since only a Buddha has the knowledge for making a reliable prediction; this is the accepted view maintained in orthodox Theravada today. The idea is that any resolution to attain Buddhahood may be forgotten or abandoned during the aeons ahead; the Burmese monk Ledi Sayadaw explains that though it is easy to make vows for future Buddhahood by oneself, it is difficult to maintain the necessary conduct and views during periods when the Dharma has disappeared from the world.
One will fall back during such periods and this is why one is not a full bodhisatta until one receives recognition from a living Buddha. Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him. Medieval Theravada literature and inscriptions report the aspirations of monks and ministers to meet Maitreya for this purpose. Modern figures such as Anagarika Dharmapala, U Nu both sought to receive a prediction from a Buddha in the future and believed meritorious actions done for the good of Buddhism would help in their endeavor to become bodhisattas in the future. Over time the term came to be applied to other figures besides Gautama Buddha in Theravada lands due to the influence of Mahayana; the Theravada Abhayagiri tradition of Sri Lanka practiced Mahayana Buddhism and was influential until the 12th century. Kings of Sri Lanka
Relics associated with Buddha
According to Mahaparinibbana Sutta, after his death, the Buddha was cremated and the ashes divided among his followers. His ashes were to go only to the Shakya clan, to which Buddha belonged. To avoid fighting, a Brahmin Drona divided the relics into ten portions, eight from the body relics, one from the ashes of Buddha's cremation pyre and one from the pot used to divide the relics, which he kept for himself. After The Buddha's Parinibbāna, his relics were enshrined and worshipped in stupas by the royals of eight countries: to Ajatasattu, king of Magadha, they were enclosed in caskets. The relics were dug up by Ashoka, used the relics and had stupas built over them throughout the region he rules. Many of the remains were taken to other countries; the Ashokavadana narrates how Ashoka redistributed Buddha's relics across 84,000 stupas, with the distribution of the relics and construction of the stupas performed by Yakshas. When the Chinese pilgrims Fa-hien and Hiuen Tsang visited India centuries they reported most of ancient sites were in ruin.
The Lokapannatti tells the story of King Ajatashatru of Magadha who gathered the Buddha's relics and hid them in an underground stupa. The Buddha's relics were protected by spirit-powered mechanical robots from the kingdom of Roma visaya until they were disarmed by King Ashoka; the Mahaparinirvana sutra says that of the Buddha's four eye teeth, one was worshipped in Indra's Heaven, the second in the city of Ghandara, the third in Kalinga, the fourth in Ramagrama by the king of the Nagas. Annually in Sri Lanka and China, tooth relics would be paraded through the streets. In the past relics have had the legal right to own property. A southeast Asian tradition says that after his parinirvana the gods distributed the Buddha's 800,000 body and 900,000 head hairs throughout the universe. In Theravada according to the 5th century Buddhaghosa possessing relics was one of the criteria in Theravada for what constituted a proper monastery; the adventures of many relics are said to have been foretold by Buddha, as they spread the dharma and gave legitimacy to rulers.
It is said all the Buddha's relics will one day gather at the Bodhi tree where he attained enlightenment and will form his body sitting cross legged and performing the twin miracle. It is said. In the Nandimitravadana translated by Xuanzang it is said that the Buddha's relics will be brought to parinirvana by sixteen great arhats and enshrined in a great stupa; that stupa will be worshipped until it sinks into the earth down to the golden wheel underlying the universe. The relics are not destroyed by fire in this version but placed in a final reliquary deep within the earth to appear again. Previous incarnations of the Buddha left relics; the relics of Buddha's disciples like Sariputta and Maugglayana, were preserved enshrined in stupas. Sometime in the middle of the fifth century the Chinese pilgrim Daorong traveled to Afghanistan visiting pilgrimage sites. In Nagaharahara was a piece of bone from the top of Buddha's skull four inches long. In the city was an enshrined staff, a jeweled reliquary containing some teeth and hair.
