Klamath Falls, Oregon
Klamath Falls is a city in and the county seat of Klamath County, United States. The city was called Linkville when George Nurse founded the town in 1867, it was named after the Link River. The name was changed to Klamath Falls in 1893; the population was 20,840 at the 2010 census. The city is on the southeastern shore of the Upper Klamath Lake and about 25 miles north of the California–Oregon border; the Klamath Falls area had been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first European settlers. The Klamath Basin became part of the Oregon Trail with the opening of the Applegate Trail. Logging was Klamath Falls's first major industry. After its founding in 1867, Klamath Falls was named Linkville; the name was changed to Klamath Falls in 1892–93. The name Klamath, may be a variation of the descriptive native for "people" used by the indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau to refer to the region. Several locatives derived from the Modoc or Achomawi: lutuami, lit: "lake dwellers", móatakni, "tule lake dwellers" could have led to spelling variations that made the word what it is today.
No evidence suggests. The Klamath themselves called the region Yulalona or Iwauna, which referred to the phenomenon of the Link River flowing upstream when the south wind blew hard; the Klamath name for the Link River white water falls was Tiwishkeni, or "where the falling waters rush". From this Link River white water phenomenon "Falls" was added to Klamath in its name. In reality it's best described as rapids rather than falls; the rapids are visible a short distance below the Link River Dam, where the water flow is insufficient to provide water flow over the river rocks. The Klamath and Modoc Indians were the first known inhabitants of the area; the Modocs' homeland is about 20 miles south of Klamath Falls, but when they were pushed onto a reservation with their adversaries, the Klamath, a rebellion ensued and they hid out in nearby lava beds. This led to the Modoc War of 1872−1873, a hugely expensive campaign for the US Cavalry, costing an estimated $500,000 − the equivalent of over $8 million in year-2000 dollars.
Seventeen Indians and 83 whites were killed. The Applegate Trail, which passes through the lower Klamath area, was blazed in 1846 from west to east in an attempt to provide a safer route for emigrants on the Oregon Trail; the first non-Indian settler is considered to have been Wallace Baldwin, a 19-year-old civilian who drove fifty head of horses in the valley in 1852. In 1867, George Nurse, named the small settlement "Linkville", because of Link River north of Lake Ewauna; the Klamath Reclamation Project began in 1906 to drain marshland and move water to allow for agriculture. With the building of the main "A" Canal, water was first made available May 22, 1907. Veterans of World War I and World War II were given homesteading opportunities on the reclaimed land. During World War II, a Japanese-American internment camp, the Tule Lake War Relocation Center, was located in nearby Newell, a satellite of the Camp White, Oregon, POW camp was located just on the Oregon-California border near the town of Tulelake, California.
In May 1945, about 30 miles east of Klamath Falls, a Japanese Fu-Go balloon bomb killed a woman and five children on a church outing. This is said to be the only Japanese-inflicted casualty on the US mainland during the war. Timber harvesting through the use of railroad was extensive in Klamath County for the first few decades of the 20th century. With the arrival of the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1909, Klamath Falls grew from a few hundred to several thousand. Dozens of lumber mills cut fir and pine lumber, the industry flourished until the late 1980s when the northern spotted owl and other endangered species were driving forces in changing western forest policy. On September 20, 1993, a series of earthquakes struck near Klamath Falls. Many downtown buildings, including the county courthouse and the former Sacred Heart Academy and Convent, were damaged or destroyed. There were two deaths attributed to the earthquake; the city made national headlines in 2001 when a court decision was made to shut off Klamath Project irrigation water on April 6 because of Endangered Species Act requirements.
The Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker were listed on the Federal Endangered Species List in 1988, when drought struck in 2001, a panel of scientists stated that further diversion of water for agriculture would be detrimental to these species, which reside in the Upper Klamath Lake, as well as to the protected Coho salmon which spawn in the Klamath River. Many protests by farmers and citizens culminated in a "Bucket Brigade" on Main Street May 7, 2001, in Klamath Falls; the event was attended by 18,000 farmers, ranchers and politicians. Two giant bucket monuments erected in town to commemorate the event; such universal criticism resulted in a new plan implemented in early 2002 to resume irrigation to farmers. Low river flows in the Klamath and Trinity rivers and high temperatures led to a mass die-off of at least 33,000 salmon in 2002. Dwindling salmon numbers have shut down the fishing industry in the region and caused over $60 million in disaster aid being given to fishermen to offset losses.
