History of Linux
The history of Linux began in 1991 with the commencement of a personal project by Finnish student Linus Torvalds to create a new free operating system kernel. Since the resulting Linux kernel has been marked by constant growth throughout its history. Since the initial release of its source code in 1991, it has grown from a small number of C files under a license prohibiting commercial distribution to the 4.15 version in 2018 with more than 23.3 million lines of source code without comments under the GNU General Public License v2. After AT&T had dropped out of the Multics project, the Unix operating system was conceived and implemented by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1969 and first released in 1970, they rewrote it in a new programming language, C, to make it portable. The availability and portability of Unix caused it to be adopted and modified by academic institutions and businesses. In 1977, the Berkeley Software Distribution was developed by the Computer Systems Research Group from UC Berkeley, based on the 6th edition of Unix from AT&T.
Since BSD contained Unix code that AT&T owned, AT&T filed a lawsuit in the early 1990s against the University of California. This limited the development and adoption of BSD. In 1983, Richard Stallman started the GNU project with the goal of creating a free UNIX-like operating system; as part of this work, he wrote the GNU General Public License. By the early 1990s, there was enough available software to create a full operating system. However, the GNU kernel, called Hurd, failed to attract enough development effort, leaving GNU incomplete. In 1985, Intel released the 80386, the first x86 microprocessor with a 32-bit instruction set and a memory management unit with paging. In 1986, Maurice J. Bach, of AT&T Bell Labs, published The Design of the UNIX Operating System; this definitive description principally covered the System V Release 2 kernel, with some new features from Release 3 and BSD. In 1987, MINIX, a Unix-like system intended for academic use, was released by Andrew S. Tanenbaum to exemplify the principles conveyed in his textbook, Operating Systems: Design and Implementation.
While source code for the system was available and redistribution were restricted. In addition, MINIX's 16-bit design was not well adapted to the 32-bit features of the cheap and popular Intel 386 architecture for personal computers. In the early nineties a commercial UNIX operating system for Intel 386 PCs was too expensive for private users; these factors and the lack of a adopted, free kernel provided the impetus for Torvalds' starting his project. He has stated that if either the GNU Hurd or 386BSD kernels had been available at the time, he would not have written his own. In 1991, while studying computer science at University of Helsinki, Linus Torvalds began a project that became the Linux kernel, he wrote the program for the hardware he was using and independent of an operating system because he wanted to use the functions of his new PC with an 80386 processor. Development was done on MINIX using the GNU C Compiler; the GNU C Compiler is still the main choice for compiling Linux today, but can be built with other compilers, such as the Intel C Compiler.
As Torvalds wrote in his book Just for Fun, he ended up writing an operating system kernel. On 25 August 1991, he announced this system in a Usenet posting to the newsgroup "comp.os.minix.": Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a operating system for 386 AT clones. This has been brewing since april, is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix. I've ported bash and gcc, things seem to work; this implies that I'll get something practical within a few months, I'd like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them:-) Linus PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, it has a multi-threaded fs, it is NOT portable, it never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have:-(. According to Torvalds, Linux began to gain importance in 1992 after the X Window System was ported to Linux by Orest Zborowski, which allowed Linux to support a GUI for the first time. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention Freax, a portmanteau of "free", "freak", "x".
During the start of his work on the system, he stored the files under the name "Freax" for about half of a year. Torvalds had considered the name "Linux," but dismissed it as too egotistical. In order to facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server of FUNET in September 1991. Ari Lemmke at Helsinki University of Technology, one of the volunteer administrators for the FTP server at the time, did not think that "Freax" was a good name. So, he named the project "Linux" on the server without consulting Torvalds. However, Torvalds consented to "Linux". To demonstrate how the word "Linux" should be pronounced, Torvalds included an audio guide with the kernel source code. Torvalds first published the Linux kernel under its own licence, which had a restriction on commercial activity; the software to use with the kernel was software developed as part of the GNU project licensed under the GNU General Public License, a free software license. The first release of the Linux kernel, Linux 0.01, included a binary of GNU's Bash shell.