A shadow was said to have been projected onto a rock wall, said to have belonged to Buddha, as well as a set of foot prints, a site venerated for being where Buddha washed his robe. A temple said to have been built by Buddha is sinking into the ground here, with what is said to be his writing on the wall. A tooth of the Buddha was kept in Baktra. In Bamyan a tooth of Buddha was stored along with the tooth of a cakravartin king. An early masterpiece of the Greco Buddhist art of Ghandara, one of the earliest representations of the Buddha, the Bimaran casket was discovered in a stupa near Jalabad in eastern Afghanistan. Although the casket bears an inscription saying it contained some of the relics of the Buddha. Buddha's first disciples Trapusa and Bahalika received eight strands of hair from him which they brought to their home town of Balkh and enshrined in a golden stupa by the gate. Lu Mountain temple, East of Los Angeles California has received over 10,000 sarira including two teeth and one hair believed to belong to Gautama Buddha.
Most of these relics were donated from monasteries across Vietnam. A Buddha relic is kept in Buddha Dhatu Jadi Bangladesh beneath four Buddha statues; the Buddha’s Dhatu was given by Ven. U Paññya Jota Mahathero in 1994 by the State Sangha Maha Nayaka Committee of Myanmar. Ringsels from Buddha, Longchenpa and Milarepa visited Chubachu Bhutan from Bodhgaya Sri Lanka, in October 2013. A Buddha relic was enshrined at Sakyaminu Chedai 2002 Royal Place in Oudong. Fifty years earlier, this relic was transported from Sri Lanka to Phnom Penh, but was transported again after King Sihanouk voiced concerns about urban decay surrounding Phnom Penh. King Sihanouk of Cambodia received a Buddha relic from the French in 1952. Relics present from the 1950s were stolen in Odong mountai
Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso; the Dalai Lama is considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, a Bodhisattva of Compassion. The name is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" or "big" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ meaning "master, guru"; the Dalai Lama figure is important for many reasons. Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist values and traditions; the Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond sectarian boundaries. While he had no formal or institutional role in any of the religious traditions, which were headed by their own high lamas, he was a unifying symbol of the Tibetan state, representing Buddhist values and traditions above any specific school.
The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the present fourteenth Dalai Lama. He has worked to overcome sectarian and other divisions in the exiled community and has become a symbol of Tibetan nationhood for Tibetans both in Tibet and in exile. In 1793, Emperor Qianlong issued decree The 29-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet, Article One of the decree was designed to be used in the selection of rinpoches and other high offices within Tibetan Buddhism, including the Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and Mongolian lamas. For candidates of the possible reincarnated Dalai Lama, names will be deposited in a urn, only one will be picked by lottery in Jokhang. In Qianlong's article The Discourse of Lama《喇嘛说》, published in 1792, the Emperor pointed out that Golden Urn can't eliminate all the drawbacks, but this is a fairer mechanism than previous method of deciding with idea from only one person.
From 1642 until 1705, from 1750 to the 1950s, the Dalai Lamas or their regents headed the Tibetan government in Lhasa which governed all or most of the Tibetan Plateau with varying degrees of autonomy under the Qing Dynasty of China, up to complete sovereignty. This Tibetan government enjoyed the patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings of the Khoshut and Dzungar Khanates and of the emperors of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. Tibet's sovereignty was rejected, however, by both the Republic of China and the current People's Republic of China. In Central Asian Buddhist countries, it has been believed for the last millennium that Avalokiteśvara, the bodhisattva of compassion, has a special relationship with the people of Tibet and intervenes in their fate by incarnating as benevolent rulers and teachers such as the Dalai Lamas; this is according to The Book of Kadam, the main text of the Kadampa school, to which the 1st Dalai Lama, Gendun Drup, first belonged. In fact, this text is said to have laid the foundation for the Tibetans' identification of the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara.
It traces the legend of the bodhisattva's incarnations as early Tibetan kings and emperors such as Songtsen Gampo and as Dromtönpa. This lineage has been extrapolated including the Dalai Lamas. Thus, according to such sources, an informal line of succession of the present Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara stretches back much further than Gendun Drub; the Book of Kadam, the compilation of Kadampa teachings composed around discussions between the Indian sage Atiśa and his Tibetan host and chief disciple Dromtönpa and ‘Tales of the Previous Incarnations of Arya Avalokiteśvara’, nominate as many as sixty persons prior to Gendun Drub who are enumerated as earlier incarnations of Avalokiteśvara and predecessors in the same lineage leading up to him. In brief, these include a mythology of 36 Indian personalities plus 10 early Tibetan kings and emperors, all said to be previous incarnations of Dromtönpa, fourteen further Nepalese and Tibetan yogis and sages in between him and the 1st Dalai Lama.
