Levin, New Zealand
Levin is the largest town and seat of the Horowhenua District, in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand's North Island. It is located east of Lake Horowhenua, around 95 km north of Wellington and 50 km southwest of Palmerston North; the town has a population of 21,200, making it the 22nd largest urban area in New Zealand, third largest in Manawatu-Wanganui behind Palmerston North and Whanganui. Levin is a service centre for the surrounding rural area, a centre for light manufacturing. According to June 2018 figures, the estimated resident population was 21,200. Over 20% of inhabitants were listed as over the age of 65, a higher percentage than the national average; the town celebrated its centenary in 2006 and the bowls club celebrated theirs in 2007. The town was named after William Hort Levin, a director of the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company; the name is a variation of the Jewish clan Levi. It is a shibboleth – unlike the usual pronunciation of the surname, stress is placed on the second syllable of the word.
However his great grandson, Peter Levin, claims his forebear would have pronounced his surname as in Levene and this pronunciation was in common use for many years and always used by the family. Levin lies on State Highway 1, which forms Oxford Street. State Highway 57 forms the eastern boundary of the town, meets State Highway 1 between Levin and the Ohau River, Wellington. Levin is on the North Island Main Trunk with a station used by the Capital Connection long distance commuter train between Wellington and Palmerston North, it is served by 8 InterCity buses a day each way. Buses run for shoppers to Waikanae on Tuesdays and Thursdays and on Fridays to Shannon, Foxton Beach and Waitarere Beach. A commuter bus runs via Foxton to Palmerston North. To the west of the main town lies Lake Horowhenua, which covers some 3.9 sq/km. It is undergoing regeneration. Jack Afamasaga - rugby league player Sir Paul Beresford - British politician Suzy Clarkson - newsreader Kay Cohen - fashion designer Joy Cowley - novelist Cathryn Finlayson - 2012 London Olympian, New Zealand hockey player Rebecca Gibney - actress Nathan Guy - politician Nicky Hager - author Darren Hughes - politician Dean Kent - Olympic and Commonwealth Games swimmer Doug Kidd - politician David Lomax - NZ Kiwi rugby league rep, NRL club professional with the Newcastle Knights.
Johnny Lomax - NZ Kiwi rugby league rep, NRL club professional with Canberra Raiders, Townsville Cowboys. Matthew Saunoa - New Zealand Idol winner 2006 George Silk - photographer, LIFE magazine Carlos Spencer - former All Black Richard Sylvan - philosopher and logician James Tamou - Australian Kangaroo rugby league representative player, NSW State of Origin representative player 2012, 2013. Sonny Whakarau - NZ Junior Kiwi rugby league representative player, rugby league professional in the UK. Official Tourism website for Levin Levin in the 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Pahiatua is a rural service town in the south-eastern North Island of New Zealand with an urban and rural population of over 4,000. It is between Masterton and Woodville on State Highway 2 and the Wairarapa Line railway, 60 kilometres north of Masterton and 30 kilometres east of Palmerston North, it is regarded as being in the Northern Wairarapa. However for local government purposes it is in the Tararua District part of the Manawatu-Wanganui Region. Unusually for a town of its size Pahiatua has retained several amenities that were lost to similar towns around New Zealand in the 1980s and 1990s, in particular banking, postal services, a cinema; the town is served by two banks, a post office, a supermarket, three schools, a volunteer fire brigade, a public library. There are conflicting accounts of; when translated from Māori, the name Pahiatua means "god's resting place". The explanation accompanying this translation is that a chief fleeing from his enemies was led by his war god to this hill to seek refuge.
However, the town's founder, William Wilson McCardle, claims to have given it its name. The Wellington Land Board decided in December 1880 to offer land in the Pahiatua Block for settlement; this consisted of 12,000 acres. Applications for the land closed in February the following year, but there seems to have been little interest at first. Sales of land from the original offer continued over the next few years; the Pahiatua village was not a settlement initiated by the government, but rather one that had its origin in land speculation. Several subdivisions were established by private landholders including W. W. McCardle, H. Manns, A. W. and Henry Sedcole, W. Wakeman, it is claimed that the first settlers were John Hall who arrived on 28 February 1881, followed by John Hughes the next day. These men, plus the brothers of Hughes and their families, comprised Pahiatua's population the first summer; when the town of Pahiatua came into being is not clear as it has not been established when McCardle's first land sale took place.
However, by the summer of 1883 he was advertising grassed suburban sections, "improved" acres, other unimproved lots. In November 1885 he sought to dispose of a large portion of one of his subdivisions at an auction in Napier. Development of the land produced results, by August 1883 5,000 acres had been cleared, several hundred head of cattle were being grazed, the population stood at 150; the efforts of the early settlers were sufficient to attract storekeepers and a hotel. The government belatedly decided to get involved and agreed to survey a township reserve in December 1882, they changed their minds and postponed any decision, citing the need to wait for the final determination of the route of the railway. The settlers desirous of being close to the railway to improve land values, made strenuous efforts to have the line run through the town, but like their southern counterparts in Greytown, were unsuccessful; the legacy of this plan can be seen today in the unusual width of Pahiatua's Main Street, designed to accommodate the railway down the centre.
The intended railway reserve became a grassed median after it was decided to build the railway line to the west of the town. In 1981 Pahiatua celebrated its centennial with a weekend full of historical events, in 2006 its 125th anniversary with a grand parade of 125 floats and horses. On 1 November 1944 838 Polish refugees, of which 733 were children, were sent to a refugee camp about 2 kilometres south of the town; the camp had been used as an internment camp for foreigners at the start of World War II. The settlement was expected to be a temporary measure, but with the rise of communism in eastern Europe after the end of the war, the refugees stayed on at the camp until 1949 at which point they were naturalised. In 1951 the camp was used for over 900 refugees from Eastern Europe. In 2004 the New Zealand Polish community celebrated its 60th anniversary and the 65th anniversary celebrations were held in 2009 at which former Polish president Lech Wałęsa was to have been the guest of honour; the local museum opened a new exhibit in 2017 to tell the story of the refugees' experience in New Zealand.
Pahiatua had its own hospital, located on a site at the southern end of the town, since 1902. In November 1997 the hospital under the jurisdiction of Palmerston North-based Mid Central Health, was informed that it would soon close as the Health Funding Authority could no longer afford to keep it open; this was despite numerous assurances given to the town from 1992 by successive health authorities that the hospital was in no danger of being closed. The closure date was set at 30 June 1998, by which time the only services offered by the hospital were an x-ray department, maternity, a general ward, geriatric, palliative and rehabilitation care. However, part of the complex remained open until the last patients could be relocated to a new facility at Waireka Home, still under construction; the residents of Pahiatua were politically active from early on, advocating for their own Roads Board around June 1883. By August 1886 Pahiatua had gained town district status and only two years in October 1888, the Pahiatua County Council was established.
The town was constituted as a borough on 25 July 1892. The council remained the political master of the town and surrounding area until the local government reforms of 1989 merged the town into the Tararua District Council. At central government level, Pahiatua was located in the Wairarapa seat until 1881, at whic
Shannon, New Zealand
Shannon is a small town in the Horowhenua District of New Zealand's North Island. It is located 28 kilometres southwest of Palmerston North and 15 kilometres northeast of Levin; the town's population at the 2006 census was 1506. The main activities in the district are dairy and mixed farming. Mangaore is the residential township for the nearby Mangahao hydro-electric power station, the second power station to be built in New Zealand and the first to be built by the government; the power station is the oldest still supplying power to New Zealand grid. The Manawatu River lies to the west of the town. Shannon adjoined extensive swamps and was a headquarters for flax milling; the land on which the township stood was part of an endowment of 215,000 acres acquired about 1881 by the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company. At first the company had intended to extend its railway from Levin to Foxton, but afterwards it proceeded to develop and open up the endowment area. Accordingly, the line was laid along the present route via Shannon.
The town is considered to have been founded on 8 March 1887 when the first auction of town land was held. Shannon was named after George Vance Shannon, a director of the WMR, it was constituted a borough in 1917. Shannon Railway Station is the most substantial of only a few remaining physical relics of the WMR, acquired by the national New Zealand Railways Department in 1908; the station is a stop for the Capital Connection long distance commuter train between Wellington and Palmerston North. Today Shannon sits as a passing through point between Palmerston North and Wellington with two cafes, a dairy, an RD1 rural supply store, a pub, a fish and chips shop, a primary school, a Four Square grocer, a petrol station, a native bird and wildlife park, an art gallery; the township has a strong rugby team and several netball teams. A large percentage of the population is Māori with the local primary school being somewhat Māori-orientated. Shannon School is a full Decile 1 primary school with 190 students.
Owlcatraz is a Native Bird & Wildlife park, one of Shannon's prime attractions. It was opened in 1997 by Janet Campbell. Owlcatraz has had over 300,000 visitors since Sunday 27 June 2010; the town used to house the creative work of Helen Pratt which consist a large model town with miniature versions of many New Zealand landmarks and buildings, a working train and carnival, all hand made. The display used to be housed until the early to late 90's at 36 Stout Street until the building was closed and abandoned; the building still remains today after many years of neglect, occupied residency, fire. It was unclear where Helen has moved her models at that time as it was on display in Taupo for sometime Auckland, their present location unknown. Helen subsequently built another town. Helen's collection was shown to the public for brief period of time known as Flaxville at 16 Ballance Street. Helen's Collection has left Shannon and was displayed at Murrayfield, a museum between Shannon and Levin on State 57.
Shannon etc in NZHistory.net Shannon in the 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand Shannon in the 1897 Cyclopaedia of New Zealand Shannon war memorial South African War memorial in Shannon
Linton Military Camp
Linton Military Camp is the largest New Zealand Army base and is home to the Headquarters 1 Brigade. It is located just south of Palmerston North; the land that the present Linton Military Camp stands on was purchased by the Government in 1941 for use as a camp for Territorial and other home defence forces, with the first units taking up occupation in tented accommodation in February 1942, with the first prefabricated huts erected in August 1942. Unlike Burnham and Papakura, Linton was not intended to be mobilisation camp and as such was provided with minimal facilities; as the war intensified and the threat from Japan increased and the use of infrastructure in Palmerston North for defence purposes stretched to the limit, the decision was made to bring Linton up to the same standard as Burnham and Papakura. Deliberately designed as a precaution against air attack Linton camp was designed with nine Battalion Blocks, with only eight being completed each with a. Wartime construction was completed in 1945, included.
Railway siding. Linton Camp was accepted in general usage from 1943, with the names Camp Manawatu or Camp Kairanga used earlier. Camp Ravenswood or Camp Whitmore were considered as new names in the 1960s, but uses of theses names never eventuated. 1 Brigade supports peace and security through the provision of task organised forces that are ready to win on operations. HQ 1 Brigade prepares them for operations. Headquarters, 1st Brigade 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment Alpha Company Victor Company Whiskey Company Support Company Combat Service Support Company Queen Alexandra's Mounted Rifles Wellington East Coast Squadron NZ Scots Squadron Waikato Mounted Rifles Squadron Support Squadron 16th Field Regiment, Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery 161 Battery 163 Battery 2nd Engineer Regiment HQ Squadron 2 Field Squadron 25 Engineer Support Squadron Emergency Response Squadron 1st Command Support Regiment Headquarter, 1st Command Support Regiment, Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals 2nd Signal Squadron 25 Cypher Section 2nd Combat Service Support Battalion, Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment Headquarters, 2nd Combat Service Support Battalion 10th Transport Company 21st Supply Company 2nd Workshop Company 5th Movements Company 38 Combat Service Support Company 2nd Health Services Battalion Headquarters, 2nd Health Services Battalion 2nd Health Support Company General Support Health Company Logistics Support Company Linton Regional Support Centre Training and Doctrine Command trains and educates Army's personnel.
Mission Command Training School Collective Training Center Land Operations Training Center School of Military Engineering Lockheed Martin New Zealand provides logistics services for the NZDF including Maintenance and Overhaul, Managed Fleet Utilisation and warehousing. Maintenance and Overhaul team Managed Fleet Utilisation team Ration Pack Production Facility 2nd Military Police Platoon Joint Logistic Support Agency service center Human Resources service center In the 1950s, two large fires destroyed the Ordnance Depot and the Cinema. In October 2012, a series of shots were fired by an armed soldier, believed to be under the influence of alcohol, he barricaded himself inside a house on the base; the NZ Police Armed Offenders Squad responded. After a five-hour siege, the police reported the man was apprehended, but revealed he had committed suicide. Burnham, New Zealand Papakura Military Camp Trentham Military Camp Waiouru Military Camp
Institute of the Pacific United
Institute of the Pacific United is a Japanese and New Zealand tertiary educational institution based in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Another network of the institute is International Pacific University, established in 2007 in Okayama, Japan. Students of IPU New Zealand are from 24 different countries around the world. IPU New Zealand offers tertiary education of business, international relations, environmental studies and tourism. Despite the fact that the institution had been known as International Pacific College for 25 years, its name was changed to Institute of the Pacific United on 26 September 2015. International Pacific University Foreign Trade University President University Qingdao University of Science and Technology Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service Tajik State University of Commerce Rangsit University Samarkand State University Diploma of Japanese Studies Diploma of International Studies – Level 5/6 Diploma of International Sports Studies – Level 5 Graduate Diploma of International Studies – Level 7 The Licentiate Diploma and Certificate in TESOL Bachelor of International Business Bachelor of International Relations Bachelor of Linguistics Bachelor of Environmental Studies Bachelor of Japanese Studies Bachelor of International Tourism Management Master of International Studies – Level 9 Postgraduate Diploma of International Studies – Level 8 English language courses IELTS TOEIC IPU requires students from New Zealand to gain different levels of University Entrance through NCEA to enter different programmes offered by them.
International students are required to take Foundation Education and English Programmes if they do not gain particular qualifications below: Minimum IELTS Academic score of 6.0 to enter Undergraduate Programmes Minimum IELTS Academic score of 7.0 to enter Postgraduate Programmes Unlike other Manawatu-regional campuses such as Massey University and Universal College of Learning, IPU is built with the style of Japanese architecture with 20.5 hectare campus with 12 main buildings, located at Aokautere Drive, Palmerston North. Main buildings Administration/Reception Computer Network Dining Hall Library Residential Services Recreation Centre Teaching Blocks KAN Performing Arts Centre Counselling Services Medical Care IT Support Careers CentreSeminar Blocks Building A Building B Building C Building D Building T Single-room hostels: Hall 1, Hall 2, Hall 3, Hall 4, Hall 5, Hall 6, Hall 8. Guest apartment: Hall 7. Twin-room hostels: Hall 9, Hall 10. Rugby/baseball/soccer field Tennis court Basketball/skateboarding court Student/staff/guest Parkings Swan house Student shops On 24 May 2013, the Manawatu Standard broke an article detailing the difficulties the reporter had getting information from the management staff as to the organizational restructure, taking place.
Sources, including previous and current employees, had revealed to the newspaper, under the condition of anonymity, that more than 10% of the work force had been "laid off, left or were "forced out" since the start of the year." Sources revealed the extent of the institutions use of service as opposed to permanent employment contracts, that "Management were reluctant to be upfront about the restructure because of cultural differences and the need to "save face." President Wayne Edwards responded to the article more than a month and half in an interview with the reporter, stating that privacy concerns had prompted the College's extended silence on the issue. Institute of the Pacific United's website International Pacific University: International Pacific College's Sister University website
Foxton, New Zealand
Foxton is a town in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand. It is located on the lower west coast of the North Island, in the Horowhenua district, 30 km southwest of Palmerston North and 15 km north of Levin; the town is located close to the banks of the Manawatu River. The small coastal settlement of Foxton Beach is located 6 km to the west, close to the river mouth; the 2006 census population was 2715. Foxton was named after Sir William Fox, has a history of flax stripping, used to make wool packs and rope. Other industries associated with the town have included clothing sawmilling; the town is known for producing the soda drink Foxton Fizz, although the products are now made in Putaruru. The area is sand country with a temperate climate, average monthly temperatures ranging from 8 °C to 17.4 °C, with a minimum/maximum of -4 °C to 27 °C. Foxton has an average of about 2,000 sunshine hours a year, average precipitation of about 900 mm annually; the prevailing winds in the area are west-northwest and have driven the sand back from the coast to create the most extensive transgressive sand dune system in New Zealand.
The first inhabitants of the Manawatu area were Māori who arrived in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Compared to other parts of the North Island the district was sparsely populated, but there was a major marae at Matakarapa, across the river from Te Awahou as well as kāinga and pā along much of the river. A number of tribes have occupied the area. Foxton is the oldest European settlement in the southern Manawatu; the original white settlement was Paiaka to the east, closer to the present town of Shannon in 1844. When Paiaka was destroyed by an earthquake in 1855 the settlers moved downstream to Te Awahou, named "Foxton" from 1866. In the early years of European settlement it was an important trading post and shipping port as the sea was the easiest way to transport goods and people to the Manawatu; the Manawatu River was the main access to the rich hinterland. The west coast of the lower North Island is not supplied with harbours and the Foxton harbour had a dangerous bar at the river mouth.
As the only real harbour between Wanganui and Wellington it was used anyway. It was only with the advent of the Palmerston North-Wellington railway that Palmerston North began to overtake it as the most important centre in the Manawatu; the central government intended for Foxton to be on the route of the main line from Wellington to Auckland via Palmerston North and a tramway linking Foxton and Palmerston North was upgraded into the Foxton Branch railway in the 1870s. However, due to government delays on extending the line further south, a group of Wellingtonian businessmen established the Wellington and Manawatu Railway and built their line along a more direct route that bypassed Foxton; when this line opened in 1886, Foxton's status as a port slipped, this position deteriorated further when the WMR was incorporated into the government's national rail network in 1908. The railway closed in 1959. NZ Flax played a major role in Foxton’s development; the first traders at Paiaka and Shannon traded for flax from the Maori, sent to Sydney.
The first of the flax booms began in 1869, lasting for four years during which 22,000 tonnes of fibre passed through Foxton’s port. The late 1880s saw a short-lived flax boom that allowed Foxton to once again grow and function as a bustling port. A third flax boom, begun in 1898, was the most lasting and saw another increase in shipping, with over 10 steamers making regular visits. In 1903 the Moutoa Estate was developed as the main supply of flax. By 1908 problems with river silting and bar strandings meant that coastal shipping was avoiding Foxton. By 1916 there were only two ships coming into the port but in that year 97,000 bales of flax were shipped out from Foxton. Deforestation of the inland Manawatu District in the late nineteenth century meant increased flooding and led to the creation of stopbanks and the Whirokino Cut. Completed in 1943 as part of the Lower Manawatu Flood Control Scheme, it was intended as a spillway but an unexpected flood broke through the upper end and diverted the river down the spillway, cutting off the Foxton loop of the river and causing great outcry at the time.
The Ministry of Works said this was unintentional. The Foxton Loop now only has a tidal flow and isn’t connected to the river at its top end, the upper end of the Loop having silted up during a flood in 1953. Though the Whirokino Cut is sometimes claimed as the reason Foxton failed to operate as a port, the dangerous bar and persistent silting were providing problems and by the time the Cut was in place most shipping was avoiding Foxton - it had ceased to function as a port as early as 1942. In 2003, a full size replica of a Dutch windmill, called De Molen was opened; this working windmill makes stone-ground flour, which can be purchased inside the mill's souvenir shop. Visitors can view the inside mechanical workings of the mill, which are an example of traditional Dutch 17th Century cra