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Criticism of Linux
The criticism of Linux focuses on issues concerning use of operating systems which use the Linux kernel. While the Linux-based Android operating system dominates the smartphone market in many countries, Linux is used on the New York Stock Exchange and most supercomputers, it is used in few desktop and laptop computers. Much of the criticism of Linux is related to the lack of desktop and laptop adoption, although as of 2015 there has been growing unease with the project's perspective on security and its adoption of systemd has been controversial; some security professionals say that the rise in prominence of operating system-level virtualization using Linux has raised the profile of attacks against the kernel, that Linus Torvalds is reticent to add mitigations against kernel-level attacks in official releases. Linux 4.12, released in 2017, enabled KASLR by default. Con Kolivas, a former kernel developer, tried to optimize the kernel scheduler for interactive desktop use, he dropped the support for his patches due to the lack of appreciation for his development.
In the 2007 interview Why I quit: kernel developer Con Kolivas he stated:If there is any one big problem with kernel development and Linux it is the complete disconnection of the development process from normal users. You know, the ones; the Linux kernel mailing list is the way to communicate with the kernel developers. To put it mildly, the Linux kernel mailing list is about as scary a communication forum as they come. Most people are terrified of mailing the list lest they get flamed for their inexperience, an inappropriate bug report, being stupid or whatever.... I think the kernel developers at large haven't got the faintest idea just how big the problems in userspace are. At LinuxCon 2009, Linux creator Linus Torvalds said that the Linux kernel has become "bloated and huge": Citing an internal Intel study that tracked kernel releases, Bottomley said Linux performance had dropped about two percentage points at every release, for a cumulative drop of about 12 percent over the last ten releases.
"Is this a problem?" he asked. - We're getting huge. Yes, it's a problem... Uh, I'd love to say we have a plan... I mean, sometimes it's a bit sad that we are not the streamlined, hyper-efficient kernel that I envisioned 15 years ago... The kernel is huge and bloated, our icache footprint is scary. I mean, there is no question about that, and whenever we add a new feature, it only gets worse. At LinuxCon 2014, Linux creator Linus Torvalds said he thinks the bloat situation is better because modern PCs are a lot faster: Torvalds said he'd love for Linux to shrink in size "We've been bloating the kernel over the last 20 years, but hardware has grown faster". In an interview with German newspaper Zeit Online in November 2011, Linus Torvalds stated that Linux has become "too complex" and he was concerned that developers would not be able to find their way through the software anymore, he complained that subsystems have become complex and he told the publication that he is "afraid of the day" when there will be an error that "cannot be evaluated anymore."Andrew Morton, one of Linux kernel lead developers, explains that many bugs identified in Linux are never fixed: Q: Is it your opinion that the quality of the kernel is in decline?
Most developers seem to be pretty sanguine about the overall quality problem. Assuming there's a difference of opinion here, where do you think it comes from? How can we resolve it? A: I used to think was in decline, I think that I might think that it still is. I see so many regressions. Theo de Raadt, founder of OpenBSD, compares OpenBSD development process to Linux: "Linux has never been about quality. There are so many parts of the system that are just these cheap little hacks, it happens to run.” As for Linus Torvalds, who created Linux and oversees development, De Raadt says, “I don’t know what focus is at all anymore, but it isn’t quality.” Critics of Linux on the desktop have argued that a lack of top-selling video games on the platform holds adoption back. As of September 2015, the Steam gaming service has 1,500 games available on Linux, compared to 2,323 games for Mac and 6,500 Windows games; as a desktop operating system, Linux has been criticized on a number of fronts, including: A confusing number of choices of distributions, desktop environments.
Audio handling. Poor open source support for some hardware, in particular drivers for 3D graphics chips, where manufacturers were unwilling to provide full specifications; as a result, many video cards have both open and closed source drivers with different levels of support. Limited availability of used commercial applications; this is a result of the software developers not supporting Linux rather than any fault of Linux itself. Sometimes this can be solved by running the Windows versions of these programs through Wine, a virtual machine, or dual-booting. So, this creates a chicken or the egg situation where developers make programs for Windows due to its market share, consumers use Windows due to availability of the programs. Another common complaint levelled against Linux is the abundance of distributions available; as of August, 2014, DistroWatch lists 285 major distributions. While Linux advocates have defended the number as an example of freedom of choice, other critics cite the large number as cause for confusion and lack of standardization in Linux operating systems.