In fact, according to the "Birth to Exile" article on the 14th Dalai Lama's website, he is "the seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a Brahmin boy who lived in the time of Buddha Shakyamuni." According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteśvara had promised the Buddha to guide and protect the Tibetan people and in the late Middle Ages, his master plan to fulfill this promise was the stage-by-stage establishment of the Dalai Lama theocracy in Tibet. First, Tsongkhapa established three great monasteries around Lhasa in the province of Ü before he died in 1419; the 1st Dalai Lama soon became Abbot of the greatest one and developed a large popular power base in Ü. He extended this to cover Tsang, where he constructed a fourth great monastery, Tashi Lhunpo, at Shigatse; the 2nd studied there before returning to Lhasa. Having reactivated the 1st's large popular followings in Tsang and Ü, the 2nd moved on to southern Tibet and gathered more followers there who helped him construct a new monastery, Chokorgyel.
He established the method by which Dalai Lama incarnations would be discovered through visions at the'oracle lake', Lhamo Lhatso. The 3rd built on his predecessors' fame by becoming Ab
'Drepung Monastery, located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelug university gompas of Tibet. The other two are Sera Monastery. Drepung is the largest of all Tibetan monasteries and is located on the Gambo Utse mountain, five kilometers from the western suburb of Lhasa. Freddie Spencer Chapman reported, after his 1936-37 trip to Tibet, that Drepung was at that time the largest monastery in the world, housed 7,700 monks, "but sometimes as many as 10,000 monks."Since the 1950s, Drepung Monastery, along with its peers Ganden and Sera, have lost much of their independence and spiritual credibility in the eyes of Tibetans since they operate under the close watch of the Chinese security services. All three were reestablished in exile in the 1950s in Karnataka state in south India. Drepung and Ganden are in Mundgod and Sera is in Bylakuppe. Drepung Monastery was founded in 1416 by Jamyang Choge Tashi Palden, one of Tsongkhapa's main disciples, it was named after the sacred abode in South India of Shridhanyakataka.
Drepung was the principal seat of the Gelugpa school and it retained the premier place amongst the four great Gelugpa monasteries. The Ganden Phodrang in Drepung was the residence of the Dalai Lamas until the Great Fifth Dalai Lama constructed the Potala. Drepung was known for the high standards of its academic study, was called the Nalanda of Tibet, a reference to the great Buddhist monastic university of India. Old records show that there were two centres of power in Drepung: the so-called lower chamber associated with the Dalai Lamas-to-be, the upper chamber associated with the descendants of Sonam Drakpa, an illustrious teacher who died in 1554; the estate of the Dalai Lamas at Drepung Monastery, called Ganden Phodrang, had been constructed in 1518 by Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo, retrospectively named and counted as 2nd Dalai Lama. The name of the Tibetan government established by the 5th Dalai Lama came from the name of this estate. Penchen Sönam Drakpa in 1535 succeeded Gendün Gyatso on the Throne of Drepung, both of them being major figures in the history of the Geluk tradition.
By the time Sönam Drakpa was appointed to the Throne of Drepung, he was a famous Geluk master. He had occupied the Throne of Ganden and was considered the most prolific and important Geluk thinker of his time, his successor was none other than Sönam Gyatso, the lama who would receive the official title of the Third Dalai Lama. Before his death in 1554, Sönam Drakpa established his own estate, the Upper Chamber, named because of its location at the top of Drepung, just below the Ngakpa debating courtyard "Ngagpa Dratshang". Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center attributes the following Name variants to Penchen Sönam Drakpa: "bsod nams grags pa, paN chen bsod nams grags pa, khri 15 bsod nams grags pa, rtses thang paN chen bsod nams grags pa, gzims khang gong ma 01 bsod nams grags pa, this last one referring to the Seat of the Upper Chamber established in 1554. According to TBRC his successors referring to the estate of the Zimkhang Gongma were Sonam Yeshe Wangpo, Sonam Gelek Palzang and Tulku Dragpa Gyaltsen - connected to the famous story of Dorje Shugden..
