Changzhi is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi Province, bordering the provinces of Hebei and Henan to the northeast and east, respectively. The city was one of the 36 administrative areas extant under the reign of the first emperor of a unified China. Nowadays, Changzhi is a transportation centre in Shanxi. Transportations is facilitated by: four controlled-access highways,. Internal transportation includes a bus and taxi network; the city is a rising industrial centre in the southeastern area of Shanxi. In 2011, its GDP ranked 1st out of 11 prefecture-level cities in the province. According to the 6th National Population Census, in 2010 the city was home to 3,334,564 residents; the local environment the Air Quality Index, is monitored by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection and city government. A record of daily air quality is published by the local government. In ancient times the area around Changzhi was known as Shangdang. Changzhi was the site of the Shangdang Campaign, the first battle between the Kuomintang and the People's Liberation Army after the end of World War II.
The campaign lasted until October. It began when the local Shanxi warlord, Yan Xishan, attempted to retake the region from Communist forces. Yan's forces were defeated by an army led by Liu Bocheng, named one of China's Ten Great Marshals. Liu's political commissar was Deng Xiaoping, who became China's "paramount leader"; the campaign ended with the complete destruction of Yan's army, most of which joined the Communists after surrendering. Following the Shangdang Campaign, the Communists remained in control of the region until they won the civil war in 1949; the area under the control of People's Government of Changzhi City is divided into 13 local government districts. They are 4 districts Luzhou, Lucheng and Tunliu. Defunct - Jiao District is made up of suburban surround the city center of the metropolitan area. Changzhi Medical College Changzhi College Changzhi No.1 Middle School Changzhi No.2 Middle School Changzhi No.3 Middle School Changzhi No.4 Middle School Changzhi No.5 Middle School Changzhi No.6 Middle School Changzhi No.7 Middle School Changzhi No.8 Middle School Changzhi No.9 Middle School Changzhi No.10 Middle School Changzhi Experimental Middle School Changzhi No.12 Middle School Changzhi No.13 Middle School Changzhi No.14 Middle School Changzhi No.15 Middle School Changzhi No.16 Middle School Changzhi No.17 Middle School Changzhi No.18 Middle School Changzhi No.19 Middle School Tai-Hang Middle School China National Highway 207 China National Highway 208 Controlled-access Highway Taiyuan-Changzhi Controlled-access Highway Changzhi-Jincheng Controlled-access Highway Changzhi-Linfen Controlled-access Highway Changzhi-Handan Taiyuan–Jiaozuo Railway Handan–Changzhi Railway Changzhi Wangcun Airport Official website of Changzhi Government
Shanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period; the name Shanxi means "West of the Mountains", a reference to the province's location west of the Taihang Mountains. Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, Inner Mongolia to the north and is made up of a plateau bounded by mountain ranges; the capital of the province is Taiyuan. During xia dynasty （ existed from 2070 bc-1600 bc), or 2030 bc--1600 bc, the capital city moved one capital situate in nowadays Yuncheng and nowadays Linfen In the Spring and Autumn period, the state of Jin was located in what is now Shanxi Province, it underwent a three-way split into the states of Han and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period. By 221 BC, all of these states had fallen to the state of Qin; the Han Dynasty ruled Shanxi as the province of Bingzhou.
During the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period, several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi. They were followed by Northern Wei, a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datong in northern Shanxi, which went on to rule nearly all of northern China; the Tang Dynasty originated in Taiyuan. During the Tang Dynasty and after, present day Shanxi was called Hédōng, or "east of the river". Empress Wu Zetian, China's only female ruler, was born in Shanxi in 624. During the first part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Shanxi supplied rulers of three of the Five Dynasties, as well as being the only one of the Ten Kingdoms located in northern China. Shanxi was home to the jiedushi of Hedong, Li Cunxu, who overthrew the first of the Five Dynasties, Later Liang to establish the second, Later Tang. Another jiedushi of Hedong, Shi Jingtang, overthrew Later Tang to establish the third of the Five Dynasties, Later Jin, yet another jiedushi of Hedong, Liu Zhiyuan, established the fourth of the Five Dynasties after the Khitans destroyed Later Jin, the third.
When the fifth of the Five Dynasties emerged, the jiedushi of Hedong at the time, Liu Chong and established an independent state called Northern Han, one of the Ten Kingdoms, in what is now northern and central Shanxi. Shi Jingtang, founder of the Later Jin, the third of the Five Dynasties, ceded a piece of northern China to the Khitans in return for military assistance; this territory, called The Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, included a part of northern Shanxi. The ceded territory became a major problem for China's defense against the Khitans for the next 100 years, because it lay south of the Great Wall; the Zhou, the last dynasty of the Five Dynasties period was founded by Guo Wei, a Han Chinese, who served as the Assistant Military Commissioner at the court of the Later Han, ruled by Shatuo Turks. He founded his dynasty by launching a military coup against the Turkic Later Han Emperor, however his newly established dynasty was short lived and was conquered by the Song Dynasty in 960. In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty.
The Southern Song Dynasty abandoned all of North China, including Shanxi, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1127 after the Jingkang Incident of the Jin-Song wars. The Mongol Yuan Dynasty did not establish Shanxi as a province. Shanxi only gained its present name and approximate borders during the Ming Dynasty which were of the same landarea and borders as the previous Hedong Commandery that existed during the Tang Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, Shanxi extended north beyond the Great Wall to include parts of Inner Mongolia, including what is now the city of Hohhot, overlapped with the jurisdiction of the Eight Banners and the Guihua Tümed banner in that area. With the collapse of the Qing dynasty, Shanxi became part of the newly established Republic of China. During most of the Republic of China's period of rule over mainland China, the warlord Yan Xishan controlled Shanxi. Yan Xishan devoted himself to modernizing Shanxi and developing its resources during his reign over the province. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan occupied much of the province after winning the Battle of Taiyuan.
Shanxi was a major battlefield between the Japanese and the Chinese communist guerrillas of the Eighth Route Army during the war. The soldiers of Shanxi province under Yan Xishan viciously fought against the invading Japanese, which impressed the Japanese to say that nowhere in China did people fight so heroically and bravely. Right after the defeat of Japan, much of the Shanxi countryside became important bases for the communist People's Liberation Army in the ensuing Chinese Civil War. Yan had incorporated thousands of former Japanese soldiers into his own forces to fight against the communists, these soldiers became part of his failed defense of Taiyuan against the People's Liberation Army in early 1949. Shanxi was conquered by the communists, resulting in the warlord Yan Xishan's retreat to Taiwan Island. In September, Shanxi Provincial People's Government was established. For centuries, Shanxi
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Hunyuan County is a county under the administration of Datong City, in the northeast of Shanxi province, China. During the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history, present-day Hunyuan County formed part of the Baidi state of Dai to the north of the Zhou Kingdom, it was conquered by the Zhao clan of Jin. Under the Han, Guo County was established and placed under Yanmen Commandery and Pingshu County was established and placed under Dai Commandery. Pingshu was merged with Guo County, placed in Hengshan Commandery. During the Jianwu Era of the Eastern Han, Guo County was renamed. During the Three Kingdoms, Wei restored the name Guo; this was changed to Guoshan County by the Northern Wei, who placed it under the administration of Si Prefecture. Under the Tang, it was placed in Yun Prefecture; the 1,500 years old Hanging Temple is an unique structure within the Datong area. In 2010 the population of the district was 343,486 inhabitants. Hanging Temple Mount Heng www.xzqh.org "The Origin of the Names of the Counties in Shanxi Province", Official site, Taiyuan: Shanxi Tourism Bureau, 2016.
Keller, Peter C.. Treasures from Shanghai: 5,000 Years of Chinese Art and Culture, Santa Ana: Bowers Museum Yu Weichao, A Journey into China's Antiquity, Vol. I, Morning Glory Press
Yangquan is a prefecture-level city in the east of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hebei province to the east. Situated at the eastern edge of the Loess Plateau and the west side of the Taihang Mountains, Yangquan occupies a total area of 4,452 square kilometres. According to the 2010 Census, Yangquan has a population of 1,368,502 inhabitants, 95,386 more than in 2000. Yangquan has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, with cold and dry winters, hot, somewhat humid summers; the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C in January to 24.0 °C in July, the annual mean is 11.3 °C. The diurnal temperature variation, not exceeding 13 °C in any month, is not large for provincial standards. More than 70% of the annual precipitation, which ranges from 450 to 550 millimetres in the entire prefecture-level city, occurs from June to September. China National Highway 207 The Beijing–Kunming Expressway Co-founder of Baidu. Author of The Three-Body Problem.
Chesterfield, England, United Kingdom Mount Vernon, New York, United States Travel China Guide: Yangquan
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities. A prefectural level city is a "city" and "prefecture" that have been merged into one consolidated and unified jurisdiction; as such it is a city, a municipal entry with subordinate districts, a prefecture with subordinate county-level cities and counties, an administrative division of a province. A prefectural level city is not a "city" in the usual sense of the term, but instead an administrative unit comprising a main central urban area, its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities and villages; the larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres. Prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, other such sub-divisions.
This results from the fact that the predominant prefectures, which prefectural level cities have replaced, were themselves large administrative units containing cities, smaller towns, rural areas. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its actual urban area, the term 市区 shìqū, is used; the first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983. Over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures. Most provinces are composed or nearly of prefectural level cities. Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces and 3 autonomous regions have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities. Criteria that a prefecture must meet to become a prefectural level city: An urban centre with a non-rural population over 250,000 gross output of value of industry of 200,000,000 RMB the output of tertiary industry supersedes that of primary industry, contributing over 35% of the GDP15 large prefectural level cities have been granted the status of sub-provincial city, which gives them much greater autonomy.
Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city: Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, districts subdivisions. Consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. There are only 12 cities are under this classification: Ezhou, Guangzhou, Karamay, Sanya, Wuhai, Xiamen, Zhuhai Prefectural level city with no county-level divisions are cities that are not governed by any county-level divisions such as counties, county level cities, or legal administrative districts. There are only 5 cities are under this classification: Danzhou, Jiayuguan, Zhongshan In Europe and North America, cities are represented as points, while counties are represented as areas.
Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, distinct from, enclosed by, the area of Monroe County, Indiana. In China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose other cities. On a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States, County of Tongshan would be drawn as a smaller area within City of Xianning; this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town: Shawan, because it is too small, Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled "Leshan."
A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, but Jiading would still be missing. Statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, the city covers an area 100 kilometers across. Furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the urban
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan province is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou are located in Henan; the practice of Tai Chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples f