James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson Jr. was an American pianist, bandleader and composer, important in the development of big band jazz and swing music. He was one of the most prolific black musical arrangers and, along with Duke Ellington, is considered one of the most influential arrangers and bandleaders in jazz history. Henderson's influence was vast, he helped bridge the gap between the swing eras. He was known as "Smack" Henderson. James Fletcher Henderson was born in Cuthbert, Georgia, in 1897, he grew up in a middle-class African-American family. His father, Fletcher H. Henderson Sr. was the principal of the nearby Howard Normal Randolph School from 1880 until 1942. His home, now known as the Fletcher Henderson House, is a historic site, his mother, a teacher, taught him and his brother Horace to play the piano. He began lessons by the age of six, his father would lock Fletcher in his room to practice for hours. By age 13, Henderson possessed a keen ability to read sense pitch, he further engaged himself in lessons on European art.
Although a talented musician, Henderson decided to dedicate himself to science. At age 18 he moved to Atlanta and changed his name to Fletcher Henderson, giving up James, his grandfather's name, he attended Atlanta University and graduated in 1920 with a bachelor's degree in chemistry and mathematics. After graduation, he moved to New York City with the intention of attending Columbia University for a master's degree in chemistry, but no evidence proves he enrolled, he did get a part-time job as a lab assistant in a downtown Manhattan chemistry firm, but this only lasted a year. In New York City, Henderson shared an apartment with a pianist who worked as a musician in a river boat orchestra; when his roommate was too sick to perform, Henderson took his place, which soon gave him a job as a full-time replacement. In the fall of 1920 he found work as a song demonstrator with the Pace and Handy Music Co. Henderson now found that music would be more profitable than chemistry and left his job as a lab chemist to begin a life in music.
When Pace left the company to start Black Swan Records, he took Henderson with him to be musical director, a job which lasted from 1921-1923. From 1920-1923, he played piano accompaniment for blues singers. Henderson toured with the Black Swan Troubadours featuring Ethel Waters from October 1921 to July 1922, his activities up to the end of 1923 were recording dates for Black Swan and other labels. His band at this point was only a pick-up unit for recordings, not a regular working band. In January 1924 the recording band became the house band at the Club Alabam at 216 w. 44th st. Despite many erroneous publications otherwise, this 1924 band was Henderson's first working band. In July 1924 the band began a brief engagement at the Roseland Ballroom. Although only meant to stay for a few months, the band was brought back for the Autumn season. Henderson called on the 23 year old cornetist Louis Armstrong. On October 13, 1924 history was made when the Henderson band began their re-engagement at Roseland with Louis Armstrong now in the orchestra.
The band became known as the best African-American band in New York. By late 1924 the arrangements by Don Redman were featuring more solo work. Although Armstrong played in the band for only a year, his influence on all the Henderson band and all jazz during this time cannot be overstated. Henderson's band boasted the formidable arranging talents of Don Redman. After Redman's departure from the band in 1927, Henderson took on some of the arranging, but Benny Carter was Redman's replacement as saxophone player and arranger from 1930–31, Henderson bought scores from freelance musicians. Henderson developed his arranging skills from 1931 to the mid-1930's, his band c. 1925 included Howard Scott, Coleman Hawkins, Louis Armstrong, Charlie Dixon, Kaiser Marshall, Buster Bailey, Elmer Chambers, Charlie Green, Ralph Escudero, Don Redman. In 1925, with Henry Troy, he wrote "Gin House Blues", recorded by Bessie Smith and Nina Simone among others, his other compositions include "Soft Winds". Henderson recorded extensively in the 1920's for nearly every label, including Vocalion, Columbia, Ajax, Pathé, Edison, Emerson and the dime-store labels Banner, Regal and Romeo.
From 1925–1930, he recorded for Columbia and Brunswick/ Vocalion under his own name and a series of acoustic recordings as the Dixie Stompers for Harmony Records and associated dime-store labels. During the 1930's, he recorded for Columbia, Crown, ARC, as well as Victor, Decca. Starting in the early 1920's, he recorded popular hits and jazz tunes. In 1924 he and his band recorded 80 sides, his version of the pop tune "I Can't Get the One I Want", recorded about June 19, 1924, was issued on at least 23 labels. In addition to Armstrong, lead trumpeters included Henry "Red" Allen, Joe Smith, Rex Stewart, Tommy Ladnier, Doc Cheatham and Roy Eldridge. Lead saxophonists included Buster Bailey, Benny Carter and Chu Berry. Sun Ra worked as an arranger during the 1940's, during Henderson's engagement at the Club DeLisa in Chicago. Sun Ra said that on first hearing Henderson's orchestra as a teenager he assumed that th
William Clarence Eckstine was an American jazz and pop singer, a bandleader of the swing era. He was noted for his rich, resonant operatic bass-baritone voice. Eckstine's recording of "I Apologize" was awarded the Grammy Hall of Fame Award in 1999; the New York Times described him as an "influential band leader" whose "suave bass-baritone" and "full-throated, sugary approach to popular songs inspired singers like Joe Williams, Arthur Prysock and Lou Rawls." Eckstine's paternal grandparents were William F. Eckstein and Nannie Eckstein, a mixed-race, married couple who lived in Washington, D. C.. William F. was born in Nannie in Virginia. His parents were William Eckstein, a chauffeur, Charlotte Eckstein, a seamstress of note. Eckstine was born in Pennsylvania. Billy's sister, was a well-respected Spanish teacher at Taylor Allderdice High School in Pittsburgh, he attended Peabody High School before moving to Washington, DC. He attended Armstrong High School, St. Paul Normal and Industrial School, Howard University.
He left Howard in 1933, after winning first place in an amateur talent contest. Heading to Chicago, Eckstine joined Earl Hines' Grand Terrace Orchestra in 1939, staying with the band as vocalist and trumpeter until 1943. By that time, Eckstine had begun to make a name for himself through the Hines band's juke-box hits such as "Stormy Monday Blues", his own "Jelly Jelly." In 1944, Eckstine formed his own big band and it became the finishing school for adventurous young musicians who would shape the future of jazz. Included in this group were Dizzy Gillespie, Dexter Gordon, Miles Davis, Art Blakey, Charlie Parker, Fats Navarro, as well as vocalist Sarah Vaughan. Tadd Dameron, Gil Fuller and Jerry Valentine were among the band's arrangers; the Billy Eckstine Orchestra is considered to be the first bop big-band, had Top Ten chart entries that included "A Cottage for Sale" and "Prisoner of Love". Both were awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Dizzy Gillespie, in reflecting on the band in his 1979 autobiography To Be or Not to Bop, gives this perspective: "There was no band that sounded like Billy Eckstine's.
Our attack was strong, we were playing bebop, the modern style. No other band like this one existed in the world." Eckstine became a solo performer with records featuring lush sophisticated orchestrations. Before folding his band, Eckstine had recorded solo to support it, scoring two million-sellers in 1945 with "Cottage for Sale" and a revival of "Prisoner of Love". Far more successful than his band recordings, these prefigured Eckstine's future career. Eckstine would go on to record over a dozen hits during the late 1940s, he signed with the newly established MGM Records, had immediate hits with revivals of "Everything I Have Is Yours", Rodgers and Hart's "Blue Moon", Juan Tizol's "Caravan". Eckstine had further success in 1950 with Victor Young's theme song to "My Foolish Heart," and the next year with a revival of the 1931 Bing Crosby hit, "I Apologize", his 1950 appearance at the Paramount Theatre in New York City drew a larger audience than Frank Sinatra at his Paramount performance. Eckstine was the subject of a three-page profile in the 25 April 1950 issue of LIFE magazine, in which the photographer Martha Holmes accompanied Eckstine and his entourage during a week in New York City.
One photograph taken by Holmes and published in LIFE showed Eckstine with a group of white female admirers, one of whom had her hand on his shoulder and her head on his chest while she laughed. Eckstine's biographer Cary Ginell, wrote of the image that Holmes "...captured a moment of shared exuberance and affection, unblemished by racial tension." Holmes would describe the photograph as the favorite of the many she had taken in her career as it "...told just what the world should be like". The photograph was considered so controversial that an editor at LIFE sought personal approval from Henry Luce, the magazine's publisher, who said it should be published; the publication of the image caused letters of protest to be written to the magazine, singer Harry Belafonte subsequently said of the publication that "When that photo hit, in this national publication, it was if a barrier had been broken". The controversy that resulted from the photograph had a seminal effect on the trajectory of Eckstine's career.
Tony Bennett would recall that "It changed everything... Before that, he had a tremendous following...and it just offended the white community", a sentiment shared by pianist Billy Taylor who said that the "coverage and that picture just slammed the door shut for him". Among Eckstine's recordings of the 1950s was a 1957 duet with Sarah Vaughan, "Passing Strangers", a minor hit in 1957, but an initial No. 22 success in the UK Singles Chart. The 1960 Las Vegas live album, No Cover, No Minimum, featured Eckstine taking a few trumpet solos and showcased his nightclub act, he recorded albums for Mercury and Roulette in the early 1960s, appeared on Motown albums during the mid to late 1960s. After recording sparingly during the 1970s for Al Bell's Stax/Enterprise imprint, the international touring Eckstine made his last recording, the Grammy-nominated Billy Eckstine Sings with Benny Carter in 1986. Eckstine made numerous appearances on television variety shows, including on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Nat King Cole Show, The Tonight Show with Steve Allen, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, The Merv Griffin Show, The Art Linkletter Show, The Joey Bishop Show, The Dean Martin Show, The Flip Wilson Show, Playboy After Dark.