It seems to be accepted that Dragpa Gyaltsen was the fourth holder of the gzims khang gong ma incarnation line. According to Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center gzims khang gong ma 04 grags pa rgyal mtshan has been his "primaryTitle". Since the search for his reincarnation has been banned, he has been the last one. Chapman reported that in the late 1930s Drepung was divided into four colleges, each housing monks from a different locality: "one being favoured by Khampas, another by Mongolians, so on." Each college was presided over by an abbot, appointed by the late 13th Dalai Lama. Drepung is now divided into what are known as the seven great colleges: Gomang, Deyang, Gyelwa or Tosamling and Ngagpa, it can be a somewhat useful analogy to think of Drepung as a university along the lines of Oxford or the Sorbonne in the Middle Ages, the various colleges having different emphases, teaching lineages, or traditional geographical affiliations. According to local sources, today the population at the monastery in Lhasa is about 300 monks, due to population capping enforced by the Chinese government.
However, the institution has continued its tradition in exile with campuses in South India on land in Karnataka given to the Tibetan community in exile by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The monastery in India today houses over 5,000 celibate monks, with around 3,000 at Drepung Loseling and some 2,000 at Drepung Gomang. Hundreds of new monks are admitted many of them refugees from Tibet; the Ganden-Phodrang-Palace situated at Drepung Monastery was constructed by the 2nd Dalai Lama in 1518 and declared his chief residence/governmental palace until the inauguration of Potala Palace by the 5th Dalai Lama. About 40% of the old monastic town was destroyed after the Chinese arrived in Lhasa in 1951, though luckily the chief buildings including the four colleges, the Tsokchen and the Dalai Lamas' residence were preserved. Drepung monastery was shut down by Chinese authorities on 14 March 2008, after monk-led protests against C
Ānanda was the primary attendant of the Buddha and one of his ten principal disciples. Among the Buddha's many disciples, Ānanda stood out for having the best memory. Most of the texts of the early Buddhist Sutta-Piṭaka are attributed to his recollection of the Buddha's teachings during the First Buddhist Council. For that reason, he is known as the Treasurer of the Dhamma, with Dhamma referring to the Buddha's teaching. In Early Buddhist Texts, Ānanda was the first cousin of the Buddha. Although the early texts do not agree on many parts of Ānanda's early life, they do agree that Ānanda was ordained as a monk and that Puṇṇa Mantāniputta became his teacher. Twenty years in the Buddha's ministry, Ānanda became the attendant of the Buddha, when the Buddha selected him for this task. Ānanda performed his duties with great devotion and care, acted as an intermediary between the Buddha and the laypeople, as well as the saṅgha. He accompanied the Buddha for the rest of his life, acting not only as an assistant, but a secretary and a mouthpiece.
Scholars are skeptical about the historicity of many events in Ānanda's life the First Council, consensus about this has yet to be established. A traditional account can be drawn from early texts and post-canonical chronicles. Ānanda had an important role in establishing the order of bhikkhunīs, when he requested the Buddha on behalf of the latter's foster-mother Mahāpajāpati Gotamī to allow her to be ordained. Ānanda accompanied the Buddha in the last year of his life, therefore was witness to many tenets and principles that the Buddha conveyed before his death, including the well-known principle that the Buddhist community should take his teaching and discipline as their refuge, that he would not appoint a new leader. The final period of the Buddha's life shows that Ānanda was much attached to the Buddha's person, he saw the Buddha's passing with great sorrow. Shortly after the Buddha's death, the First Council was convened, Ānanda managed to attain enlightenment just before the council started, a requirement.
He had a historical role during the council as the living memory of the Buddha, reciting many of the Buddha's discourses and checking them for accuracy. During the same council, however, he was chastised by Mahākassapa and the rest of the saṅgha for allowing women to be ordained and failing to understand or respect the Buddha at several crucial moments. Ānanda continued to teach until the end of his life, passing on his spiritual heritage to his pupils Sāṇavāsī and Majjhantika, among others, who assumed leading roles in the Second and Third Councils. Ānanda died 20 years after the Buddha, stūpas were erected at the river where he died. Ānanda was one of the most loved figures in Buddhism. He was known for his memory and compassion, was praised by the Buddha for these matters, he functioned as a foil to the Buddha, however, in that he still had worldly attachments and was not yet enlightened, as opposed to the Buddha. In the Sanskrit textual traditions, Ānanda is considered the patriarch of the Dhamma, who stood in a spiritual lineage, receiving the teaching from Mahākassapa and passing them on to his own pupils.
