Zooarchaeology is the branch of archaeology that studies faunal remains related to ancient people. Faunal remains are the items left behind, it includes: bones, hair, scales, proteins and DNA. Of these items and shells are the ones that occur most at archaeological sites where faunal remains can be found. Most of the time, most of the faunal remains do not survive, they decompose or break because of various circumstances. This can cause difficulties in interpreting their significance; the development of zooarchaeology in Eastern North America can be broken up into three different periods. The first being the Formative period starting around the 1860s, the second being the Systematization period beginning in the early 1950s, the Integration period which began about 1969. Full-time zooarchaeologists didn’t come about until the Systematization period. Before that it was just a technique, applied but not studied. Zooarchaeological specialists started to come about because of a new approach to archaeology known as processual archaeology.
This approach puts more emphasis on explaining. Archaeologists began to specialize in zooarchaeology, their numbers increased from there on. Zooarchaeology is used to answer several questions; these include: What was the diet like, in what ways were the animals used for food? Which were the animals that were eaten, in what amounts, with what other foods? Who were the ones to obtain the food, did the availability of that food depend on age or gender? How was culture, such as technologies and behavior, influenced by and associated with diet? What purposes, other than food, were animals used for? Zooarchaeology can tell us what the environment might have been like in order for the different animals to have survived. In addition to helping us understand the past, zooarchaeology can help us to improve the present and the future. Studying how people dealt with animals, its effects can help us avoid many potential ecological problems; this includes problems involving wildlife management. For example, one of the questions that wildlife preservationists ask is whether they should keep animals facing extinction in several smaller areas, or in one larger area.
Based on zooarchaeological evidence, they found that animals that are split up into several smaller areas are more to go extinct. One of the techniques that zooarchaeologists use is close attention to taphonomy; this includes studying how items are buried and deposited at the site in question, what the conditions are that aid in the preservation of these items, how these items get destroyed. They interpret that information. Another technique that zooarchaeologists use is lab analysis; this analysis can include comparing the skeletons found on site with identified animal skeletons. This not only helps to identify what the animal is, but whether the animal was domesticated or not, yet another technique that zooarchaeologists use is quantification. They make interpretations based on the size of the bones; these interpretations include. As can be seen from the discussion about the name that should be given to this discipline, zooarchaeology overlaps with other areas of study; these include: Anthropology Anthrozoology Archaeology Biology Ecology Ethnography Paleopathology Palaeontology Paleozoology Zoology Such analyses provide the basis by which further interpretations can be made.
Topics that have been addressed by zooarchaeologists include: Human-Animal relationships and interactions were diverse during Prehistory from being a food source to playing a more intimate role in society. Animals have been used in non-economical ways such as being part of a human burial. However, the major zooarchaeology has focused on, eating what by looking at various remains such as bones and fish scales. In the twenty-first century researchers have begun to interpret animals in prehistory in wider cultural and social patterns, focusing on how the animals have affected humans and possible animal agency. There is evidence of animals such as the Mountain Lion or the Jaguar being used for ritualistic purposes, but not being eaten as a food source. Animal burials date back to prehistory with examples emerging from the Mesolithic period. In Sweden at the burial site Skateholm I dogs were found buried with children under eight years old or were found buried by themselves; some of the dogs who were buried alone have grave goods similar to their human contemporaries such as flint weapons and deer antlers.
Meanwhile, during the same time period Skateholm II emerged and was different than Skateholm I, as dogs were buried along on the North and West boundaries of the grave area. Another burial site in Siberia near Lake Biakal known as the "Lokomotiv" cemetery had a wolf burial among human graves. Buried together with, but beneath the wolf was a male human skull; the wolf breed was not native to this area as it was warm and other research for the area shows no other wolf habitation. Bazaliiskiy & Savelyev suggests that the presence and significance of the wolf could reflect human interaction. Another example occurred in 300 B. C. in Pazyryk known as the Pazyryk burials where ten horses were buried alongside a human male, the horses were adorned with saddles, among other valuables. The oldest horse as the horse with the grandest attachments. Erica Hill, a professor in archaeology, suggests that the burials of prehistory animals can shed light on human-animal relationships. Zooarchaeology allows researchers to h
Aerial archaeology is the study of archaeological remains by examining them from altitude. The advantages of gaining a good aerial view of the ground had been long appreciated by archaeologists as a high viewpoint permits a better appreciation of fine details and their relationships within the wider site context. Early investigators attempted to gain birdseye views of sites using hot air balloons, scaffolds or cameras attached to kites. Following the invention of the aeroplane and the military importance placed on aerial photography during the First and Second World Wars, archaeologists were able to more use the technique to discover and record archaeological sites. Photographs may be taken either vertically, from directly overhead, or obliquely, meaning that they are taken at an angle. In order to provide a three-dimensional effect, an overlapping pair of vertical photographs, taken from offset positions, can be viewed stereoscopically; the advantages of aerial photographs to archaeologists are manifold.
Large sites could for the first time be viewed in their entirety and within their landscape. This aided the production of drawn plans and inspired archaeologists to look beyond the discrete monument and to appreciate a site's role within its setting. Photos are taken vertically for the purposes of planning and spatial analysis and obliquely to emphasize certain features or give perspective. Through the process of photogrammetry, vertical photos can be converted into scaled plans. Archaeological features may be more visible from the air than on the ground. In temperate Europe, aerial reconnaissance is one of the most important ways in which new archaeological sites are discovered. Tiny differences in ground conditions caused by buried features can be emphasised by a number of factors and viewed from the air: Slight differences in ground levels will cast shadows when the sun is low and these can be seen best from an aeroplane; these are referred to as shadow marks. Buried ditches will hold more water and buried walls will hold less water than undisturbed ground, this phenomenon, amongst others, causes crops to grow better or worse, taller or shorter, over each kind of ground and therefore define buried features which are apparent as tonal or colour differences.
Such effects are called cropmarks. Frost can appear in winter on ploughed fields where water has accumulated along the lines of buried features; these are known as frostmarks. Slight differences in soil colour between natural deposits and archaeological ones can often show in ploughed fields as soilmarks Differences in levels and buried features will affect the way surface water behaves across a site and can produce a striking effect after heavy rain. In cases like the Nazca lines, the features are meaningless from the ground but visible from the air. Pioneers of aerial archaeology include Roger Agache in Northern France, Antoine Poidebard in Syria, L W B Rees in Jordan O. G. S. Crawford in England and Sir Henry Wellcome in the Sudan, Giacomo Boni in Italy. Following in the footsteps of Henry Wellcome, kite aerial photography is now being used on archaeological sites outside the visible spectrum, from the near ultra-violet through to the near and thermal infra-red. Aerial archaeology is used in the processes of investigation in aviation archaeology.
Archaeological field survey Cropmark Markus Casey Shadow marks BibliographyBourgeois, J. and Meganck, M.. Aerial Photography and Archaeology 2003. A Century of Information. Archaeological Reports Ghent University 4. Ghent: Academia Press. ISBN 90-382-0782-4 Brophy, K. and Cowley, D.. From the air: understanding aerial archaeology. London: The History Press. ISBN 0-7524-3130-7 Riley, D. N.. Air photography and archaeology. Univ of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-8122-8087-3 Wilson, D. R.. Air photo interpretation for archaeologists, London: The History Press.. ISBN 0-7524-1498-4 Emporia State University: Aerial Archaeology Aerial and Remote Sensing Archaeology Link and Reference Site Aerial Archaeology. AerialArchaeology.com focuses on near-earth imaging technologies such as kite aerial photography, remote-control powered parachutes and model airplanes and helicopters. *** Off-line April 20, 2010 *** ACE Foundation Kite Aerial Photographers - Archaeology Sir Henry Wellcome Aerial Archaeology in Northern France
Forensic linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge and insights to the forensic context of law, crime investigation and judicial procedure. It is a branch of applied linguistics. There are principally three areas of application for linguists working in forensic contexts: understanding language of the written law, understanding language use in forensic and judicial processes, the provision of linguistic evidence; the discipline of forensic linguistics is not homogenous. The phrase forensic linguistics first appeared in 1968 when Jan Svartvik, a professor of linguistics, used it in an analysis of statements by Timothy John Evans, it was in regard to re-analyzing the statements given to police at Notting Hill police station, England, in 1949 in the case of an alleged murder by Evans. Evans was tried and hanged for the crime. Yet, when Svartvik studied the statements given by Evans, he found that there were different stylistic markers involved, Evans did not give the statements to the police officers as had been stated at the trial.
Sparked by this case, early forensic linguistics in the UK were focused on questioning the validity of police interrogations. As seen in numerous famous cases, many of the major concerns were of the statements police officers used. Numerous times, the topic of police register came up – this meaning the type of stylist language and vocabulary used by officers of the law when transcribing witness statements. Moving to the US and the beginnings of the field of forensic linguistics, the field began with the 1963 case of Ernesto Miranda, his case led to the creation of Miranda Rights and pushed focus of forensic linguistics on witness questioning rather than police statements. Various cases came about that challenged whether or not suspects understood what their rights meant – leading to a distinction of coercive versus voluntary interrogations. During the early days of forensic linguistics in the United Kingdom, the legal defense for many criminal cases questioned the authenticity of police statements.
At the time, customary police procedure for taking suspects' statements dictated that it be in a specific format, rather than in the suspect's own words. Statements by witnesses are seldom made in a coherent or orderly fashion, with speculation and backtracking done out loud; the delivery is too fast-paced, causing important details to be left out. Forensic linguistics can be traced back as early as a 1927 to a ransom note in New York; as the Associated Press reported in "Think Corning Girl Wrote Ransom Note" "Duncan McLure, of Johnson City uncle of the girl, is the only member of the family to spell his name'McLure' instead of'McClure.' The letter he received from the kidnappers, was addressed to him by the proper name, indicating that the writer was familiar with the difference in spelling." Other work of forensic linguistics in the United States concerned the rights of individuals with regard to understanding their Miranda rights during the interrogation process. An early application of forensic linguistics in the United States was related to the status of trademarks as words or phrases in the language.
One of the bigger cases involved fast food giant McDonald's claiming that it had originated the process of attaching unprotected words to the'Mc' prefix and was unhappy with Quality Inns International's intention of opening a chain of economy hotels to be called'McSleep'. In the 1980s, Australian linguists discussed the application of linguistics and sociolinguistics to legal issues, they discovered. Aboriginal people have their own understanding and use of'English', something, not always appreciated by speakers of the dominant version of English, i.e.'white English'. The Aboriginal people bring their own culturally-based interactional styles to the interview; the 2000s saw a considerable shift in the field of forensic linguistics, described as a coming-of-age of the discipline. Not only does the field have professional associations such as the International Association of Forensic Linguistics founded in 1993, the Austrian Association for Legal Linguistics founded in 2017, it can now provide the scientific community with a range of textbooks such as Coulthard and Johnson and Olsson.
The range of topics within forensic linguistics is diverse, but research occurs in the following areas: The study of the language of legal texts encompasses a wide range of forensic texts. That includes the study of text forms of analysis. Any text or item of spoken language can be a forensic text when it is used in a legal or criminal context; this includes analysing the linguistics of documents as diverse as Acts of Parliament, private wills, court judgements and summonses and the statutes of other bodies, such as States and government departments. One important area is that of the transformative effect of Norman French and Ecclesiastic Latin on the development of the English common law, the evolution of the legal specifics associated with it, it can refer to the ongoing attempts at making legal language more comprehensible to laypeople. A forensic linguistics understanding of the relationship between language and law has been voiced by Leisser who states that "It is indeed hard to deny that the rule of law is in fact the rule of language.
It seems that there cannot be law witho
Maritime archaeology is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that studies human interaction with the sea and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore-side facilities, port-related structures, human remains and submerged landscapes. A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies ship construction and use; as with archaeology as a whole, maritime archaeology can be practised within the historical, industrial, or prehistoric periods. An associated discipline, again one that lies within archaeology itself, is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains be they of maritime interest or not. An example from the prehistoric era would be the remains of submerged settlements or deposits now lying under water despite having been dry land when sea levels were lower; the study of submerged aircraft lost in lakes, rivers or in the sea is an example from the historical, industrial or modern era. Many specialist sub-disciplines within the broader maritime and underwater archaeological categories have emerged in recent years.
Maritime archaeological sites result from shipwrecks or sometimes seismic activity, thus represent a moment in time rather than a slow deposition of material accumulated over a period of years, as is the case with port-related structures where objects are lost or thrown off structures over extended periods of time. This fact has led to shipwrecks being described in the media and in popular accounts as'time capsules'. Archaeological material in the sea or in other underwater environments is subject to different factors than artifacts on land. However, as with terrestrial archaeology, what survives to be investigated by modern archaeologists can be a tiny fraction of the material deposited. A feature of maritime archaeology is that despite all the material, lost, there are occasional rare examples of substantial survival, from which a great deal can be learned, due to the difficulties experienced in accessing the sites. There are those in the archaeology community who see maritime archaeology as a separate discipline with its own concerns and requiring the specialized skills of the underwater archaeologist.
Others value an integrated approach, stressing that nautical activity has economic and social links to communities on land and that archaeology is archaeology no matter where the study is conducted. All, required is the mastering of skills specific to the environment in which the work occurs. Before the industrial era, travel by water was easier than over land; as a result, marine channels, navigable rivers and sea crossings formed the trade routes of historic and ancient civilisations. For example, the Mediterranean Sea was known to the Romans as the inner sea because the Roman empire spread around its coasts; the historic record as well as the remains of harbours and cargoes, testify to the volume of trade that crossed it. Nations with a strong maritime culture such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark and Spain were able to establish colonies on other continents. Wars were fought at sea over the control of important resources; the material cultural remains that are discovered by maritime archaeologists along former trade routes can be combined with historical documents and material cultural remains found on land to understand the economic and political environment of the past.
Of late maritime archaeologists have been examining the submerged cultural remains of China, India and other Asian nations. There are significant differences in the survival of archaeological material depending on whether a site is wet or dry, on the nature of the chemical environment, on the presence of biological organisms and on the dynamic forces present, thus rocky coastlines in shallow water, are inimical to the survival of artifacts, which can be dispersed, smashed or ground by the effect of currents and surf leaving an artifact pattern but little if any wreck structure. Saltwater is inimical to iron artefacts including metal shipwrecks, sea organisms will consume organic material such as wooden shipwrecks. On the other hand, out of all the thousands of potential archaeological sites destroyed or grossly eroded by such natural processes sites survive with exceptional preservation of a related collection of artifacts. An example of such a collection is Mary Rose. Survival in this instance is due to the remains being buried in sediment Of the many examples where the sea bed provides an hostile environment for submerged evidence of history, one of the most notable, RMS Titanic, though a young wreck and in deep water so calcium-starved that concretion does not occur, appears strong and intact, though indications are that it has incurred irreversible degradation of her steel and iron hull.
As such degradation continues, data will be forever lost, objects' context will be destroyed and the bulk of the wreck will over centuries deteriorate on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Comparative evidence shows that all iron and steel ships those in a oxygenated environment, continue to degrade and will continue to do so until only their engines and other machinery project much above the sea-floor. Where it remains after the passage of time, the iron or steel hull is fragile with no remaining metal within the layer of concretion and corrosion products. USS Monitor, having been found in the 1970s, was subjected to a program of attempted in situ preservat
Anthrozoology is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology, medicine, veterinary medicine and zoology. A major focus of anthrozoologic research is the quantifying of the positive effects of human-animal relationships on either party and the study of their interactions, it includes scholars from fields such as anthropology, biology and philosophy. Anthrozoology scholars, such as Pauleen Bennett recognize the lack of scholarly attention given to non-human animals in the past, to the relationships between human and non-human animals in the light of the magnitude of animal representations, symbols and their actual physical presence in human societies. Rather than a unified approach, the field consists of several methods adapted from the several participating disciplines to encompass human-nonhuman animal relationships and occasional efforts to develop sui generis methods.
The interaction and enhancement within captive animal interactions. Affective or relational bonds between humans and animals Human perceptions and beliefs in respect of other animals How some animals fit into human societies How these vary between cultures, change over times The study of animal domestication: how and why domestic animals evolved from wild species Captive zoo animal bonds with keepers The social construction of animals and what it means to be animal The zoological gaze The human-animal bond Parallels between human-animal interactions and human-technology interactions The symbolism of animals in literature and art The history of animal domestication The intersections of speciesism and sexism The place of animals in human-occupied spaces The religious significance of animals throughout human history Exploring the cross-cultural ethical treatment of animals The critical evaluation of animal abuse and exploitation Mind and personhood in nonhuman animals The potential human health benefits of companion animal ownership There are 23 college programs in HAS or a related field in the United States, Great Britain, Germany and the Netherlands, as well as an additional eight veterinary school programs in North America, over thirty HAS organizations in the US, Great Britain, France, New Zealand, Israel and Switzerland.