He performed as an actor in the TV sitc
Nat King Cole
Nathaniel Adams Coles, known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs, his trio was the model for small jazz ensembles. Cole acted in films and on television and performed on Broadway, he was the first African American man to host an American television series. Nathaniel Adams Coles was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 17, 1919, he had three brothers: Eddie and Freddy, a half-sister, Joyce Coles. Each of the Cole brothers pursued careers in music; when Nat King Cole was four years old, the family moved to Chicago, where his father, Edward Coles, became a Baptist minister. Cole learned to play the organ from Perlina Coles, the church organist, his first performance was "Yes! We Have No Bananas" at the age of four, he began formal lessons at 12, learning jazz and classical music on piano "from Johann Sebastian Bach to Sergei Rachmaninoff."The Cole family moved to the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, where he attended Wendell Phillips Academy High School, the school Sam Cooke attended a few years later.
He participated in Walter Dyett's music program at DuSable High School. He would sneak out of the house to visit clubs, sitting outside to hear Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines, Jimmie Noone; when he was fifteen, Cole dropped out of high school to pursue a music career. After his brother Eddie, a bassist, came home from touring with Noble Sissle, they formed a sextet and recorded two singles for Decca in 1936 as Eddie Cole's Swingsters, they performed in a revival of the musical Shuffle Along. Nat Cole went on tour with the musical. In 1937, he married Nadine Robinson, a member of the cast. After the show ended in Los Angeles and Nadine settled there while he looked for work, he led a big band found work playing piano in nightclubs. When a club owner asked him to form a band, he hired bassist Wesley Prince and guitarist Oscar Moore, they called themselves the King Cole Swingsters after the nursery rhyme in which "Old King Cole was a merry old soul." They changed their name to the King Cole Trio before making radio transcriptions and recording for small labels.
Cole recorded "Sweet Lorraine" in 1940, it became his first hit. According to legend, his career as a vocalist started when a drunken bar patron demanded that he sing the song. Cole said that this fabricated story sounded good, so he didn't argue with it. In fact there was a customer one night who demanded that he sing, but because it was a song Cole didn't know, he sang "Sweet Lorraine" instead; as people heard Cole's vocal talent, they requested more vocal songs, he obliged. In 1941 the trio recorded "That Ain't Right" for Decca, followed the next year by "All for You" for Excelsior, they recorded "I'm Lost", a song written by Otis René, the owner of Excelsior. During the late 1930s the trio recorded radio transcriptions for Capitol, they performed on the radio programs Swing Soiree, Old Gold, The Chesterfield Supper Club, Kraft Music Hall, The Orson Welles Almanac. Cole appeared in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts in 1944, he was credited on Mercury as "Shorty Nadine", a derivative of his wife's name, because he had an exclusive contract with Capitol since signing with the label the year before.
He recorded with Lester Young. In 1946 the trio broadcast a fifteen-minute radio program; this was the first radio program to be sponsored by a black musician. Cole began recording and performing pop-oriented material in which he was accompanied by a string orchestra, his stature as a popular star was cemented during this period by hits such as "All for You", "The Christmas Song", " Route 66", " For Sentimental Reasons", "There! I've Said It Again", "Nature Boy", "Frosty The Snowman", "Mona Lisa", "Orange Colored Sky", "Too Young",On November 5, 1956, The Nat'King' Cole Show debuted on NBC; the variety program was one of the first hosted by an African American, The program started at a length of fifteen-minutes but was increased to a half-hour in July 1957. Rheingold Beer was a regional sponsor; the show was in trouble financially despite efforts by NBC, Harry Belafonte, Tony Bennett, Ella Fitzgerald, Eartha Kitt, Frankie Laine, Peggy Lee, Mel Tormé. Cole decided to end the program; the last episode aired on December 17, 1957.
Commenting on the lack of sponsorship, Cole said shortly after its demise, "Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark."Throughout the 1950s, Cole continued to record hits that sold millions throughout the world, such as "Smile", "Pretend", "A Blossom Fell", "If I May". His pop hits were collaborations with Nelson Riddle, Gordon Jenkins, Ralph Carmichael. Riddle arranged several of Cole's 1950s albums, including Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love, his first 10-inch LP. In 1955, "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" reached number 7 on the Billboard chart. Love Is the Thing went to number one in April 1957 remained his only number one album. In 1959 he received a Grammy Award for Best Performance By a "Top 40" Artist for "Midnight Flyer". In 1958 Cole went to Havana, Cuba, to record Cole Español, an album sung in Spanish, it was so popular in Latin America and the U. S. that it was followed by two more Spanish-language albums: A Mis Amigos and More Cole Español. After the change in musical tastes, Cole's ballads appealed little to young listeners, despite a successful attempt at rock and roll with "Send for Me", which peaked at number 6 on the pop chart.
Like Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennet
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Erroll Louis Garner was an American jazz pianist and composer known for his swing playing and ballads. His best-known composition, the ballad "Misty", has become a jazz standard. Scott Yanow of Allmusic calls him "one of the most distinctive of all pianists" and a "brilliant virtuoso." He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6363 Hollywood Blvd. Garner was born with his twin brother Ernest in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on June 15, 1923, the youngest of six children in an African-American family, he attended George Westinghouse High School. Garner began playing piano at the age of three, his elder siblings were taught piano by Miss Bowman. From an early age, Erroll would sit down and play anything she had demonstrated, just like Miss Bowman, his eldest sister Martha said. Garner remained an "ear player" all his life, never learning to read music. At age seven, he began appearing on the radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh with a group called the Candy Kids. By age 11, he was playing on the Allegheny riverboats.
At 14 in 1937, he joined local saxophonist Leroy Brown. He played locally in the shadow of his older pianist brother Linton Garner. Garner moved to New York City in 1944, he worked with the bassist Slam Stewart, though not a bebop musician per se, in 1947 played with Charlie Parker on the "Cool Blues" session. Although his admission to the Pittsburgh music union was refused because of his inability to read music, it relented in 1956 and made him an honorary member. Garner is credited with a superb memory of music. After attending a concert by the Russian classical pianist Emil Gilels, Garner returned to his apartment and was able to play a large portion of the performed music by recall. Garner made many tours both at home and abroad, recorded, he was The Tonight Show host Johnny Carson's favorite jazz musician, appearing on Carson's show many times over the years. Garner was managed by Martha Glaser from 1950 until his death in 1977, for some of this time as her only client. Garner died of cardiac arrest related to emphysema on January 2, 1977.
He is buried in Pittsburgh's Homewood Cemetery. Short in stature, Garner performed sitting on multiple telephone directories, he was known for his vocalizations while playing, which can be heard on many of his recordings. He helped to bridge the gap for jazz musicians between the concert hall. Called "one of the most distinctive of all pianists" by jazz writer Scott Yanow, Garner showed that a "creative jazz musician can be popular without watering down his music" or changing his personal style, he has been described as a "brilliant virtuoso who sounded unlike anyone else", using an "orchestral approach straight from the swing era but... open to the innovations of bop." His distinctive style could swing like no other, but some of his best recordings are ballads, such as his best-known composition, "Misty", which became a jazz standard – and was featured in Clint Eastwood's film Play Misty for Me. Garner may have been inspired by the example of Earl Hines, a fellow Pittsburgh resident but 18 years his senior, there were resemblances in their elastic approach to timing and use of right-hand octaves.
Garner's early recordings display the influence of the stride piano style of James P. Johnson and Fats Waller, he developed a signature style that involved his right hand playing behind the beat while his left strummed a steady rhythm and punctuation, creating insouciance and tension. The independence of his hands was evidenced by his masterful use of three-against-four and more complicated cross-rhythms between the hands. Garner would improvise whimsical introductions to pieces that left listeners in suspense as to what the tune would be, his melodic improvisations stayed close to the theme while employing novel chord voicings. Pianist Ross Tompkins described Garner's distinctiveness as due to'happiness'. Garner's first recordings were made in late 1944 at the apartment of Timme Rosenkrantz, his recording career advanced in the late 1940s when several sides such as "Fine and Dandy", "Skylark" and "Summertime" were cut. His 1955 live album Concert by the Sea was a best-selling jazz album in its day and features Eddie Calhoun on bass and Denzil Best on drums.
This recording of a performance at the Sunset Center, a former school in Carmel-by-the-Sea, was made using primitive sound equipment, but for George Avakian the decision to release the recording was easy. One World Concert was recorded at the 1962 Seattle World Fair and features Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martin on drums. Other works include 1951's Long Ago and Far Away, 1953's Erroll Garner at the Piano with Wyatt Ruther and Fats Heard, 1957's The Most Happy Piano, 1970's Feeling Is Believing and 1974's Magician, which see Garner perform a number of classic standards; the trio was expanded to add Latin percussion a conga. In 1964, Garner appeared in the UK on the music series Jazz 625 broadcast on the BBC's new second channel; the programme was hosted by Steve Race, who introduced Garner's trio with Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martin on drums. Because Garner could not write down his musical ideas, he used to record them on tape, to be transcribed by others; the Erroll Garner Club was founded in 1982 in Scotland.
On September 26, 1992 Garnerphiles from England, Scotland and the US met in London for a unique and historic get-together. The guests of honour were Eddie Calhoun and Kelly Martin, Erroll'