In software development, Linus's law is the assertion that "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow". The law was formulated by Eric S. Raymond in his essay and book The Cathedral and the Bazaar, was named in honor of Linus Torvalds. A more formal statement is: "Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base every problem will be characterized and the fix obvious to someone." Presenting the code to multiple developers with the purpose of reaching consensus about its acceptance is a simple form of software reviewing. Researchers and practitioners have shown the effectiveness of various types of reviewing process in finding bugs and security issues. In Facts and Fallacies about Software Engineering, Robert Glass refers to the law as a "mantra" of the open source movement, but calls it a fallacy due to the lack of supporting evidence and because research has indicated that the rate at which additional bugs are uncovered does not scale linearly with the number of reviewers. While closed-source practitioners promote stringent, independent code analysis during a software project's development, they focus on in-depth review by a few and not the number of "eyeballs".
The persistence of the Heartbleed security bug in a critical piece of code for two years has been considered as a refutation of Raymond's dictum. Larry Seltzer suspects that the availability of source code may cause some developers and researchers to perform less extensive tests than they would with closed source software, making it easier for bugs to remain. In 2015, the Linux Foundation's executive director Jim Zemlin argued that the complexity of modern software has increased to such levels that specific resource allocation is desirable to improve its security. Regarding some of 2014's largest global open source software vulnerabilities, he says, "In these cases, the eyeballs weren't looking". Large scale experiments or peer-reviewed surveys to test how well the mantra holds in practice have not been performed. Jing Wang. M. Carroll. Behind Linus's law: A preliminary analysis of open source software peer review practices in Mozi. Int. Conf. on Collaboration Technologies and Systems, Philadelphia, PA.
IEEE Xplore Digital Library. Pp. 117–124. Doi:10.1109/CTS.2011.5928673
Portrait of Monsieur Bertin is an 1832 oil on canvas painting by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. It depicts Louis-François Bertin, the French writer, art collector and director of the pro-royalist Journal des débats. Ingres completed the portrait during his first period of success. Bertin was a politically active member of the French upper-middle class. Ingres presents him as a personification of the commercially minded leaders of the liberal reign of Louis Philippe I, he is physically imposing and self-assured, but his real-life personality shines through – warm and engaging to those who had earned his trust. The painting had a prolonged genesis. Ingres made several preparatory sketches; the final work faithfully captures the sitter's character, conveying both a restless energy and imposing bulk. It is an unflinchingly realistic depiction of ageing and emphasises the furrowed skin and thinning hair of an overweight man who yet maintains his resolve and determination, he sits in three-quarter profile against a brown ground lit from the right, his fingers are pronounced and detailed, while the polish of his chair reflects light from an unseen window.
Ingres' portrait of Bertin was a critical and popular success. Although his family worried about caricature and disapproved, it became known and sealed the artist's reputation, it was praised at the Paris Salon of 1833, has been influential to both academic painters such as Léon Bonnat and modernists including Pablo Picasso and Félix Vallotton. Today art critics regard it as Ingres' finest male portrait, it has been on permanent display at the Musée du Louvre since 1897. Louis-François Bertin was 66 in 1832, the year of the portrait, he befriended Ingres either through his son Édouard Bertin, a student of the painter, or via Étienne-Jean Delécluze, Ingres' friend and the Journal's art critic. In either case the genesis of the commission is unknown. Bertin was a leader of the French upper class and a supporter of Louis Philippe and the Bourbon Restoration, he was a director of the Le Moniteur Universel until 1823, when the Journal des débats became the recognised voice of the liberal-constitutional opposition after he had come to criticize absolutism.
He gave his support to the July Monarchy. The Journal supported contemporary art, Bertin was a patron and cultivator of writers and other artists. Ingres was sufficiently intrigued by Bertin's personality to accept the commission, it was completed within a month, during Ingres' frequent visits to Bertin's estate of retreat, Le Château des Roches, in Bièvres, Essonne. Ingres made daily visits, as Bertin entertained guests such as Victor Hugo, his mistress Juliette Drouet, Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt and Charles Gounod. Ingres made drawings of the Bertin family, including a depiction of his host's wife and sketches of their son Armand and daughter-in-law, Cécile; the portrait of Armand evidences his physical resemblance to his father. Ingres' early career coincided with the Romantic movement, which reacted against the prevailing neoclassical style. Neoclassicism in French art had developed as artists saw themselves as part of the cultural center of Europe, France as the successor to Rome. Romantic painting was freer and more expressive, preoccupied more with colour than with line or form, more focused on style than on subject matter.
Paintings based on classical themes fell out of fashion, replaced by contemporary rather than historical subject matter in portraiture. Ingres resisted this trend, wrote, "The history painter shows the species in general. From his early career, Ingres' main source of income was commissioned portraits, a genre he dismissed as lacking in grandeur; the success of his The Vow of Louis XIII at the 1824 Salon marked an abrupt change in his fortunes: he received a series of commissions for large history paintings, for the next decade he painted few portraits. His financial difficulties behind him, Ingres could afford to concentrate on historical subjects, although he was sought-after as a portraitist, he wrote in 1847, "Damned portraits, they are so difficult to do that they prevent me getting on with greater things that I could do more quickly."Ingres was more successful with female than male portraits. His 1814 Portrait of Madame de Senonnes was described as "to the feminine what the Louvre's Bertin is to the masculine".
The sitter for his 1848 Portrait of Baronne de Rothschild looks out at the viewer with the same directness as Bertin, but is softened by her attractive dress and relaxed pose. Ingres was consumed by self-doubt, he took months to complete a portrait, leaving large periods of inactivity between sittings. With Bertin, he agonised in finding a pose to best convey both the man's restless energy and his age. At least seven studies survive, three are dated. Ingres was a master draftsman and the sketches, if not realised, are regarded in their own right; the sketches are exemplary in their handling of line and form, similar in size. The earliest study has Bertin standing and leaning on a table in an Napoleonic pose, his hard, level stare is established, but the focus seems to be on his groin rather than his face. Ingres struggled with the sketch.
Cyborg IV is a science fiction/secret agent novel by Martin Caidin, first published in 1975. It was the fourth and final book in a series of novels Caidin began in 1972 with Cyborg, profiling the adventures of astronaut Steve Austin, who becomes a spy for the American government after an accident that requires the replacement of numerous body parts with high-powered machines. Cyborg IV was published after Caidin's original novel was adapted into a television series entitled The Six Million Dollar Man. Confusingly, its first paperback publication by Warner Books was issued as Volume 6 in Warners' Six Million Dollar Man book series though Caidin's Cyborg continuity is separate from that of the other Six Million Dollar Man-branded novels by authors such as Mike Jahn and Jay Barbree which were novelizations based upon teleplays. In Cyborg IV, Caidin takes the notion of cyborg to new extremes as Steve Austin's consciousness is hooked up to a next generation spacecraft, creating a new form of union between man and machine.
Meanwhile, an enemy force plans to use similar technology for their own ends