Ānanda has been honored by bhikkhunīs since early medieval times for his merits in establishing the nun's order. In recent times, the composer Richard Wagner and Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore were inspired by stories about Ānanda in their work; the word ānanda means ` bliss, joy' in Sanskrit. Pāli commentaries explain. Texts from the Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition, state that since Ānanda was born on the day of the Buddha's enlightenment, there was great rejoicing in the city—hence the name. According to the texts, in a previous life, Ānanda made an aspiration to become a Buddha's attendant, he made this aspiration in the time of a previous Buddha called Padumuttara, many eons before the present age. He aspired to be like him in a future life. After having done many good deeds, he made his resolution known to the Padumuttara Buddha, who confirmed that his wish will come true in a future life. After having been born and reborn throughout many lifetimes, doing many good deeds, he was born as Ānanda in the time of the current Buddha Gotama.
Ānanda was born in the same time period as the Buddha, which scholars place at 5th–4th centuries BCE. Tradition says that Ānanda was the first cousin of the Buddha, his father being the brother of Suddhodana, the Buddha's father. In the Pāli and Mūlasarvāstivāda textual traditions, his father was Amitodana, but the Mahāvastu states that his father was Śuklodana—both are brothers of Suddhodana; the Mahāvastu mentions that Ānanda's mother's name was Mṛgī. The Pāli tradition has it that Ānanda was born on the same day as Prince Siddhatta, but texts from the Mūlasarvāstivāda and subsequent Mahāyāna traditions state Ānanda was born at the same time the Buddha attained enlightenment, was therefore much younger than the Buddha; the latter tradition is corroborated by several instances in the Early Buddhist Texts, in which Ānanda appears younger than the Buddha, such as the passage in which the Buddha explained to Ānanda how old age was affecting him in bo
Four Noble Truths
In Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths are "the truths of the Noble Ones", the truths or realities for the "spiritually worthy ones". The truths are: dukkha is an innate characteristic of existence with each rebirth, they are traditionally identified as the first teaching given by the Buddha, considered one of the most important teachings in Buddhism. The four truths appear in many grammatical forms in the ancient Buddhist texts, they have both a symbolic and a propositional function. Symbolically, they represent the awakening and liberation of the Buddha, of the potential for his followers to reach the same religious experience as him; as propositions, the Four Truths are a conceptual framework that appear in the Pali canon and early Hybrid Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures. They are a part of the broader "network of teachings", they provide a conceptual framework for introducing and explaining Buddhist thought, which has to be understood or "experienced". As a proposition, the four truths defy an exact definition, but refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism: unguarded sensory contact gives rise to craving and clinging to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
This craving keeps us caught in samsara, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth, the continued dukkha that comes with it. There is a way to end this cycle, namely by attaining nirvana, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and the accompanying dukkha will no longer arise again; this can be accomplished by following the eightfold path, confining our automatic responses to sensory contact by restraining oneself, cultivating discipline and wholesome states, practicing mindfulness and dhyana. The function of the four truths, their importance, developed over time and the Buddhist tradition recognized them as the Buddha's first teaching; this tradition was established when prajna, or "liberating insight", came to be regarded as liberating in itself, instead of or in addition to the practice of dhyana. This "liberating insight" gained a prominent place in the sutras, the four truths came to represent this liberating insight, as a part of the enlightenment story of the Buddha; the four truths grew to be of central importance in the Theravada tradition of Buddhism by about the 5th-century CE, which holds that the insight into the four truths is liberating in itself.
They are less prominent in the Mahayana tradition, which sees the higher aims of insight into sunyata and following the Bodhisattva path as central elements in their teachings and practice. The Mahayana tradition reinterpreted the four truths to explain how a liberated being can still be "pervasively operative in this world". Beginning with the exploration of Buddhism by western colonialists in the 19th century and the development of Buddhist modernism, they came to be presented in the west as the central teaching of Buddhism, sometimes with novel modernistic reinterpretations different from the historic Buddhist traditions in Asia; the four truths are best known from their presentation in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta text, which contains two sets of the four truths, while various other sets can be found in the Pali Canon, a collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition. The full set, most used in modern expositions, contains grammatical errors, pointing to multiple sources for this set and translation problems within the ancient Buddhist community.
They were considered correct by the Pali tradition, which didn't correct them. According to the Buddhist tradition, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, "Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion", contains the first teachings that the Buddha gave after attaining full awakening, liberation from rebirth. According to L. S. Cousins, many scholars are of the view that "this discourse was identified as the first sermon of the Buddha only at a date," and according to professor of religion Carol S. Anderson the four truths may not have been part of this sutta, but were added in some versions. Within this discourse, the four noble truths are given as follows: Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to re-becoming, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, non-reliance on it.
Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is this noble eightfold path. According to this sutra, with the complete comprehension of these four truths release from samsara, the cycle of rebirth, was attain
Guanyin or Guan Yin is the most used Chinese translation of the bodhisattva known as Avalokiteśvara. In English usage, Guanyin refers to the Buddhist bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated chiefly by followers of Mahayana Buddhist schools as practiced in the sinosphere. Guanyin refers to the bodhisattva as adopted by other Eastern religions such as Taoism, where she is revered as an immortal, as well as Chinese folk religions, where the mythical accounts about Guanyin's origins do not associate with the Avalokiteśvara described in Buddhist sutras.. In English, she is known as the "Goddess of Mercy" or the Mercy Goddess; the Chinese name Guanyin, is short for Guanshiyin, which means " Perceives the Sounds of the World". In Nepal Mandal Guanyin is worshipeed as Jana Baha Dyah, Seto Machindranath; some Buddhists believe that when one of their adherents departs from this world, they are placed by Guanyin in the heart of a lotus, sent to the western Pure Land of Sukhāvatī. Guanyin is referred to as the "most beloved Buddhist Divinity" with miraculous powers to assist all those who pray to her, as is said in the Lotus Sutra and Karandavyuha Sutra.
Several large temples in East Asia are dedicated to Guanyin including Shitennō-ji, Sensō-ji, Kiyomizu-dera, Sanjūsangen-dō, Dharma Drum Mountain. Guanyin is beloved by all Buddhist traditions in a non-denominational way and found in most Tibetan temples under the name Chenrezig, found in some influential Theravada temples such as Gangaramaya and Kelaniya in Sri Lanka. Statues are a depicted subject of Asian art and found in the Asian art sections of most museums in the world. Guānyīn is a translation from the Sanskrit Avalokitasvara or Avalokiteśvara, referring to the Mahāyāna bodhisattva of the same name. Another name for this bodhisattva is Guānzìzài, it was thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guānzìzài instead of Guānyīn. However, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending svara, which means "sound perceiver" "he who looks down upon sound"; this is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guānyīn.
This etymology was furthered in the Chinese by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumarajiva, to use the variant Guānshìyīn "he who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as meaning both "to look" and "world". Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokitasvara include: Chinese: Guanyin, Guanshiyin The name Avalokitasvara was supplanted by the Avalokiteśvara form containing the ending -īśvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century; the original form Avalokitasvara appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century. The original meaning of the name "Avalokitasvara" fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva; the reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Śaivism, as the term īśvara was connected to the Hindu notion of Śiva as a creator god and ruler of the world. While some of those who revered Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god, Encyclopædia Britannica does cite Avalokiteśvara as the creator god of the world.
This position is taken in the used Karandavyuha Sutra with its well-known mantra Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ. In addition, the Lotus Sutra is the first time. Chapter 25 refers to him as Lokeśvara and Lokanātha and ascribes extreme attributes of divinity to him. Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokiteśvara include: Chinese: 觀自在. In Hokkien, she is called Kuan Im or Kuan Se Im In Japanese, Guanyin is pronounced Kannon Kan'on, or more formally Kanzeon; this rendition was used for an earlier spelling of the well-known camera manufacturer Canon Inc., named for Guanyin. When iconography of Kannon depicts her with the Nyoihōju wishing gem she is known as Nyoirin Kannon, the Japanese adaptation of the Hindu deity Cintamanicakra. In Korean, Guanyin is called Gwanse-eum. In Thai's pronunciation duplicate from Hokkien Kuan Im, Phra Mae Kuan Im or Chao Mae Kuan Im. In Burmese, the name of Guanyin is Kwan Yin Medaw meaning Mother Kwan Yin. In Vietnamese, the name is Quán Thế Âm. In Indonesian, the name is Dewi Kwan Im.
She is called Mak Kwan Im "Mother Guanyin". In Malaysian Mandarin, the name is Guan Shi Yin Pusa. In Khmer, the name is Preah Mae Kun Ci Iem. In Sinhalese, the name is Natha Deviyo. In Tibetan, the name is Chenrézik. In Hmong, the name is Kab Yeeb. In these same countries, the variant Guanzizai "Lord of Contemplation" and its equivalents are used, such as in the Heart Sutra, among other sources; the Lotus Sūtra