Ninety percent of Trinity River water is diverted for California agriculture. According to a National Academy of Sciences report of October 22, 2003, limiting irrigation water did little if anything to help endangered fish and may have hurt the populations. A contrary report has criticized the National Academy of Sciences report. T
Link River Dam
The Link River Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Link River in the city of Klamath Falls, Oregon. It was built in 1921 by the California Oregon Power Company, the predecessor of PacifiCorp, which continues to operate the dam; the dam is owned by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Link River Dam's reservoir, Klamath Lake, has a capacity of 873,000 acre feet; the project provides flood control, generates hydro power, stores most of the water used for irrigation in the Klamath Reclamation Project. The dam is 435 feet long, its two channels can allow one outflow of 3,000 ft³/s with 1,000 ft³/s through the Ankeny Canal, another outflow of 290 ft³/s through the Keno Canal. Those channels feed PacifiCorp's two hydroelectric turbines located downstream and generate 151 MW. All the flow is diverted down the Link River into Lake Ewauna. In 2004 PacifiCorp announced the Link River power projects would be abandoned, as the cost to repair the canal and pipeline supplying the power turbines is too high to be economically viable.
As of 2014 the company intends to continue to run the plant, in the short term and at reduced output. In 1878, five years after the Modoc Wars, residents of Linkville formed the "Linkville Water Ditch Company." They dug a low capacity canal. A William Steele extended the ditch by 15 miles in 1884. After his death in 1888 the Klamath Falls Irrigation Company took over the canal, it is now known as the Ankeny Canal. Charles and Rufus Moore dug a canal on the other side of the Link River in 1877 to power a sawmill and transport logs from Upper Klamath Lake; this became known as the Keno Canal. On February 24, 1917, officials from the USBR and COPCO reached an agreement to lease the Keno Canal for ten years at a rate of $1,000 per annum; the agreement allowed the power company to regulate the outflows of Klamath Lake. In 1919, COPCO placed a temporary low-crib dam near what is now Putnam's Point in 1919. Construction began on the dam on July 29, 1920. Senator George E. Chamberlain of Oregon telegraphed Secretary of the Interior John B.
Payne on August 20, 1920, requesting he halt dam construction long enough to determine the legality of the 1917 contract. Payne issued a supplemental contract on December 10, California-Oregon Power restarted construction on May 15, 1921, finishing it on October 29; as a 50-year contract between the USBR and PacifiCorp reached its expiration in 2006, the company proposed closing down hydroelectric generation at Link River. It cited the high costs of complying with fish passage remediation; this proposal would have left the dam in place for flood control. As of 2014 the company intends to continue to generate electricity at Link River, in the short term and at reduced output. PacifiCorp implemented changes of operation are intended to reduce the destruction of two endangered species, the Lost River sucker and Shortnose sucker, by some 90%. Further decomissioning discussion remain pending with the governing agency, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Klamath Waters Digital Library
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
In the United States, a river mile is a measure of distance in miles along a river from its mouth. River mile numbers increase further upstream; the corresponding metric unit using kilometers is the river kilometer. They are analogous to vehicle roadway mile markers, except that river miles are marked on the physical river. Riverfront properties are sometimes legally described by their river mile; the river mile is not the same as the length of the river, rather it is a means of locating any feature along the river relative to its distance from the mouth, when measured along the course of the river. River mile zero may not be at the mouth. For example, the Willamette River has its river mile zero at the edge of the navigable channel in the Columbia, some 900 feet beyond the mouth; the river mile zero for the Lower Mississippi River is located at Head of Passes, where the main stem of the Mississippi splits into three major branches before flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Mileages are indicated as AHP or BHP.
River miles are used in a variety of ways. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in its 2001 Pennsylvania Gazetteer of Streams, lists every named stream and every unnamed stream in a named geographic feature in the state, gives the drainage basin area, mouth coordinates, river mile the distance from the mouth of the tributary to the mouth of its parent stream; some islands are named for their river mile distance, for example the Allegheny River in Pennsylvania has Six Mile Island, Nine Mile Island, Twelve Mile Island, Fourteen Mile Island.. The state of Ohio uses the "River Mile System of Ohio", "a method to reference locations on streams and rivers of Ohio"; this work began by hand measurements on paper maps between 1972 and 1975 and has since been converted to a computer-based electronic version, which now covers the state in 787 river mile maps. Locations of facilities such as wastewater treatment plants and water quality measurement sites are referenced via river miles. Ohio uses one of two systems.
The simplest is just the location in river miles. In cases where there is ambiguity, for example when more than one stream has the same name, it uses a series of river mile strings referring to the distance to the ocean along either the Ohio River or through Lake Erie; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers uses river miles for its navigation maps. Waterway Mile Marker Database Delaware River Mileage System
The Klamath people are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon and Northern California. Today Klamath people are enrolled in the federally recognized tribes: Klamath Tribes, Oregon Quartz Valley Indian Community, California; the Klamath people lived in the area around the Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath and Sprague rivers. They subsisted on fish and gathered roots and seeds. While there was knowledge of their immediate neighbors the Klamath were unaware of the existence of the Pacific Ocean. Gatschet has described this position as leaving the Klamath living in a "protracted isolation" from outside cultures; the Klamath were known to raid neighboring tribes, such as the Achomawi on the Pit River, to take prisoners as slaves. They traded with the Wasco-Wishram at The Dalles. However, scholars such as Alfred L. Kroeber and Leslie Spier consider these slaving raids by the Klamath to begin only with the acquisition of the horse; these natives made southern Oregon their home for long enough to witness the eruption of Mount Mazama.
It was a legendary volcanic mountain, the creator of Crater Lake, now considered to be a beautiful natural formation. In 1826, Peter Skene Ogden, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, first encountered the Klamath people, he was trading with them by 1829; the United States frontiersman Kit Carson admired their arrows, which were reported to be able to shoot through a house. The Klamaths and the Yahooskin Band of Northern Paiute, erroneously called Upper Sprague River Snakes believed to be a Band of Snake Indians, the collective name given to the Northern Paiute and Shoshone Native American tribes, signed a treaty with the United States in 1864, establishing the Klamath Reservation to the northeast of Upper Klamath Lake; this area was part of the traditional territory controlled by the ă′ukuckni Klamath band. The treaty required the tribes to cede the land in the Klamath Basin, bounded on the north by the 44th parallel, to the United States. In return, the United States was to make a lump sum payment of $35,000, annual payments totalling $80,000 over 15 years, as well as providing infrastructure and staff for the reservation.
The treaty provided that, if the Indians drank or stored intoxicating liquor on the reservation, the payments could be withheld. The tribes requested Lindsay Applegate as the agent to represent the United States to them; the Indian agent estimated the total population of the three tribes at about 2,000 when the treaty was signed. Since termination of recognition of their tribal sovereignty in 1954, the Klamath and neighboring tribes have reorganized their government and revived tribal identity; the Klamath, along with the Modoc and Yahooskin, have formed the federally recognized Klamath Tribes confederation. Their tribal government is based in Oregon; some Klamath live on the Quartz Valley Indian Community in California. Traditionally there were several cultural subdivisions among the Klamath, based on the location of their residency within the Klamath Basin. Despite this, the five recognized "tribelets" mutually considered each other the same ethnic group, about 1,200 people in total. Like many Indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest, the Klamath lived a semi-sedentary life.
Winter settlements were in permanent locations. Construction of the earth-lodges would begin in Autumn, with materials salvaged from abandoned, dilapidated buildings made in previous years. Leslie Spier has detailed some of the winter settlement patterns for Klamath as follows: The towns are not isolated, compact groups of houses, but stretch along the banks for half a mile or more. In fact, the settlements on Williamson river below the Sprague river junction form a continuous string of houses for five or six miles, the house pits being, in many spots, crowded close together. Informants insisted; when we consider that these earth-lodges may have housed several families, there is strong suggestion of a considerable population. Marriage was a unique practice for the Klamath, compared to neighboring cultures found in the borderlands of modern Oregon, California and Idaho. For example, unlike the Hupa and Yurok, the Klamath didn't hold formal talks between families for a bride price. Notable was the cultural norm that allowed wives to leave husbands, as they were "in no sense chattel... and cannot be disposed of as a possession."