In the UK, the University of Exeter runs an MA in Anthrozoology which explores human-animal interactions from anthropological perspectives. Human animal interactions involving companion animals are studied by the Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition, which partners with the US National Institutes of Health to research HAI in relation to child development and aging. There are now three primary lists for HAS scholars and students—H-Animal, the Human-Animal Studies listserv, NILAS, as well as the Critical Animal Studies list. There are now over a dozen journals covering HAS issues, many of them founded in the last decade, hundreds of HAS books, most of them published in the last decade. Brill, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Palgrave-McMillan, University of Minnesota, University of Illinois, Oxford all offer either a HAS series or a large number of HAS books. In addition, in 2006, Animals and Society Institute began hosting the Human-Animal Studies Fellowship, a six-week program in which pre- and post-doctoral scholars work on a HAS research project at a university under the guidance of host scholars and distance peer scholars.
Beginning in 2011, ASI has partnered with Wesleyan Animal Studies, who will be hosting the fellowship in conjunction with ASI. There are a handful of HAS conferences per year, including those organized by ISAZ and NILAS, the Minding Animals conference, held in 2009 in Australia. There are more HAS courses being taught now than before; the ASI website lists over 300 courses in twenty-nine disciplines at over 200 colleges and universities, not including over 100 law school courses. Animals and Society Institute Anthrozoology Research Group H-Animal Human-Animal Studies listserve Humanimalia: a journal of human-animal interface studies NILAS
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages. It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages, but it may cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning. Sign languages have a phonological system equivalent to the system of sounds in spoken languages; the building blocks of signs are specifications for movement and handshape. The word'phonology' can refer to the phonological system of a given language; this is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax and its vocabulary. Phonology is distinguished from phonetics. While phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning.
For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence. Note that this distinction was not always made before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century; some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology. The word phonology comes from phōnḗ, "voice, sound," and the suffix - logy. Definitions of the term vary. Nikolai Trubetzkoy in Grundzüge der Phonologie defines phonology as "the study of sound pertaining to the system of language," as opposed to phonetics, "the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech". More Lass writes that phonology refers broadly to the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language, while in more narrow terms, "phonology proper is concerned with the function and organization of sounds as linguistic items."
According to Clark et al. it means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. Early evidence for a systematic study of the sounds in a language appears in the 4th century BCE Ashtadhyayi, a Sanskrit grammar composed by Pāṇini. In particular the Shiva Sutras, an auxiliary text to the Ashtadhyayi, introduces what may be considered a list of the phonemes of the Sanskrit language, with a notational system for them, used throughout the main text, which deals with matters of morphology and semantics; the study of phonology as it exists today is defined by the formative studies of the 19th-century Polish scholar Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, who shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme in a series of lectures in 1876-1877. The word phoneme had been coined a few years earlier in 1873 by the French linguist A. Dufriche-Desgenettes. In a paper read at the 24th of May meeting of the Société de Linguistique de Paris, Dufriche-Desgenettes proposed that phoneme serve as a one-word equivalent for the German Sprachlaut.
Baudouin de Courtenay's subsequent work, though unacknowledged, is considered to be the starting point of modern phonology. He worked on the theory of phonetic alternations, may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K. Koerner. An influential school of phonology in the interwar period was the Prague school. One of its leading members was Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy, whose Grundzüge der Phonologie, published posthumously in 1939, is among the most important works in the field from this period. Directly influenced by Baudouin de Courtenay, Trubetzkoy is considered the founder of morphophonology, although this concept had been recognized by de Courtenay. Trubetzkoy developed the concept of the archiphoneme. Another important figure in the Prague school was Roman Jakobson, one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century. In 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English, the basis for generative phonology. In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features.
These features were an expansion of earlier work by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant, Morris Halle. The features describe aspects of articulation and perception, are from a universally fixed set, have the binary values + or −. There are at least two levels of representation: underlying representation and surface phonetic representation. Ordered phonological rules govern how underlying representation is transformed into the actual pronunciation. An important consequence of the influence SPE had on phonological theory was the downplaying of the syllable and the emphasis on segments. Furthermore, the generativists folded morphophonology into phonology, which both solved and created problems. Natural phonology is a theory based on the publications of its proponent David Stampe in 1969 and in 1979. In this view, phonology is based on a set of universal phonological p
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"