British invasions of the River Plate
The British invasions of the River Plate were a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of areas in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata that were located around the Río de la Plata in South America — in present-day Argentina and Uruguay. The invasions took place between 1806 and 1807, as part of the Napoleonic Wars, when Spain was an ally of Napoleonic France; the invasions occurred in two phases. A detachment from the British army occupied Buenos Aires for 46 days in 1806 before being expelled. In 1807, a second force stormed and occupied Montevideo, remaining for several months, a third force made a second attempt to take Buenos Aires. After several days of street fighting against the local militia and Spanish colonial army, in which half of the British forces were killed or wounded, the British were forced to withdraw; the social effects of the invasions are among the causes of the May Revolution. The criollos, who had so far been denied important positions, could get political strength through military roles.
The successful resistance with little help from Spain fostered the desire for self-determination. An open cabildo and the Royal Audience of Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte and designated instead the French popular hero Santiago de Liniers, a unprecedented action: before that, the viceroy was only subject to the King of Spain himself, no one from the colonies had authority over him. Pedro de Mendoza founded the Ciudad de Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre on 2 February 1536 as a Spanish settlement; the site was abandoned in 1541, but re-established in 1580 by Juan de Garay with the name Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Ayre, the city became one of the largest in the Americas. A Portuguese colony was founded nearby at Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. To deter Portuguese expansion, the Spanish founded Montevideo in 1726, Colonia was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, one year after the creation of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the forerunner of modern Argentina.
The South Sea Company was granted trading concessions in South America in the time of Queen Anne, under the Treaty of Utrecht. The British had long harboured ambitions in South America, considering the estuary of the Río de la Plata as the most favourable location for a British colony; the Napoleonic Wars played a key role in the Rio de la Plata conflict and since the beginning of the conquest of the Americas, England had been interested in the riches of the region. The Peace of Basel in 1795 ended the war between France. In 1796, by the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain joined France in its war with Britain, thus giving Britain cause for military action against Spanish colonies. In 1805 Britain judged it the right moment after the defeat of the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar; this battle forced Spain to reduce to a minimum its naval communications with its American colonies. Buenos Aires had been neglected by Spain, which sent most of its ships to the more economically important city of Lima.
The last time a significant Spanish military force had arrived in Buenos Aires had been in 1784. There were six Anglo-Spanish Wars from 1702 to 1783, most of which lasted for several years and Britain had long harboured interests in taking control of the region from the Spanish before the invasions. Back in 1711, John Pullen stated that the Río de la Plata was the best place in the world for making a British colony, his proposal included Santa Fe and Asunción, would have generated an agricultural area with Buenos Aires as the main port. Admiral Vernon declared the benefit of opening markets in those areas in 1741. By 1780 the British government approved a project of colonel William Fullarton to take the Americas with attacks from both the Atlantic and the Pacific; this project was cancelled. In 1789 the war between Britain and Spain seemed imminent after the Nootka Crisis; the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda took the opportunity to appear before prime Minister William Pitt with his proposal to emancipate the New World territories under Portuguese and Spanish rule and turn them into a great independent empire governed by a descendant of the Incas.
The plan presented in London requested the assistance of the United Kingdom and the United States to militarily occupy the major South American cities, ensuring that the people would greet the British cordially and would be rushing to organize sovereign governments. In return for this help, Britain would receive the benefits of unrestricted trade and usufruct of the Isthmus of Panama, in order to build a channel for the passage of ships. Pitt began to organize the expedition; the Nootka Convention in 1790 ended hostilities, the Miranda mission was canceled. Nicholas Vansittart made a new proposal in 1796: the plan was to take Buenos Aires move to Chile and attack from there the Spanish stronghold of El Callao in Peru; this proposal was canceled the following year, but was improved by Thomas Maitland in 1800 as the Maitland Plan. The new plan was to seize control of Buenos Aires with 4,000 soldiers and 1,500 cavalry, move to Mendoza, prepare a military expedition to cross the Andes and conquer Chile.
