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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features. Its aim is to describe and explain the common properties and the structural diversity of the world's languages, its subdisciplines include, but are not limited to: qualitative typology, which deals with the issue of comparing languages and within-language variance. Qualitative typology develops cross-linguistically viable notions or types that provide a framework for the description and comparison of individual languages. A few examples appear below. One set of types reflects the basic order of subject and direct object in sentences: Object–subject–verb Object–verb–subject Subject–verb–object Subject–object–verb Verb–subject–object Verb–object–subjectThese labels appear abbreviated as "SVO" and so forth, may be called "typologies" of the languages to which they apply; the most attested word orders are SOV and SVO while the least common orders are those that are object initial with OVS being the least common with only four attested instances.

In the 1980s, linguists began to question the relevance of geographical distribution of different values for various features of linguistic structure. They may have wanted to discover whether a particular grammatical structure found in one language is found in another language in the same geographic location; some languages split verbs into an auxiliary and an infinitive or participle, put the subject and/or object between them. For instance, German and Welsh. In this case, linguists base the typology on the non-analytic tenses or on the position of the auxiliary. German is thus SVO in main clauses and Welsh is VSO. Many typologists classify both German and Dutch as V2 languages, as the verb invariantly occurs as the second element of a full clause; some languages allow varying degrees of freedom in their constituent order, posing a problem for their classification within the subject–verb–object schema. Languages with bound case markings for nouns, for example, tend to have more flexible word orders than languages where case is defined by position within a sentence or presence of a preposition.

To define a basic constituent order type in this case, one looks at frequency of different types in declarative affirmative main clauses in pragmatically neutral contexts, preferably with only old referents. Thus, for instance, Russian is considered an SVO language, as this is the most frequent constituent order under such conditions—all sorts of variations are possible and occur in texts. In many inflected languages, such as Russian and Greek, departures from the default word-orders are permissible but imply a shift in focus, an emphasis on the final element, or some special context. In the poetry of these languages, the word order may shift to meet metrical demands. Additionally, freedom of word order may vary within the same language—for example, literary, or archaizing varieties may have different, stricter, or more lenient constituent-order structures than an informal spoken variety of the same language. On the other hand, when there is no clear preference under the described conditions, the language is considered to have "flexible constituent order".

An additional problem is that in languages without living speech communities, such as Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Church Slavonic, linguists have only written evidence written in a poetic, formalizing, or archaic style that mischaracterizes the actual daily use of the language. The daily spoken language of Sophocles or Cicero might have exhibited a different or much more regular syntax than their written legacy indicates. Another common classification distinguishes nominative–accusative alignment patterns and ergative–absolutive ones. In a language with cases, the classification depends on whether the subject of an intransitive verb has the same case as the agent or the patient of a transitive verb. If a language has no cases, but the word order is AVP or PVA a classification may reflect whether the subject of an intransitive verb appears on the same side as the agent or the patient of the transitive verb. Bickel has argued that alignment should be seen as a construction-specific property rather than a language-specific property.

Many languages show mixed ergative behaviour. Other languages have two types of intransitive verbs—some of them join the subject in the same case as the agent of a transitive verb, the rest join the subject in the same case as the patient, yet other languages behave ergatively only in some contexts. For example, only some verbs in Georgian behave this way, and, as a rule, only while using the perfective. Linguistic typology seeks to identify patterns in the structure and distri


Cyberpark Kozhikode is a Government of Kerala organization planned in the lines of Technopark at Thiruvananthapuram and Infopark in Kochi to build and manage IT parks for the promotion and development of investment in IT and ITES industries in the Malabar region of Kerala. It was registered under the Societies Act 1860 on 28 January 2009. Cyberpark is set up by Kerala State IT Infrastructure Limited and is headed by a Chief Executive Officer. In addition to this, it has a General Body and a Board of Governors, both of which include top officials of the government, it has both non-SEZ options. The Cyberpark Kozhikode is the third IT hub in Kerala, the other two being the Technopark at Thiruvananthapuram and the Infopark in Kochi. 43 acres of land at Nellikode will be notified under SEZ for investors. The first phase of the project is expected to be ready for allotment by March 2011, it is situated in Nellikkode and Pantheeran Kavu villages of Kozhikode Taluk, near to Medical college at Chevayur.

It is 25 km away from 10 km from the seaport. The Park Centre of the Cyberpark was opened on 15 February 2014 by Industrial Minister P. K. Kunhalikutty; the Park Centre comprises an area of 11,000 square feet with two floors and hosts the administrative office, three software development companies, main conference hall, a mini conference hall, two guest rooms and a cafeteria. A 20-MW, 110-kV, gas-insulated substation and a second IT building for the park will be set up. Intelligent Street Lighting System to save energy. An inbuilt astronomical clock will switch on in the evening and off in the morning In January 2007, the Government of Kerala announced its decision to promote Kozhikode as an IT hub; the proposal to set up an IT park in Kozhikode came in the announcement of the State Government's IT policy made by Chief Minister V. S. Achuthanandan. Soon after the proposal, a convention under the auspices of Calicut IT Initiative in Kozhikode was organized; the CITI includes representatives of the Malabar Chamber of Commerce, Calicut Forum for IT, IIM-Kozhikode, Calicut Management Association, Kerala Builders Forum and NIT-Calicut among others.

The name Cyberpark was suggested by the convention. An appeal was made to the Calicut Corporation to include the IT Park in the master plan, being prepared for the city. At this convention, many companies, including IBS, US Technology, NeST Software, Leela Group, Finpro Business Solutions offered to set up their units in the Kozhikode IT unit. By March 2008, official sources pointed out that over 10 companies have shown interest in starting their organizations in this IT Park; the Park Centre of Cybercity Kozhikode was formally opened by Industries Minister P. K. Kunhalikuttty on 15 February 2014; the project is expected to be completed in 2015. By May 2018 Minister for Labour T. P. Ramakrishnan opened the new company - Infinite Open Source Solutions LLP - in the first warm shell space at Sahya IT building, measuring 7,000 sq.ft Space. The Company incubated from Business Incubator TBI-NITC. On the same day four other companies began operating in the Smart Business Centre at Sahya. On June 27th 2018 two more companies named IPIX technologies and Yarddiant Weblounge started operations at cyber park.

Both companies was inaugurated by Kerala IT Parks CEO Mr. Hrishikeshan Nair. IPIX Technologies, the IT arm of Morison Menon Group, the leading auditing and business advisory in the Middle East. Yarddiant Weblounge Pvt. Ltd. a web development company serving digital marketing solutions to global clients, has taken 1200 sq.ft 12-seater facility at the Smart Business Centre of the building. Yarddiant Weblounge Pvt. Ltd. headed by Prasoon Prahaladan and Neeraj Gupta, serves clients in Sweden, Turkey, U. K. U. S. and Kenya with their main product Learning Management System. The Government expenditure towards the land acquisition for Cyberpark is estimated to be around 430 million INR and planned spoke-parks in Kannur and Kasaragod are estimated to cost 1.50 billion INR each, spread over a five-year period. Total investment by the government will exceed 2.50 billion INR over the next two years. Official website


Chropaczów is a district in the north-east of Świętochłowice, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. In 2013 it had a population of 12,589 people; the village was first mention in 1295 as Chropazcow. The village belonged to the Duchy of Bytom, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. After Silesian Wars the area became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1826 it was bought by Carl Lazarus Henckel von Donnersmarck, it was industrialized. In 1879 the Lipiny Vorwerk became a separate municipality. In 1909 the municipality was renamed after a local coal mine. After World War I in the Upper Silesia plebiscite 3,633 out of 5,423 voters in Schlesiengrube voted in favour of joining Poland, against 1,784 opting for staying in Germany. Afterwards it became a part of Second Polish Republic, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Poland; the municipality of Chropaczów was amalgamated into Świętochłowice on 17 March 1951

Rooftops of Tehran (novel)

Rooftops of Tehran, a novel written by Mahbod Seraji, was published by New American Library, an imprint of the Penguin Group, in May 2009. Upon its publication Rooftops won critical acclaim as an Indie Next Notable and was selected in the Outstanding Debut Category by the American Booksellers Association. Rooftops of Tehran was the One Book Program selection at Villanova University, Broward College's wRites of Spring 2010 final pick, Earlham College's First Year Experience selection; the book was voted as one of the top 25 bookclub favorites of 2009, one of San Francisco Chronicle's top 50 notable books of the Bay Area. Rooftops is being translated into 15 languages. In a middle-class neighborhood of Iran’s sprawling capital city, 17-year-old Pasha Shahed spends the summer of 1973 on his rooftop with his best friend Ahmed, dreaming about future and wrestling with a crushing secret: his love for his beautiful neighbor, betrothed since birth to Pasha's friend and mentor, Doctor, a university student and political activist on the SAVAK hunt list.

Despite Pasha’s guilt the long, hot summer days transform the couple's tentative relationship into a rich emotional bond. But the bliss of their perfect, stolen summer is abruptly shattered in a single night when Pasha unwittingly guides the Shah’s secret police to Doctor's hiding place; the violent consequences awaken Pasha and his friends to the reality of life under the rule of a powerful despot, leading Zari to make a shocking choice from which Pasha may never recover. Indie Next Notable Outstanding Debut Category by ABA ne Book Villanova Broward College wRites of Spring 2010 Top 25 Book Club List for 2009 50 Notable Bay Area Books of 2009 Rooftops of Tehran Official Website Brown & Miller Literary Associates Radio Times with Marty Moss-Coane - NPR San Francisco Chronicle Review of Rooftops of Tehran Interview with Mahbod Seraji on Milwaukee Sentinel Minneapolis Star Tribune

List of Mobile Suit Victory Gundam characters

This is a list of fictional characters from the Japanese science fiction anime television series Mobile Suit Victory Gundam. Victory Gundam is well known for its high casualty rate on both sides in the conflict that takes place in this show. Üso Ewin Voiced by: Daisuke Sakaguchi Being 13 years old, Üso is the youngest Universal Century Gundam protagonist to date. Many fans of the Gundam series believe Ewin to be the great-grandson of another character, Char Aznable; the time frame gives the theory some weight. He is the pilot of the Victory Gundam, subsequently the Victory 2 Gundam. Üso is left scarred by the reality of war, the people that keep dying to protect him and their cause. Üso is good friends with the daughter of Zanscare Queen Maria Pia Armonia. According to Üso, the name of his and Shakti's hometown, means "hello" or "goodbye" in a Northern Pacific language; the word becomes somewhat of a rallying call for them. Üso makes enemies with Chronicle Asher, Shakti's uncle and Queen Maria's younger brother.

The two form somewhat of an Amuro Ray/Char Aznable rivalry. Shakti Kareen Voiced by: Yumi Kuroda Shakti is a 11 year old illegal Earth immigrant that shares a close bond with Üso, she is a caring person that has trouble adjusting to the realities of war that surround her. Her caring personality can be seen. Shakti tries to reason with members of Zanscare to show them the error of the ways and as a result, is kidnapped, she is the niece of Üso's main rival, Cronicle Asher. Marbet Fingerhat Voiced by: Ayako Shiraishi Marbet is one of League Milataire's mobile suit pilots, she is calm and caring and does not show anger, but can be opinionated. Marbet was designated to be the Victory Gundam's pilot, but she suffered a leg injury during a battle before the Gundam could be completed. Once the Victory becomes mass produced, Marbet pilots one of the units alongside Üso and Oliver, she dislikes Oliver, referring to him as a pimp, but the two marry and she becomes pregnant with his child. Suzy Relane Voiced by: Satomi Koorogi Suzy is an orphaned child and the younger sister of Odelo.

Her parents were executed via guillotine by the Zanscare Empire. She helps Shakti take care of Karlmann. Tomache Massarik Voiced by: Tomokazu Seki Tomache is a 17 year old cadet for the League Militaire, his father, was a worker at the orbital energy satellite Hiland. Tomache was captured by BESPA forces along with other children from Hiland, before being rescued by Üso and Marbet. Like Odelo, he had more of a support role before becoming a mobile suit pilot. Tomache's ultimate fate in the series is unknown and he is presumed to have been killed in the final battle as he does not reappear after the battle. Oliver Inoue Voiced by: Keiichi Sonobe Oliver is the leader of the League Militaire's Shrike Team, he pilots one of the Victory Gundam units alongside Marbet. He marries Marbet and the two have a child, born at the war's end. Oliver is killed when he rammed it into a battleship. Muller Miguel Voiced by: Mako Hyoudou Muller is Üso's mother and Hangelg's wife, she is an engineer who works for what is left of Anaheim Electronics and develops the Victory 2 "V2" Gundam for her son.

She is killed in a battle. Hangelg Ewin Voiced by: Kenyuu Horiuchi Hangelg is Üso's father and Muller's husband, he is one of the founders and leader of the League Militaire, the rebel group that stands in opposition to the Zanscare Empire as the Earth Federation was weakened and stagnant at the time of the invasion. Jinn Geneham Voiced by: Ginzo Matsuo Jinn is a member of the League Militaire who acts as the organization's leader in Hangelg's place and is the captain of the Reinforce Junior. Romero Marabal Voiced by: Chafurin Odelo Henrik Voiced by: Masayuki Nakata Odelo is the older brother of Suzy and acts as an older brother figure to Üso and Warren, his parents were executed via guillotine by the Zanscare Empire. Odelo acts in a support role for the League Militaire before becoming a mobile suit pilot, he is killed in the final battle by Katejina. Yuca Meilasch Voiced by: Atsuko Tanaka The Shrike Team is an all-female mobile suit squadron founded by Oliver Inoe, one of the Victory Gundam pilots, lead by Junko Jenko.

The team operates as part of the League Militaire. Several of the members are named after female singers. Helen Jackson Voiced by: Rika Fukami Helen is one of the Shrike Team's pilots, she is killed while trying to defend a League Militaire aircraft. Mahalia Merrill Voiced by: Mari Maruta Mahalia is one of the Shrike Team's pilots, she was orphaned at an early age when brother died in an accident. Eager to avenge Helen's death, Mahalia accidentally causes a battle to break out in the neutral Arti Gibraltar after brandishing her Gun-EZ's beam rifle in front of BESPA forces, she is killed in the ensuing battle after her suit is damaged and the cockpit explodes. Kate Bush Voiced by: Shinobu Adachi Kate is one of the Shrike Team's pilots. During the battle at Arti Gibraltar

Voices of Fire

Voices of Fire is the sixth studio album by German a cappella metal band Van Canto. It features John Rhys-Davies, the London Metro Voices and the children's choir from Chorakademie Dortmund, it is their last album with lead vocalist Sly, who would leave the band in 2017, as well as their only one without bass vocalist Ingo "Ike" Sterzinger, who left the band in the year before the album's release and re-joined it in the year after. The album received mixed to positive reviews by critics. Van CantoDennis "Sly" Schunkeclean male vocals Inga Scharf – female vocals Ross Thompson – higher guitar vocals Stefan Schmidt – lower guitar vocals, solo guitar vocals, vocals with distortion effect Jan Moritz – bass vocals Bastian Emig – drumsAdditional musiciansMetro Voices - choir John Rhys-Davies - spoken words Chorakademie Dortmund - children's choirCrewOsmar Arroyo - cover art