The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Willamette Valley is a 150-mile long valley in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Willamette River flows the entire length of the valley, it is surrounded by mountains on three sides – the Cascade Range to the east, the Oregon Coast Range to the west, the Calapooya Mountains to the south, it forms the cultural and political heart of Oregon, is home to 70 percent of its population including its six largest cities: Portland, Salem, the state capital, the cities of Gresham and Beaverton in the Portland metropolitan area. Eight of Oregon's ten – and 16 of its 20 – largest cities are located in the Willamette Valley; the valley's numerous waterways the Willamette River, are vital to the economy of Oregon, as they continuously deposit fertile alluvial soils across its broad, flat plain. A massively productive agricultural area, the valley was publicized in the 1820s as a'promised land of flowing milk and honey'. Throughout the 19th century it was the destination of choice for the oxen-drawn wagon trains of emigrants who made the perilous journey along the Oregon Trail.
Today the valley is considered synonymous with "Oregon Wine Country", as it contains more than 19,000 acres of vineyards and 500+ wineries. Much of the Willamette's fertility is derived from a series of massive ice-age floods that came from Lake Missoula in Montana and scoured across Eastern Washington, sweeping its topsoil down the Columbia River Gorge; when floodwaters met log- and ice-jams at Kalama in southwest Washington, the water caused a backup that filled the entire Willamette Valley to a depth of 300 to 400 feet above current sea level. Some geologists suggest that the Willamette Valley flooded in this manner multiple times during the last ice age. If floodwaters of that magnitude covered Portland in 2010, only the tops of the West Hills, Mount Tabor, Rocky Butte, Kelley Butte and Mount Scott would be visible, as would only some of the city's tallest skyscrapers. Elevations for other cities in the valley are Newberg, 175 feet; the lake drained away, leaving layered sedimentary soils on the valley floor to a height of about 180 to 200 feet above current sea level throughout the Tualatin and Willamette valleys.
Geologists have come to refer to the resulting lake as Lake Allison, named for Oregon State University geologist Ira S. Allison, who first described Willamette Silt soil in 1953 and noted its similarity to soils on the floor of former Lake Lewis in Eastern Washington. Allison is known for his work in the 1930s documenting the hundreds of non-native boulders washed down by the floods, rafted on icebergs and deposited on the valley bottom and in a ring around the lower hills surrounding the Willamette Valley. One of the most prominent of these is the Bellevue Erratic, just off Oregon Route 18 west of McMinnville, it is believed that the Willamette Meteorite was rafted by flood and ice to the location near West Linn where it was found in 1902. The valley may be loosely defined as the broad plain of the Willamette, bounded on the west by the Oregon Coast Range and on the east by the Cascade Range, it is bounded on the south by the Calapooya Mountains, which separate the headwaters of the Willamette from the Umpqua River valley about 25 miles south of Hidden Valley.
Interstate 5 runs the length of the valley. Because of differing cultural and political interests, the Portland metropolitan area and Tualatin River valley are not included in the local use of the term. Additionally, the east slopes of the Coast Ranges and the west slopes of the Cascade Range from Oakridge to Detroit Lake can be considered part of the Willamette Valley in a cultural sense, despite being mountainous areas. Cities in the valley include, from south to north, Cottage Grove, Corvallis, Dallas, Keizer, McMinnville, Oregon City, Portland, St. Helens. Parts of the following counties, from south to north, lie within the valley: Douglas, Linn, Polk, Clackamas, Washington and Columbia. Sometimes the area around Albany and Corvallis and surrounding Benton and Linn counties is referred to locally as the Mid-Valley. Marion and other counties are sometimes included in the definition of the Mid-Valley; the climate of the Willamette Valley is Mediterranean with oceanic features. This climate is characterized by dry and cloudless summers, ranging from warm to very hot, followed by cool and cloudy winters.
The precipitation pattern is distinctly Mediterranean, with little to no rainfall occurring during the summer months and over half of annual precipitation falling between November and February. Temperatures are predictable throughout the year, with daytime highs reaching the low to mid 80s in the summer and the mid 40s in the winter. Lengthy stretches of 90 °F days occur every summer reaching 100 °F. Cold days where the daytime high fails to rise above freezing are rare and may occur only two or three days per year, not at all in the lowest elevations of the valley. Temperatures of 5 °F or lower occur only about once every 25 years. Spring and fall days are between 50 and 70 degrees, with occasional surges of summer-like or winter-like temperatures that last more than a week. Precipitation varies across the valley and is correlated with elevation. Annual totals range from 36 inches (
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine
Oregon College of Oriental Medicine is a private college in Portland, Oregon focused on graduate degrees in acupuncture and Oriental medicine. OCOM's programs are accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and authorized by the Oregon Student Assistance Commission's Office of Degree Authorization to award Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine degrees. Oregon College of Oriental Medicine was founded in Portland, Oregon in 1983, is one of the oldest Chinese medicine colleges in the United States. OCOM trains master's and doctoral students, conducts research and treats patients at its Old Town Chinatown campus and northeast Portland Hollywood Clinic. In July 2005, OCOM became the first college to graduate a cohort of Doctors of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine; the college announced plans in July 2009, to move from Portland's eastside to a historic building in downtown's Old Town Chinatown district. The new LEED Gold certified facility was renovated at a cost of $15.2 million.
In September 2012, the school moved into its new home in Portland's historic Old Town Chinatown neighborhood. OCOM operates an herbal medicinary; the OCOM Hollywood Clinic, with eight clinic rooms, serves residents of northeast Portland, including the neighborhoods of Hollywood, Grant Park and Beaumont-Wilshire. OCOM Clinic, at the college's Old Town Chinatown campus, opened in September 2012 and serves downtown residents and workers; the OCOM Herbal Medicinary is located on the ground floor of the college's campus. More than 20,000 low-cost acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine and shiatsu patient treatments are offered annually by the clinics, which serve as teaching facilities for the college. OCOM has an active research department, has received substantial research grants from the National Institutes of Health/NCCAM. OCOM research projects have included a collaborative grant with the University of Arizona to study temporomandibular joint disorder. Official website
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a vote on a ballot question; some definitions of'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the constitution or government of a country. However, some other countries define it differently. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In Ireland, the vote to adopt its constitution was called a "plebiscite", but a subsequent vote to amend the constitution is called a'referendum', so is a poll of the electorate on a non-constitutional bill; the word referendum is a general word used for both legislative referrals and initiatives.'Referendum' is the gerundive form of the Latin verb refero "to carry back". As a gerundive is an adjective, not a noun, it cannot be used alone in Latin and must be contained within a context attached to a noun such as Propositum quod referendum est populo, "A proposal which must be carried back to the people".
The addition of the verb sum to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which "must" be done, rather than that, "fit for" doing. Its use as a noun in English is thus not a grammatical usage of a foreign word, but is rather a freshly coined English noun, which therefore follows English grammatical usage, not Latin grammatical usage; this determines the form of the plural in English, which according to English grammar should be "referendums". The use of "referenda" as a plural form in English is thus insupportable according to the rules of both Latin and English grammar alike; the use of "referenda" as a plural form is posited hypothetically as either a gerund or a gerundive by the Oxford English Dictionary, which rules out such usage in both cases as follows: Referendums is logically preferable as a plural form meaning'ballots on one issue'. The Latin plural gerundive'referenda', meaning'things to be referred' connotes a plurality of issues, it is related to the political agenda, "those matters which must be driven forward", from ago, to drive.
The name and use of the'referendum' is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century. The term'plebiscite' has a similar meaning in modern usage, comes from the Latin plebiscita, which meant a decree of the Concilium Plebis, the popular assembly of the Roman Republic. Today, a referendum can often be referred to as a plebiscite, but in some countries the two terms are used differently to refer to votes with differing types of legal consequences. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In contrast, Ireland has only held one plebiscite, the vote to adopt its constitution, every other vote has been called a referendum. Plebiscite has been used to denote a non-binding vote count such as the one held by Nazi Germany to'approve' in retrospect the so-called Anschluss with Austria, the question being not'Do you permit?' but rather'Do you approve?' of that which has most already occurred.
The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings. A referendum can be advisory. In some countries, different names are used for these two types of referendum. Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: mandatory referendums prescribed by law, voluntary referendums initiated by the legislature or government, referendums initiated by citizens. A deliberative referendum is a referendum designed to improve the deliberative qualities of the campaign preceding the referendum vote, and/or of the act of voting itself. From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy. However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively, covering issues such as changes in voting systems, where elected officials may not have the legitimacy or inclination to implement such changes. Since the end of the 18th century, hundreds of national referendums have been organised in the world.
Italy ranked second with 72 national referendums: 67 popular referendums, 3 constitutional referendums, one institutional referendum and one advisory referendum. A referendum offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but not always; some referendums give voters the choice among multiple choices and some use Transferable voting even. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common. Two multiple choice referendums were held in Sweden, in 1957 and in 1980, in which voters were offered three options. In 1977, a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters had four choices. In 1992, New Zealand held a five-option referendum on their electoral system. In 1982, Guam had referendum that used six options, with an additional blank option for anyone wishing to vote for their own seventh option. A multiple choice referendum pose
Pacific Northwest College of Art
The Pacific Northwest College of Art is a private fine arts and design college in Portland, Oregon. Established in 1909, the art school grants bachelor of fine arts degrees and graduate degrees including the master of fine arts and master of arts degrees, it has an enrollment of about 500 students. PNCA participates in Portland's cultural life through a public program of exhibitions and internationally recognized visual artists and creative thinkers; the college has eleven Bachelor of Fine Arts majors and several graduate programs including an MFA in Applied Craft and Design offered jointly with Oregon College of Art and Craft as well as a dual-degree MA/MFA option. PNCA provides continuing education in art and design to the local community. Founded in 1909 as part of the Portland Art Museum, the school was known as the Museum Art School with Anna Belle Crocker serving as the head of the school, Kate Cameron Simmons as the first hired teacher. After the Pietro Belluschi designed home of the museum opened in 1932, the school moved into the upper floors of the building.
In 1981, the school changed its name to Pacific Northwest College of Art in order to reflect its independence from the museum. The independence was solidified in April 1994 when the college formally split from the art museum and was incorporated as a legal entity distinct from the museum. In 1998, the college moved to its former campus in Portland's Pearl District. PNCA hired Thomas Manley in 2003 as president of the institution. Manley proposed a plan to the school's board in 2004 to expand the college and move towards Portland's North Park Blocks; this plan received a boost in 2007. The school purchased the building housing the college in 2008, that year was given the 511 Federal Building by the federal government as part of a surplus building program. In 2009, the independent Museum of Contemporary Craft moved into the DeSoto Building, which drained the museum's finances; this led to PNCA loaning the museum money, to a partnership and possible merger. In 2012, the school announced they would centralize their programs in Portland's Old Town at the 511 Federal Building.
PNCA opened their first residence hall in August 2013 at a cost of $7.3 million, called ArtHouse. As part of its move to the Old Town area, the college sold its main building in the Pearl District in 2013 for $11.75 million. The school secured $20 million in loans from the Portland Development Commission in November 2013 to fund the renovations. Renovations were completed in January 2015, with classes starting at the new campus in February 2015. In late 2018, the college explored merging with the Oregon College of Art and Craft but they decided against the merger; as of February 2015, PNCA's main campus building is located at 511 NW Broadway in northwest Portland, in the Pearl District. Known as the 511 Federal Building, it is a former post office, on the National Register of Historic Places; the college opened its first student housing in 2013 with the completion of ArtHouse at NW Park and Couch. The six-story building has plus retail space on the ground floor. Designed by architect Thomas Robinson, the project cost $7.3 million to build the modernistic structure.
ArtHouse was built where Powell’s Technical Books was located and is managed by College Housing Northwest. PNCA's exhibition department is the Center for Contemporary Art & Culture, a platform for cultural production including exhibition, lecture and publication. CCAC is directed by Mack McFarland and has exhibited artist such as Wangechi Mutu, Cauleen Smith, James Rosenquist, David Horvitz. CCAC is made up of the 511 Gallery and the Dorothy Lemelson Innovation Studio. Additional exhibition spaces include Holt Gallery, Gallery 157, Gallery B10, New Commons; the Lodge Gallery @ Allied Works Architecture host regular exhibitions. In March, 2008, PNCA announced the U. S. Department of Education and the General Services Administration approved PNCA's application to make the 511 Federal Building a permanent part of the school's campus. Located on the North Park Blocks, the building was renovated for use by the college in 2014–15. After the $30 million in renovations were complete in February 2015, the building was renamed as the Arlene and Harold Schnitzer Center for Art and Design.
The school is accredited by both the National Association of Schools of Art and Design and the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. PNCA is affiliated with the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, the Council for Higher Education Accreditation, the Art Resources Consortium Northwest, the Oregon Independent College Association, the Foundations in Art: Theory and Education. PNCA offers eleven seven graduate level programs; the college offers Bachelor of Fine Art degrees in majors including: Animated Arts, Communication Design, General Fine Art, Intermedia, Photography, Sculpture and Sound, Creative Writing, one minor in Art and Ecology. Graduate programs within the Hallie Ford School of Graduate Studies include a Master of Fine Arts in Visual Studies, an MFA in Collaborative Design, a Master of Arts in Critical Studies, a Master of Arts in Design Systems, an MFA in Print Media, a low residency MFA in Visual Studies, an MFA in Applied Craft and Design jointly offered with the Oregon College of Art and Craft as well as a dual MA/MFA degree program.
In addition to degrees, the college offers four certificate programs in fi
Eastern Oregon University
Eastern Oregon University is a public university in La Grande, Oregon. It is one of seven four-year universities of higher education in the state; the university offers master's degrees. Most students obtain a B. S. degree, which requires one quarter of science, whereas a B. A. degree requires two years of a foreign language. In 2016, the University began work to introduce a Bachelor of Applied Science degree with a vocational bent. EOU opened its doors in 1929 as a teacher training school. In 1939, the Oregon Legislature changed the name to Eastern Oregon College of Education; the words "of Education" were dropped from the college's name in 1956. The 1973 Legislature changed EOC's name to Eastern Oregon State College. In 1997, Eastern Oregon State College became Eastern Oregon University. In 2013 the Oregon University System began the process of creating independent boards for certain schools, including Oregon State and the University of Oregon. On June 30, 2015, the Oregon University System was dissolved and on July 1, 2015, the Eastern Oregon University Board of Trustees took on governance of the institution.
EOU's location in La Grande is in the heart of the Blue Mountain range between Portland and Boise, Idaho just off Interstate 84. Driving to La Grande takes four hours from Portland and half from Boise, five from Seattle, four from Spokane; as of October 2017, the school has over 3,000 total students, including those attending on campus and through their online education programs. The campus contains 26 buildings, including three living facilities – Alikut Hall, North Hall, Daugherty Hall – all of which are co-ed. Inlow Hall, Eastern's administration building, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. EOU offers bachelor's degrees and the degrees of MFA, MBA, Master of Education and Master of Arts in Teaching. Most degrees conferred, are undergraduate B. S. degrees. The university offers business and elementary education programs at a satellite campus in Gresham, Oregon; the school is composed of the following colleges in order of size: College of Business College of Arts & Sciences College of EducationEOU is known for its mountainous location and its academic programs related to the outdoors.
An innovative outdoor leadership program begins in Fall 2016. In addition, EOU has dental hygiene, military science, agricultural science, nursing. Many degrees are available online. Eastern Oregon's Psychology department is one of the last university programs that still has its students use live animals in behavioral studies. EOU employs just over one hundred full-time faculty, they are organized under the Associated Academic Professionals Local 6200, are in negotiations for a new contract. EOU is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, The International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education IACBE and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. Eastern Oregon's mascot is the Mountaineer; the Mountaineers are a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics competing in the Cascade Collegiate Conference in the following sports: Men's football Men's and women's soccer Men's and women's cross country Women's volleyball Men's and women's basketball Women's softball Men's and women's track & field Men's and women's wrestlingIn 2005, Eastern Oregon's football program joined the NAIA's Division I Frontier Conference having competed as an Independent of the NCAA's Division III level.
Eastern Oregon's football team plays at Community Stadium located on campus. The La Grande High School football team plays their home games there. Athletic Director: Anji Weissenfluh Sports Information Director: Iain Dexter Defunct Sports: Women's Golf and Baseball; some sports have been relegated to club sports such as polo. Sandra K. Ellston, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Shakespeareaan scholar Fouad Ajami, Middle East expert and political advisor Jace Billingsley, NFL football player, Detroit Lions Rod Chandler, U. S. Representative from the state of Washington Tyronne Gross, former NFL football player, San Diego Chargers Mike Kyle, wrestler, he dropped out less than one semester away from graduation in 1932 when the Great Depression occurred and started a career as a logger. He died in August 2015, shortly after his 104th birthday. Media related to Eastern Oregon University at Wikimedia Commons Official website Official athletics website
New Hope Christian College
New Hope Christian College is a private Christian bible college in Eugene, Oregon. It has a curriculum that centers on the vocational application of Biblical training including pastoral studies, Christian counseling, Christian education, intercultural studies, worship arts, youth ministry; the school was founded by Fred Hornshuh in 1925. It was part of the Open Bible Churches denomination which originated from two revival movements: the Bible Standard Conference, founded in Eugene in 1919, the Open Bible Evangelistic Association, founded in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1932; the school began as the Bible Standard Training School, was known as the Bible Standard Institute, the Bible Standard College, Eugene Bible College and New Hope Christian College. In 1974, the school moved to its current campus site at 2155 Bailey Hill Road, overlooking west Eugene; the hilltop location displays a 70-foot-tall cross relocated from Skinner Butte on June 24, 1997. In 2009, the school joined the Pacific Rim Christian College Consortium, a group of three other colleges in Honolulu and Japan founded by alumnus Wayne Cordeiro.
Cordeiro was appointed chancellor when NHCC still Eugene Bible College, joined the consortium. The name was changed from Eugene Bible College to New Hope Christian College in June, 2010. New Hope Christian College is accredited by Association for Biblical Higher Education - ABHE; the school is affiliated with the Open Bible Standard Churches denomination and the church New Hope Christian Fellowship and incorporated by the State of Oregon. The school's athletic teams compete as the Deacons in basketball and soccer in the National Christian College Athletic Association. Robert F. Burt, United States Navy admiral Wayne Cordeiro, writer, president of NHCC Charity Gaye Finnestad, writer Roger E. Olson, theologian Terry Riley, pastor Scott Wood, pastor Official website