From there, the British would move from sea to seize Peru and Quito. All these proposals were discussed in 1804 by William Pitt, Lord Henry Melville, Francisco de Miranda and Sir Home Riggs Popham. Popham did not believe a complete military occupation of South America was practical but argued for taking control of key locations to allow the main objective, to open new markets for the British economy. Although there was consensus for weakening Spa
Battle of Maipú
The Battle of Maipú was a battle fought near Santiago, Chile on April 5, 1818 between South American rebels and Spanish royalists, during the Chilean War of Independence. The Patriot rebels led by Argentine general José de San Martín destroyed the Spanish forces commanded by General Mariano Osorio, completed the independence of the core area of Chile from Spanish domination. In 1817, the Argentine General José de San Martín led an army across the Andes and defeated the Spanish at the battles of Chacabuco and Chalchuapa and captured Santiago; the Spanish viceroyalty sent a Spanish army to Santiago under General Mariano Osorio, which defeated San Martín at the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada. The drive for independence never diminished and the following year San Martín launched a final offensive, to decide the outcome of the war. Despite being defeated at Cancha Rayada, the Patriot army regrouped again in less than two days, adding up to about 4,000 men, allowing San Martín to rebuild his units entirely.
Hence, on April 2, after leaving the Ochagavía camp to travel to the lower hills of Maipo, the Patriot army emerged organized in three infantry divisions with a total of 396 chiefs and 5,000 lower-ranked officers and soldiers. The Royalist army meanwhile continued in its attempt to consolidate and defeat the Patriots, after Cancha Rayada begun a persistent and extenuating persecution, resisted in every town and countryside, delaying its advance towards Santiago and giving the Patriots some time to reorganize and to plan the way to stop Osorio and to avoid his entrance into the capital city. Foreseeing this situation, General Bernardo O’Higgins employed some important measures which would serve the ultimate goal of defeating the Spanish, such as collecting the rifles and sabres given by Manuel Rodríguez to people after Cancha Rayada. Meanwhile, Gen. Osorio, after passing through San Fernando by the end of March, realized that he had not defeated the Patriot army conclusively at Cancha Rayada, moreover, that the latter was fit to fight and to win.
Facing this fact, another encounter between the Patriots and Royalist army near Santiago became inevitable. Both armies established their headquarters near each other in the south of Santiago, where San Martín and Osorio prepared for battle. At nightfall on April 4, the Royalist army settled at Lo Espejo, about seven kilometres from the Patriot forces. At dawn the next day, San Martín occupied the lower hills over the southern edge which runs from west to east, with Las Heras’ division to the right, Alvarado's division on the left and Quintana's division right behind them; the grenadiers were set on the extreme right and the Cazadores of the Dictatorial Army were arranged on the left flank. The artillery was divided into two brigades under Blanco Encalada and Borgoño, protected by the infantry on the wings. Osorio arranged his army on a triangular ridge at north of Lo Espejo. Primo de Rivera's division was formed on the left wing, while the Dragones de la Frontera Regiment was deployed over the road to Valparaíso.
Morla's Division was set on the western half of the triangular plateau, the right flank was formed by the Ordoñez Division. The battle began when the Patriot artillery opened fire about 11:30 AM, being contested by its Royalist counterpart, although inflicting no casualties upon each other whatsoever. After a half-hour of useless shelling, San Martín ordered Las Alvarado to move forward; the infantry advanced in columns without retaliating fire, until Las Heras threw his troops against Primo de Rivera with the support of Blanco Encalada's artillery, while Alvarado did the same against Ordoñez being covered by Borgoño's batteries. The grenadiers under Zapiola were assailed by part of the Royalist cavalry, but managed to counterattack and chase the attackers to a little slope where were decimated by a dense infantry and artillery fire. Obliged to retreat, Zapiola was reinforced and attacked again dispersing the enemy's cavalry and securing the Patriot right flank. During the fray the Patriot reserve emerged from behind Las Heras and Alvarado's lines and engaged Morla and Ordoñez divisions.
Right after, the Cazadores squadrons led by Col. Ramón Freire dispersed the Spanish cavalry on the eastern flank. On this charge died Chilean Colonel Santiago Bueras. On the centre, both infantries attacked each other with intensity. Ordoñez division, reinforced with another two units – the Burgos and Arequipa battalions - charged the Patriot line, forcing it to cede a little. However, San Martín sent three battalions to the sector – The 1st and 3rd infantry battalions plus the 7th Battalion of Los Andes -, these onsetted and split the Burgos Battalion, while the Arequipa Battalion was disbanded; the rest of the Royalist units formed in squares endured up to ten cavalry melees, but retreated after the centre and right wing withdrew to Lo Espejo. At this point Osorio deserted the field; the latter gathered six companies of Primo de Rivera's division and the rest of the Royalist infantry and made a final stand on the farm, decimating the Coquimbo Battalion which recklessly made a frontal charge.
San Martín ordered Blanco Encalada and Borgoño to hammer the position with their cannons. Pushed by the Patriot infantry, Ordoñez’ men garrisoned on the houses of Lo Espejo were forced to surrender, while the militias brought by O’Higgins captured the dispersed soldiers; the battle
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
The Paraguay campaign was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence; the first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. However, they were vanquished in the subsequent Battle of Paraguarí and Battle of Tacuarí; the campaign ended in a military failure and Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgrano's withdrawal, starting its course towards full independence. Three months after the creation of the Primera Junta, Manuel Belgrano was appointed Chief Commander of an army destined to gather support at Corrientes, Santa Fe, Paraguay and the Banda Oriental territories. A few days his goal was made more specific: he must aim for Paraguay; the junta had been informed that the patriotic party was strong there, a small army would suffice to take control.
Trusting such information, Belgrano moved towards Paraguay with two possible goals—to guarantee loyalty for the junta in Paraguay or promote a new government that would stay on friendly terms with Buenos Aires. Belgrano headed north with nearly 200 men, expecting to gather more soldiers on his way to the Paraná River. Soldiers from the Blandengues regiments of San Nicolás and Santa Fe did join him en route, the junta sent reinforcements of another 200 soldiers; the army was welcomed by most of the population they encountered along the way, receiving donations and new recruits in most villages. The small army grew to nearly 950 men, consisting of infantry and cavalry, divided into four divisions with one piece of artillery each. "This Congress will not discuss whether it's his weak son, our ruler. None of them have anymore power upon Paraguay; this Congress must discuss the way of protecting our independence from Brasil, Buenos Aires and Lima... Paraguay is free, is independent and it is a Republic..."
Paraguay was a rather isolated region of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, which made the ideas of regional independence stronger than in other provinces of the Viceroyalty. The road to Paraguayan independence began at the Congress of July 24, 1810, called by the last colonial governor to express the province's loyalty to the Spanish crown. Paraguayans indeed refused to pledge themselves to the Primera Junta of Buenos Aires and agreed to remain loyal to the King of Spain—yet the process of independence started here, as many Paraguayans, led by José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia and other patriots, took control of the situation and started working to obtain independence, both from the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata and the Kingdom of Spain. Belgrano ignored all this when he invaded Paraguay, believing that he would find a favorable political situation. There were three main political tendencies in Paraguay: those who supported the Spanish Regency Council, those who supported the Junta of Buenos Aires and those who supported independence.
By the end of October Belgrano's army stopped at Curuzú Cuatiá, where an old border conflict between Corrientes and Yapeyu was solved. He set the territories that would belong to Curuzu Cuatiá and Mandisoví, organized their urban layout around the chapel and the school. By November 1810 the army reached the Paraná River near Apipé island, there Belgrano took measures to benefit the natives that were living in missions. With his authority as representative of the junta he gave them full civil and political rights, granted lands, authorized commerce with the United Provinces and lifted the inability to take public or religious office. However, the junta requested that he seek authorization for such changes in the future. From that point the army moved to Candelaria, used as a stronghold for the attack on Paraguay; the terrain gave a clear advantage to Velazco's Paraguayan troops, who confronted Belgrano: the Paraná River, nearly 1,000 m. wide, was an effective natural barrier. Swamps, hills and lakes would force the army to march making a possible retreat difficult.
The Parana was crossed with several boats on December 19, a force of 54 Paraguayan soldiers was forced to flee during the battle of Campichuelo. Belgrano saw Velazco's army from the Mbaé hill, despite being outnumbered he ordered the attack anyway, trusting in the moral strength of his soldiers; when the battle of Paraguarí started, Belgrano's troops had an initial advantage, but Velazco's numerical superiority prevailed, thanks to the intervention of the Paraguayan patriots, around 3,500 men, resulting in the combined Paraguayan forces vastly ouotnumbering the Argentines. With casualties of ten dead and 120 taken prisoner, Belgrano wanted to keep on fighting, but his officers convinced him to retreat, his intent to continue was based on sound military tactics: while the Paraguayan forces outnumbered his, he knew that they were armed, while his troops had full equipment and supplies. The army left for Tacuarí, being watched by the combined armies of Fulgencio Yegros and Manuel Atanasio Cabañas.
Those two armies consisted of nearly 3000 troops, while Belgrano was left with 400. They were attacked from many sides during the Battle of Tacuarí on March 9. Outnumbered and losing an unequal fight, Belgrano was requested to surrender, but refused to do so, he reorganized his remaining 235 men and ordered his secretary to burn all his documents and personal papers to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. He arranged for the troops and artillery to fire f
Regiment of Patricians
The 1st Infantry Regiment "Los Patricios" is the oldest and one of the most prestigious regiments of the Argentine Army. The title is shortened to the Patricians' Regiment. Since the 1990s the regiment has been designated as air assault infantry, it is the custodian of the Buenos Aires Cabildo, the welcoming party for visiting foreign dignitaries to Argentina and the escort and honor guard battalion for the City Government of Buenos Aires. Since 22 September 2010, the Regiment's headquarters building has been a National Historical Monument following a declaration by the Argentine government on the occasion of the country's bicentennial year; the regiment was formed as the Legión Patricia from inhabitants of Buenos Aires in 1806 to fight against the British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Among some of its first members it included a woman, the Alférez Manuela Pedraza, one of the heroes of the Defense of Buenos Aires in 1806; the regiment therefore existed prior to Argentine independence. Their first commander was Cornelio Saavedra.
The regiment fought in the May Revolution, the Cisplatine War, the Platine War, the Paraguayan War, the Dirty War, the Falklands War. Although the word "Patrician" is employed as a synonym for aristocrat, in the naming of the Regiment it meant "the sons of the homeland". Indeed, the original members of the Regiment were not aristocrats but Criollos, who were much farther down in the social hierarchy of the time. Prior to the arrival of British troops, Viceroy Santiago de Liniers decided that volunteers drawn from the population of Buenos Aires muster at the Fort on 15 September 1806. More than 4,000 men appeared, it was the largest and most powerful unit recruited for the Defense of Buenos Aires and, like other urban military units formed, was granted the privilege of electing its officers. The first election was held at the Consulate of Buenos Aires on November 8, 1806. Lieutenant Colonel Cornelio Saavedra was elected as head of the Corps or Legion and commander of the 1st Battalion, Esteban Romero was elected commander of the Second Battalion, José Domingo Urien the Third Battalion commander.
Manuel Belgrano was elected Sergeant Major and among other officers were Feliciano Chiclana, Vicente López y Planes, Eustace Perdriel Gregorio Díaz Vélez. St. Martin of Tours became the patron of the unit and on 9 November the regimental flag was blessed at the Cathedral of Buenos Aires along with that of the Arribeños Corps; the unit was called the Buenos Aires Patrician Volunteer Urban Legion, with the status of a full Tercio or Colonial Regiment of Militia. The Patricios Legion was made up of three battalions, with 23 companies of 50 men each, with a total of 1,356 soldiers. Regimental Command Commander of the 1st Battalion and the Patricians Legion: Lt. Col. Cornelio Saavedra Commander of the 2nd Battalion: Major Esteban Romero Commander of the 3rd Battalion: Major Jose Domingo Urien Regimental Sergeant Major: Manuel Belgrano Juan Jose Viamonte 3 Adjutants 3 Flag Sublieutenants 2 Captains in reserve 3 Chaplains 3 Regimental SurgeonsBattalion Composition 1st Battalion, Patricians Legion 1st-8th Companies 2nd Battalion, Patricians Legion 1st-7th Companies 3rd Battalion, Patricians Legion 1st-8th CompaniesIn all: 69 Officers, 70 Sergeants, 20 Drummers, 179 Corporals, 1,059 enlisted soldiers, for a total of 1,395 Patrician Legionnaires.
During the second British invasion of the Rio de la Plata Saavedra was deployed to Colonia del Sacramento with a contingent, but after the British captured Montevideo he returned to Buenos Aires in February 1807. On 7 June 1807, during the battle of San Pedro in the Banda Oriental, the Spanish forces from Buenos Aires led by Francisco Javier Elio, including several companies of the Patricians Legion, were preparing to storm Colonia del Sacramento; the British, under Lt. Col. Denis Pack and defeated them; the whole unit had its baptism of fire on 4 July 1807. The 1st and 2nd Battalions of the Patricios Legion were located in the Division of Right, while the 3rd Battalion was in the Reserve Division; the Legion, together with the other urban military battalions deployed, won that battle. Shortly after its successful baptism of fire of 1807, Saavedra and the patricians made an important new service to the public. On January 1, 1809 the Cabildo of Buenos Aires, with support from the Spanish military units, tried to replace the viceroy Liniers with a Government Junta headed by Martin de Álzaga and create the "American Spain", before the occupation of Europe by the advancing Napoleonic armies.
This was known as the Mutiny of Álzaga. Cornelio Saavedra, with the legion under his command and the native personnel from the other battalions of militias managed to abort the move and ensure the authority of the viceroy, obtaining as a result of these developments the dissolution of the Spanish rebel units prompting the viceroy to reinstate full control over the military, it cleared the way for the natives who sought independence. Four companies were found involved, the 3rd Battalion, Patricians Legion under Jose Domingo de Urien and some officers of the other two battalions, such as Antonio José del Texo, Pedro Blanco and José Tomás Boys. Texo Urien was sued for trying to kill Saavedra. On January 13 the same year, as the Legion began to recover, it became the Patricians Corps by Royal orders via the Junta of Seville, several of its officers received royal promotions. Several of
Causes of the May Revolution
The May Revolution was a series of revolutionary political and social events that took place during the early nineteenth century in the city of Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of the Spanish Crown which at the time contained the present-day nations of Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. The consequence of the revolution was that the head of the Viceroyalty, Viceroy Cisneros, was ousted from office, role of government was assumed by the Primera Junta. There are many reasons, both international, that promoted such developments; the United States had emancipated themselves from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, which provided a tangible example that led Criollos to believe that revolution and independence from Spain could be realistic aims. In the time between 1775 and 1783 the Thirteen Colonies started the American Revolution, first rejecting the governance of the Parliament of Great Britain, the British monarchy itself, waged the American Revolutionary War against their former rulers.
The changes were not only political, but intellectual and social, combining both a strong government with personal liberties. The text of the Declaration of Independence stated that all men are created equal, had unalienable rights to life and the pursuit of happiness, they had chosen a republican form of government, instead of keeping a monarchic one. More, the fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the argument that ending allegiance to the mother country could be considered a crime; the ideals of the French Revolution of 1789 were spreading as well. During the Revolution, centuries of monarchy were ended with the overthrow and execution of the King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, the removal of the privileges of the nobility; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was popular among the young Criollos. The French Revolution boosted liberal ideals in political and economic fields; some of the most notable political liberal authors, who opposed monarchies and absolutism, were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, while the most notorious economic liberal was Adam Smith.
Liberal ideas reached the church, the concept of the divine right of kings started to be questioned. Francisco Suárez claimed that political power did not pass directly from God to the governor, but to the population and through it to the governor. According to Suarez, such power belongs to the people and is delegated to the governor, but if such governors did not serve the public good as they should, they would become tyrants and the people would have the right to fight them and choose new governors; the falling consensus about the divine right being legitimate gave room to monarchies being replaced by republics in France and the United States, but to constitutional monarchies, such as in Great Britain. However, the spread of such idea was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as well as the traffic in related books or their unauthorized possession; such blockades started when Spain declared war on France after the execution of Louis XVI, but remained after the peace treaty of 1796. The events of 1789 and the statements of the French Revolution spread around Spain despite the efforts to keep them at bay.
More, the National Convention declared that France would give shelter and aid to all populations aiming to become free, made many plans to disrupt the power of Spain over their overseas colonies. Many enlightened Criollos came into contact with those authors and their works during university studies; such as Manuel Belgrano in Spain or Mariano Moreno, Juan José Castelli or Bernardo Monteagudo at the American university in Chuquisaca. Books from the US found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, due to the closeness of Venezuela to the United States and West Indies; the Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with manual labour and horse-drawn vehicles being replaced by machine-based manufacturing and transportation aided by railways and steam power. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain, the need of new markets to sell the surplus of coal and clothes; the Napoleonic Wars, where Britain was at war with France, made this a difficult task, after Napoleon countered the British naval blockade with the Continental System, not allowing Britain to trade with any other European country.
Thus, England needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because they were restricted to trade only with their own metropoli. For this end they tried to conquer key cities during the British invasions, after it to promote their emancipation; the Industrial Revolution gave room to authors who proposed a liberal economy, like Adam Smith. François Quesnay compared the worldwide economy with a living organism, stating that economics worked beyond political power and should not be affected by it; the Napoleonic wars were taking place in Europe, involving France, Great Britain and most European countries. Portugal broke the blockade imposed on British trade and, as a result, was invaded by France. However, the Royal Family and the bulk of the kingdom's administration fled to colonial Brazil, in a move to preserve Portuguese sovereignty. Under the pretext of reinforcing the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, French Imperial troops began filing into Spain. Shortly before the Spanish King Charles IV abdicated due to the mutiny of Aranjuez and gave the throne to his son, Ferdinand VII.
Feeling that he was forced to abdicate, Charles IV requested. Napoleon helped remove Ferdinand VII from po
Mariano Moreno was an Argentine lawyer and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution. Moreno was born in Buenos Aires in 1778, his father was Manuel Moreno y Argumosa, born in Santander, who arrived in the city in 1776 and married María del Valle. Mariano had thirteen brothers. During his youth he studied Latin and philosophy at San Carlos Royal College, followed by college studies of law at Chuquisaca. During these studies, he learned the new ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment, he married María Guadalupe Cuenca and returned to Buenos Aires, becoming a prominent lawyer for the Cabildo. Unlike most other criollos, he rejected the Carlotist project and the administration of Santiago de Liniers, joining instead the ill-fated mutiny of Álzaga against him, he worked for Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. He wrote the economic paper The Representation of the Landowners, which persuaded the viceroy to open trade with Britain.
Although he was not prominently involved in the May Revolution that deposed Cisneros, he was appointed as secretary of war of the new government, the Primera Junta. Along with Juan José Castelli, he promoted harsh policies against the supporters of the former government and the strengthening of the new one; these policies were detailed in the Operations plan. Moreno organized military campaigns to Paraguay and Upper Peru and ensured the execution of Santiago de Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, he established the first Argentine newspaper, La Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, translated Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract into Spanish. When the Junta achieved the first military victories, President Cornelio Saavedra opposed Moreno, favoring moderate policies instead. Allied with Gregorio Funes, Saavedra expanded the number of members of the Junta to leave Morenism in a minority. With disputes still going on, Moreno was appointed to a diplomatic mission to Britain but died at sea on the way there.
His brother Manuel Moreno alleged. His supporters were still an influential political party for some years after his death. Historians hold several perspectives about the role and historical significance of Moreno, from hagiography to repudiation, he is considered the precursor of Argentine journalism. Mariano Moreno was the eldest of 14 children of poor parents, Manuel Moreno y Argumosa and Ana María Valle, he studied at Colegio Grande de San Carlos, but without living in it, as his family could not afford the price. He graduated with an honorary diploma, he met influential people within the literary field, who helped him to continue his studies at the University of Chuquisaca when his father could not afford the cost. This was the only big university in South America at the time, he studied the books of Montesquieu, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, other European philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. He studied French languages as well, to understand authors from Britain and France; this allowed him to work as a translator, he spent several years working with Rousseau's The Social Contract.
Moreno was convinced that society could be changed by the power of reason. He studied philosophical texts of the Spanish Enlightenment under the tutelage of the priest Terrazas and aspired to implement the new ideas in his country, he wrote a thesis with strong criticism of the native slavery at the mines of Potosí, influenced by the Spanish jurist Juan de Solorzano Pereira, the foremost publisher of Indian Law, Victoria Villalva, fiscal of the Audiencia of Charcas and defender of the indigenous cause. He started his professional career between 1803 and 1804, in the office of Augustine Gascón, officiating as labor counselor for Indians; as a result, he confronted powerful people like the mayors of Chayanta. He left the city after being threatened and returned to Buenos Aires in 1805 with his wife Maria Guadalupe Cuenca and their newborn son. Once in the city, he became a reporter of the hearings of the Royal Audiencia, a local appeallate court; the Buenos Aires Cabildo, the local council, hired him as an advisor as well.
He defended Melchor Fernández, aggrieved by Bishop Benito Lue y Riega, in one of his first cases. In another of his early disputes, he backed the Cabildo in denying the appointment as an ensign of the young Bernardino Rivadavia. A British army invaded Buenos Aires in 1806. Although Moreno was not involved with the military counter-offensive which drove them out, he opposed the British presence in Buenos Aires, he wrote a diary that noted all the events, so that, in the future, his countrymen would know the circumstances that allowed such an invasion. The British made a new attack in this time invading Montevideo, they published a bilingual English–Spanish newspaper known as "The Southern Star" or "La estrella del sur". It advocated free trade, a British goal, promoted American independence under British protection; the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires banned the newspaper and requested Moreno to write articles refuting those of the British publication. Moreno refused because, although he did not accept British rule, he agreed with some of their criticisms of the Spanish government.
Fearing a new attack to Buenos Aires, Moreno left the city with his whole family and relocated in the countryside. His house in Buenos Aires, left unoccupied, was used to keep prisoner William Carr Beresford, the Britis