The Klamath use Apocynum eat the roots of Lomatium canbyi. They use the rootstocks of Sagittaria cuneata as food. Dentalium shells were common among the Klamath prior to colonization. Compared to other native cultures dentalium didn't hold as much financial use among the Klamath. However, longer shells were held to be more valuable. Nonetheless these shells were esteemed for as jewelry and personal adornment. Septum piercings were given to younger members of Klamath families to allow inserting dentalium; some individuals wouldn't however use any shells in their septum. Spier gives the following account for their usage: The septum of the nose is pierced and the ear lobes, the latter twice or more frequently. Both sexes insert dentalium shells horizontally through the septum... Ear pendants are a group of four dentalia hung in a bunch by their tips; the use of dentalium i
The Klamath River flows 257 miles through Oregon and northern California in the United States, emptying into the Pacific Ocean. By average discharge, the Klamath is the second largest river in California after the Sacramento River, it drains an extensive watershed of 16,000 square miles that stretches from the arid country of south-central Oregon to the temperate rainforest of the Pacific coast. Unlike most rivers, the Klamath begins in the high desert and flows toward the mountains – carving its way through the rugged Cascade Range and Klamath Mountains before reaching the sea; the upper basin, today used for farming and ranching, once contained vast freshwater marshes that provided habitat for abundant wildlife, including millions of migratory birds. Most of the lower basin remains wild, with much of it designated wilderness; the watershed is known for this peculiar geography, the Klamath has been called "a river upside down" by National Geographic magazine. The Klamath is the most important North American river south of the Columbia River for anadromous fish migration.
Its salmon and rainbow trout have adapted to unusually high water temperatures and acidity levels relative to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The numerous fish were a major source of food for Native Americans, who have inhabited the basin for at least 7,000 years; the first Europeans to enter the Klamath River basin were fur trappers for the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1820s. Within several decades of white settlement, native peoples were forced into reservations. During the latter days of the California Gold Rush, increasing numbers of miners began working the Klamath River and its tributaries, causing considerable harm to the environment. Conflict and introduced diseases left indigenous tribes with only 10% of their original population. Steamboats operated on the large lakes of the upper basin, contributing to the growth of towns such as Klamath Falls, before they were replaced by railroads in the late 19th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the upper basin became a productive agricultural region, many dams were built to provide irrigation and hydroelectricity.
In the 1960s, the Klamath River was targeted by much larger, but unsuccessful schemes to augment water supplies in other parts of California. One of these projects, the Klamath Diversion, would have reversed the entire flow of the Klamath River to supply farms and urban areas in central and southern California. Today, the Klamath is a popular recreational river as well as an important source of water for agriculture, it includes many of the longest free-flowing stretches of river in California, including excellent stretches of whitewater. However and diversions in the upper basin have caused water quality issues in the lower half of the river. Environmental groups and native tribes have proposed broad changes to water use in the Klamath Basin, including the removal of some dams on the river to expand fish habitat, they put forth their concerns in what is now the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, a water management plan signed by local communities, tribal groups, environmentalists, fishermen.
The proposal has been endorsed by the U. S. Department of the Interior but has not been authorized by the United States Congress. Upper Klamath Lake, filling a broad valley at the foot of the eastern slope of the southern High Cascades, is the source of the Klamath River; the lake is fed by the Williamson River, which originates in the Winema National Forest, the Wood River, which rises near Crater Lake National Park. The Klamath River issues from Klamath Lake at Klamath Falls as a short 1-mile stream known as the Link River, which flows into the 18-mile long Lake Ewauna reservoir formed by Keno Dam. Here, the Klamath is connected by the B canal to the Lost River. Below the dam the river flows west, passing the dry Lower Klamath Lake bed and the hydroelectric John C. Boyle Dam; the Klamath River enters California, where it passes through three more hydroelectric plants and turns south near the town of Hornbrook towards Mount Shasta. However, the river soon swings west to receive the Shasta River and the Scott River, entering a long canyon through the Klamath Mountains.
The route through the Cascade Range and the Klamath Mountains constitutes the majority of the river's course and takes it from the arid high desert climate of its upper watershed towards a temperate rainforest nourished by Pacific rains. Below the Scott River confluence, the Klamath runs west along the south side of the Siskiyou Mountains until it takes a sharp southward turn near the town of Happy Camp. From there, it flows southwest over whitewater rapids through the Klamath National Forest and Six Rivers National Forest, receives the Salmon River from the east, passes the community of Orleans. At Weitchpec, the river reaches the southernmost point in its course and veers north as it receives its principal tributary, the Trinity River. Below this point, the Klamath's current slows. For the remainder of its course, the Klamath flows northwest, passing through the Yurok Indian Reservation and the town of Klamath, meeting the sea at a large tidal estuary 16 miles south of Crescent City; the mouth of the Klamath River is at Requa, in an area shared by the Yurok Reservation and Redwood National Park.
The Klamath River estuary is recognized for protection by the Ca
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti