France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The A35 autoroute is a toll free highway in northeastern France. It is known as the Autoroute des cigognes and the Voie Rapide du Piémont des Vosges, it connects the German border in the Rhine valley with the Swiss frontier via Strasbourg. The road forms part of European routes E25 and E60. At the northern end, where the road reaches the German frontier, it becomes a single carriageway road controlled by a speed camera. On the German side of the frontier, plans to build a final stretch of Autobahn to connect the French A35 directly with the German A65 at Kandel were not implemented during the 1990s when the focus of Autobahn construction switched to the eastern side of the country; the project remains unimplemented: it is contentious because of the ecological impact it could have on the Bienwald through which the road would run. As A35 01 Germany Becomes the B9 to Karlsruhe. 59 Lauterbourg Towns served: Scheibenhard 58 Munchhausen Towns served: Munchhausen 57 Seltz Towns served: Seltz 56 D4, Baden-Baden Towns served: Baden-Baden 55 Soufflenheim Towns served: Soufflenheim, Haguenau 54 Sessenhaim Towns served: Sessenhaim 53 Drusenheim-Bischwiller Towns served: Drusenheim, Haguenau 52 D2, Rastatt Towns served: Achern 51 Gambsheim-Weyersheim Towns served: Gambsheim, Weyersheim Rest Area: Landgraben Pfeffermatt 50 La Wantzenau Towns served: La Weyersheim 49 Hoerdt Towns served: HoerdtAs the A4 14 Exchange A4-A35 A4 autoroute to Metz The road merges with A4 14 Exchange A4-A35 A4 autoroute to Strasbourg centre As the A35 01 Strasbourg Cronenbourg Towns served: Strasbourg 14 Exchange A350-A35' A350 to autoroute Spur to Schiltighiem.
02 Strasbourg-xxx Towns served: Strasbourg 14 Exchange A351-A35' A351 autoroute Spur to N4 and Marlenheim. 04 N4 Kehl-Offenburg Towns served: Strasbourg, Kehl 05 Illkirch-Graffenstaden Towns served: Illkirch-Graffenstaden Service Area: Ostwald 07 N283 Erstein Towns served: Erstein, Offenburg 08 D400, Aéroport Strasbourg-Entzheim Towns served: Aéroport Strasbourg, Entzheim 00 Exchange A352-A35, Molsheim-St Dié A352 autoroute Spur to Molsheim. As the D1422 00 D1422 road becomes the D1422 for 2 km; as the A35 00 D1422 the autoroute recommences. 09 Innenheim Towns served: Innenheim 10 Krautergersheim Towns served: Krautergersheim 11 Obernai Towns served: Obernai, Niedernai 11.1 D500, Molsheim Towns served: Obernai, Molsheim. 12 Goxwiller-Valff Towns served: Goxwiller, Valff 13 Barr Towns served: Barr Rest Area: St Pierre 14 N83, Benfeld-Erstein Towns served: Benfeld, Erstein via N83 15 Ebersheim Towns served: Ebersheim. 16 Sélestat Towns served: Sélestat 17 Sélestat-St-Dié Towns served: Sélestat, St-Die via N59 Service Area: Haut-Koenigsbourg Sélestat 18 St-Hippolyte Towns served: Hirtengaerten.
As the N83 00 A35 vers Strasbourg Road merges with the N83 for 12 km. 20 Ribeauvillé Towns served: Ribeauvillé, Guémar 21 Ostheim Towns served: Ostheim 22 Ostheim Towns served: Ostheim 22.1 Ostheim Towns served: Ostheim Service Area: Houssen 23 Exchange N83-A35 Autoroute de-merges with the N83 to Colmar. As the A35 23 Houssen Towns served: Houssen 24 ZI Towns served: Colmar, N83 to Belfort. 25 Colmar-Freiburg Towns served: Colmar, Neuf-Brisach, Freiburg im Breisgau 26 Colmar-sud Towns served: Colmar Rest Area: Fronholz 27 Ste-Croix-en-Plaine Towns served: Ste-Croix-en-Plaine 28 Niederhergheim Towns served: Niederhergheim Rest Area: Oberhergheim Réguisheim Towns served: Réguisheim, Munwiller Ensisheim Towns served: Ensisheim, Hirtzfelden Rest Area: Battenheim 32 Sausheim Towns served: Baldersheim, Mulhouse 00 Exchange A36-A35 Junction with A36 to Dijon, Mulhouse westbound and Germany. 33 Habsheim Towns served: Mulhouse, Habsheim. 34 Sierentz Towns served: Sierentz, Kleinkems 35 Bartenheim Towns served: Bartenheim 36 Bale-Mulhouse Towns served: Bale-Mulhouse Airport 37 St-Louis Towns served: Huningue, St-Louis 00 Switzerland and becomes the A3 autoroute to Basel and Zurich.
A35 Motorway in Saratlas
Aktiengesellschaft is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership whose shares may be traded on a stock market. The term is used in Germany and Switzerland, South Tyrol for companies incorporated there, it is used in Luxembourg, although the equivalent French language term Société Anonyme is more common. In the United Kingdom and the United States, the equivalent terms are "limited" and "incorporated", respectively; the German word Aktiengesellschaft is a compound noun made up of two elements: Aktien meaning shares, Gesellschaft meaning company or society. An English translation is thus "share company", or company limited by shares, or joint-stock company. In German the use of the term Aktien for shares is restricted to Aktiengesellschaften. Shares in other types of German companies are called Anteile rather than Aktien. In Germany and Austria, the legal basis of the AG is the German Aktiengesetz or the Austrian Aktiengesetz. Since the German commercial law requires all corporations to specify their legal form in their name, in order to inform the public of the limits on their liability, all German and Austrian stock corporations include Aktiengesellschaft or AG as part of their name as a suffix.
In Switzerland, the Company Limited by Shares is defined in Title Twenty-Six of the Code of Obligations. Article 950 specifies. German AGs have a "two-tiered board" structure, consisting of a supervisory board and a management board; the supervisory board is controlled by shareholders, although employees may have seats, depending on the size of the company. The management board directly runs the company, but its members may be removed by the supervisory board, which determines the management board's compensation; some German AGs have management boards which determine their own remuneration, but that situation is now uncommon. The general meeting is the supreme governing body of a Swiss company limited by shares, it elects the board of the external auditors. The board of directors may appoint and dismiss persons entrusted with managing and representing the company; the equivalent terms in other countries include the following, which mean either "share company/society" or "anonymous company/society".
Denmark – Aktieselskab Estonia – Aktsiaselts Norway – Aksjeselskap Sweden – Aktiebolag Finland – Osakeyhtiö Turkey – Anonim Şirket Argentina, Costa Rica, Peru and other Spanish speaking countries – Sociedad Anónima Portugal – Sociedade Anónima Brazil – Sociedade Anônima Bulgaria – Акционерно дружество, derived directly from the German AG Belgium, Netherlands – Naamloze Vennootschap Belgium, France – Société Anonyme Poland – Spółka akcyjna Italy – Società per Azioni United Kingdom – Public limited company United Kingdom - cymdeithas cyhoeddus cyfyngedig Croatia - dioničko društvo Romania – Societate pe acțiuni or "Societate anonimă" Russia – Публичное акционерное общество Greece - ανώνυμος εταιρεία Hungary – Részvénytársaság Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Fohlin, Caroline. "Chapter 4: The History of Corporate Ownership and Control in Germany". In Morck, Randall K. A History of Corporate Governance around the World: Family Business Groups to Professional Managers. University of Chicago Press.
Pp. 223–282. ISBN 0-226-53680-7. E McGaughey,'The Codetermination Bargains: The History of German Corporate and Labour Law' 23 Columbia Journal of European Law 135 Franks, Julian. "Ownership and Control of German Corporations". The Review of Financial Studies. Oxford University Press. 14: 943–977. Doi:10.1093/rfs/14.4.943. JSTOR 2696732. German Stock Corporations Act 1965 translation
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français is France's national state-owned railway company. Founded in 1938, it operates the country's national rail traffic along with Monaco, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network, its functions include operation of railway services for passengers and freight, maintenance and signalling of rail infrastructure. The railway network consists of about 32,000 km of route, of which 1,800 km are high-speed lines and 14,500 km electrified. About 14,000 trains are operated daily. In 2010 the SNCF was ranked 22nd in 214th globally on the Fortune Global 500 list, it is the main business of the SNCF Group, which in 2017 had €33.5 billion of sales in 120 countries. The SNCF Group employs more than 260,000 people. Since July 2013, the SNCF Group headquarters are located in a Parisian suburb at 2 Place aux Étoiles in Saint-Denis; the President of the SNCF Group is Guillaume Pepy. SNCF operates all of France's railway system, including the TGV. In the 1970s, the SNCF began the TGV high-speed train programme with the intention of creating the world's fastest railway network.
It came to fruition in 1981. Today, the SNCF operates 1,850 km of designated high-speed track that accommodate more than 800 high-speed services per day. SNCF’s TGV trains carry more than 100 million passengers a year. TGV lines and TGV technology are now spread across several European countries in addition to South Korea; the SNCF's TGV has set many world speed records, the most recent on 3 April 2007, when a new version of the TGV dubbed the V150 with larger wheels than the usual TGV, was able to cover more ground with each rotation and had a stronger 25,000 hp engine, broke the world speed record for conventional railway trains, reaching 574.8 km/h. The SNCF has a remarkable safety record. After nearly 30 years in operation, SNCF’s TGV system has only experienced one fatal accident, which occurred during pre-opening testing and not in regular operation. In 2011 SNCF in partnership with Keolis, unsuccessfully bid for the InterCity West Coast franchise. In April 2017 SNCF took a 30% shareholding in a joint venture with Stagecoach Group and Virgin Group to bid for the West Coast Partnership that will operate services on the West Coast Main Line from May 2020 and the High Speed 2 line from 2026.
In April 2019 Stagecoach were banned from bidding for any franchises including the West Coast Partnership which has meant that Virgin and SNCF have now had to withdraw from the shortlist. Since the 1990s, SNCF has been selling railway carriages to regional governments, with the creation of the Train Express Régional brand. SNCF maintains a broad scope of international business that includes work on freight lines, inter-city lines and commuter lines. SNCF experts provide logistics, construction and maintenance services. SNCF operates the international ticketing agency Oui.sncf Voyages-sncf.com and Rail Europe. SNCF has employees in 120 countries offering extensive overseas and cross border consulting; those projects include: Israel: Training. SNCF International provides assistance to Israel Railways in every area of rail operations including projects to upgrade the network's general safety regulations. Other assistance and training programmes involve the Traction Division. Taiwan: Operations Training.
SNCF supervised the prime contractor responsible for construction of the Taiwan Railways Administration’s main high-speed rail line. It trained rail traffic controllers and crew members. On behalf of the Government of Taiwan, SNCF managed the high-speed railway Command Control Centre. United Kingdom: Maintenance. In 2007-2008, SNCF-International consultants audited the maintenance practices applied to the track and overhead electric power line on British high-speed rail lines connecting London to the Channel Tunnel. In addition, it conducted an audit of the maintainer’s performance from the service quality and cost control standpoint, made recommendations for improvements, proposed a three-year Business Plan. South Korea: HSR Electrification Design. SNCF advised Korean Railroads on the electrification of tracks between Daegu and Busan and on linking existing conventional tracks to the new high-speed line. SNCF assisted in selecting and inspecting high-speed rolling stock and trained 400 senior manager and executives in a broad range of skills, including signalling, track, rolling stock maintenance, HSR operation, safety management and passenger information systems.
Until the end of 2009, SNCF assisted Korea in maintaining its high-speed. Spain: Signalling System. SNCF partnered with ADIF in the study, supply and maintenance of the standard EU railway signaling system along the Madrid-Lleida high-speed line. On behalf of the Spanish Government, SNCF designed and led maintenance operations on this line over a two-year period. France: Lead Infrastructure and Rolling Stock Maintainer – The SNCF maintains 32,000 km of track, 26,500 main sets of points and crossings, 2,300 signal boxes, 80,000 track circuits, over 1 million relays, etc, it maintains 3,900 locomotives and 500 high-speed trains. Each of SNCF’s TGV trains travels more than 39,000 km a month – enough to circle the globe; each year SNCF’s Human Resources Department provides over 1.2 million hours of training to its over 25,000 employees. SNCF was formed in 1938 with the nationalisation of France's main railway companies (Chemin de fer, literally,'path of iron', me
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between the Allied Powers, it was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which had directly led to World War I. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties. Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty; the treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required "Germany accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage" during the war; this article, Article 231 became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers.
In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks. At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes, predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently; the result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932.
Although it is referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place at the Quai d'Orsay. On 28 June 1914 the Bosnian-Serbs assassinated the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary in the name of Serbian nationalism; this caused a escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed by the entry of most European powers into First World War. Two alliances faced off, the Triple Entente. Other countries entered as fighting ranged across Europe, as well as the Middle East and Asia. In 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire; the new Bolshevik government under Vladimir Lenin in March 1918 signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, favourable to Germany. Sensing victory before American armies could be ready, Germany now shifted forced to the Western Front and tried to overwhelm the Allies, it failed. Instead the Allies won decisively on the battlefield and forced an armistice in November 1918 that resembled a surrender.
On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against the Central Powers. The motives were twofold: German submarine warfare against merchant ships trading with France and Britain, which led to the sinking of the RMS Lusitania and the loss of 128 American lives; the American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions. On 8 January 1918, President Woodrow Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, it outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy. While the term was not used self-determination was assumed, it called for a negotiated end to the war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the Central Powers from occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the redrawing of Europe's borders along ethnic lines, the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states.
It called for a democratic peace uncompromised by territorial annexations. The Fourteen Points were based on the research of the Inquiry, a team of about 150 advisors led by foreign-policy advisor Edward M. House, into the topics to arise in the expected peace conference. After the Central Powers launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, the new Soviet Government of Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany on 3 March 1918; this treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles of territory and 62 million people. This loss equated to a third of the Russian population, a quarter of its territory, around a third of the country's arable land, three-quarters of its coal and iron, a third of its factories, a quarter of its railroads. During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse. Desertion rates within the German army began to increase, civilian strikes drastically reduced
Molsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The total population in 2006 was 9,382. Molsheim had been a fast-growing city between the French censuses of 1968 and 1999, passing from 5,739 to 9,331 inhabitants, but this increase came to a noticeable halt since; the metropolitan area of Molsheim had 11,760 inhabitants in 2006, from 7,747 in 1968. The old town of Molsheim is well preserved and contains a considerable number of old houses and buildings of Alsatian architecture; the most notable buildings are the medieval Tour des Forgerons, the Renaissance Metzig, the baroque Eglise des Jésuites – an inordinately large church insofar as it could house the entire population of the town when built – and the classical Hôtel de ville. The former monastery La Chartreuse destroyed in the French Revolution, now houses a museum. Molsheim was part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648, when it found itself located on the French side of the border. Between 1871 and 1919 and again between 1940 and 1944, the German speaking city was part of Germany.
A number of Merovingian tombs, dating from the sixth and seventh centuries were discovered in 1935 to the north of the town, on the Roman road leading from Avolsheim. Molsheim is notable as the home of the Bugatti automotive industry factory. Production of the Bugatti Veyron by Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. Restarted in Dorlisheim near Molsheim in 2005; the French supercar maker unveiled the world's most expensive car, sold to an unnamed buyer for at least $11m before tax in March 2019. Eminent local Molsheim resident and automotive advisor, Scotte Monte de le Guminyourear, said that this initiative pays appropriate homage to the Type 57 SC Atlantic. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Molsheim". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 677. Town council website Saint George's and Trinity Church at Structurae