Alexander Wolfe wrote in InformationWeek: Remember the 1980s worries about how the "forking" of Unix could hurt that operating
Linux Magazine is an international magazine for Linux software enthusiasts and professionals. It is published by the Linux New Media division of the German media company Medialinx AG; the magazine was first published in German in 1994, in English, Brazilian Portuguese, Spanish. The German edition is called Linux-Magazin; the founding company was Articon GmbH. The magazine is published on the first Thursday of each month; every issue includes a DVD-ROM featuring a recent version of a Linux distribution. Linux-Magazin is among the oldest magazines about Linux in the world; the first German language issue appeared in October 1994, seven months after Linux Journal's first issue, as the information paper for DELUG, the German Linux user group. The slogan of the magazine is „Die Zeitschrift für Linux-Professionals“; when Linux New Media launched their North American version of Linux-Magazin, to avoid a naming conflict with another magazine called Linux Magazine published in the United States by InfoStrada, Linux New Media's American and Canadian magazine took the name Linux Pro Magazine.
Linux Magazine was a magazine about Linux written in English and published in the United States by Mountain View, California-based InfoStrada. Their magazine covered system administration, Linux distros, free software, Linux development and other topics. In June 2008, Linux New Media purchased assets from InfoStrada related to their magazine. InfoStrada's Linux Magazine is no longer offering print subscriptions; the website for InfoStrada's Linux Magazine was acquired by QuinStreet's Internet.com network, so no name-change was applied to Linux New Media's North American magazine. The latest article on QuinStreet's site is dated June 30, 2011. In October 2016, Linux Voice merged as a special section into Linux Magazine. Linux Format Linux Journal Linux Voice Official website Linux Pro Magazine Linux-Magazin Linux Magazine Brazil Linux Magazine Poland Linux Magazine Spain
A Linux distribution is an operating system made from a software collection, based upon the Linux kernel and a package management system. Linux users obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices and personal computers to powerful supercomputers. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system, a window manager, a desktop environment. Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers. A Linux distribution may be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software, packaged together with the Linux kernel in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.
The software is adapted to the distribution and packaged into software packages by the distribution's maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations distributed around the world. Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers or the package management systems, there are only few packages that are written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution. Six hundred Linux distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development; because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, laptops, mobile phones and tablets, as well as minimal environments for use in embedded systems. There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu, community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions are distributed in source code form and compiled locally during installation.
Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991. Linux was distributed as source code only, as a pair of downloadable floppy disk images – one bootable and containing the Linux kernel itself, the other with a set of GNU utilities and tools for setting up a file system. Since the installation procedure was complicated in the face of growing amounts of available software, distributions sprang up to simplify this. Early distributions included the following: H. J. Lu's "Boot-root", the aforementioned disk image pair with the kernel and the absolute minimal tools to get started, in late 1991 MCC Interim Linux, made available to the public for download in February 1992 Softlanding Linux System, released in 1992, was the most comprehensive distribution for a short time, including the X Window System Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, a commercial distribution first released in December 1992The two oldest and still active distribution projects started in 1993; the SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.
Dissatisfied with SLS, Ian Murdock set to create a free distribution by founding Debian, which had its first release in December 1993. Users were attracted to Linux distributions as alternatives to the DOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems on IBM PC compatible computers, Mac OS on the Apple Macintosh, proprietary versions of Unix. Most early adopters were familiar with Unix from school, they embraced Linux distributions for their low cost, availability of the source code for most or all of the software included. The distributions were a convenience, offering a free alternative to proprietary versions of Unix but they became the usual choice for Unix or Linux experts. To date, Linux has become more popular in server and embedded devices markets than in the desktop market. For example, Linux is used on over 50% of web servers, whereas its desktop market share is about 3.7%. Many Linux distributions provide an installation system akin to that provided with other modern operating systems. On the other hand, some distributions, including Gentoo Linux, provide only the binaries of a basic kernel, compilation tools, an installer.
Distributions are segmented into packages. Each package contains service. Examples of packages are a library for handling the PNG image format, a collection of fonts or a web browser; the package is provided as compiled code, with installation and removal of packages handled by a package management system rather than a simple file archiver. Each package intended for such a PMS contains meta-information such as a package description, "dependencies"; the package management system can evaluate this meta-information to allow package searches, to perform an automatic upgrade to a newer version, to check that all dependencies of a package are fulfilled, and/or to fulfill them automatically. Alth
Texas Instruments Inc. is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Its headquarters are in Dallas, United States. TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 80% of their revenue. TI produces TI digital light processing technology and education technology products including calculators and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 43,000 patents worldwide. Texas Instruments emerged in 1951 after a reorganization of Geophysical Service Incorporated, a company founded in 1930 that manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry, as well as defense electronics. TI produced the world's first commercial silicon transistor in 1954, designed and manufactured the first transistor radio in 1954. Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TI's Central Research Labs.
TI invented the hand-held calculator in 1967, introduced the first single-chip microcontroller in 1970, which combined all the elements of computing onto one piece of silicon. In 1987, TI invented the digital light processing device, which serves as the foundation for the company's award-winning DLP technology and DLP Cinema. In 1990, TI came out with the popular TI-81 calculator which made them a leader in the graphing calculator industry. In 1997, its defense business was sold to Raytheon, which allowed TI to strengthen its focus on digital solutions. After the acquisition of National Semiconductor in 2011, the company had a combined portfolio of nearly 45,000 analog products and customer design tools, making it the world's largest maker of analog technology components. Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, Patrick E. Haggerty in 1951. McDermott was one of the original founders of Geophysical Service Inc. in 1930. McDermott and Jonsson were GSI employees who purchased the company in 1941.
In November, 1945, Patrick Haggerty was hired as general manager of the Laboratory and Manufacturing division, which focused on electronic equipment. By 1951, the L&M division, with its defense contracts, was growing faster than GSI's Geophysical division; the company was reorganized and renamed General Instruments Inc. Because there existed a firm named General Instrument, the company was renamed Texas Instruments that same year. From 1956 to 1961, Fred Agnich of Dallas a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives, was the Texas Instruments president. Geophysical Service, Inc. became a subsidiary of Texas Instruments. Early in 1988 most of GSI was sold to the Halliburton Company. Texas Instruments exists to create and market useful products and services to satisfy the needs of its customers throughout the world. In 1930, J. Clarence Karcher and Eugene McDermott founded Geophysical Service, an early provider of seismic exploration services to the petroleum industry. In 1939, the company reorganized as Coronado Corp. an oil company with Geophysical Service Inc, now as a subsidiary.
On December 6, 1941, McDermott along with three other GSI employees, J. Erik Jonsson, Cecil H. Green, H. B. Peacock purchased GSI. During World War II, GSI expanded their services to include electronics for the U. S. Army, Signal Corps, the U. S. Navy. In 1951, the company changed its name to Texas Instruments, with GSI becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of the new company. An early success story for TI-GSI came in 1965 when GSI was able to monitor the Soviet Union's underground nuclear weapons testing under the ocean in Vela Uniform, a subset of Project Vela, to verify compliance of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Texas Instruments continued to manufacture equipment for use in the seismic industry, GSI continued to provide seismic services. After selling GSI, TI sold the company to Halliburton in 1988, at which point GSI ceased to exist as a separate entity. In early 1952, Texas Instruments purchased a patent license to produce germanium transistors from Western Electric Co. the manufacturing arm of AT&T, for $25,000, beginning production by the end of the year.
On January 1, 1953, Haggerty brought Gordon Teal to the company as a research director. Gordon brought with him his expertise in growing semiconductor crystals. Teal's first assignment was to organize what became TI's Central Research Laboratories, which Teal based on his prior experience at Bell Labs. Among his new hires was Willis Adcock who joined TI early in 1953. Adcock, who like Teal was a physical chemist, began leading a small research group focused on the task of fabricating "grown-junction silicon single-crystal small-signal transistors. Adcock became the first TI Principal Fellow. In January 1954 Morris Tanenbaum at Bell Labs created the first workable silicon transistor; this work was reported in the spring of 1954, at the IRE off-the-record conference on Solid State Devices, was published in the Journal of Applied Physics. Working independently in April 1954, Gordon Teal at TI created the first commercial silicon transistor and tested it on April 14, 1954. On May 10, 1954, at the Institute of Radio Engineers National Conference on Airborne Electronics in Dayton, OH,Teal presented a paper: "Some Recent Developments in Silicon and Germanium Materials and Devices,".
In 1954, Texas Instruments manufactured the first transistor radio. The Regency TR-1 used germanium transistors, as silicon transistors were much more expensive at the time; this was an effort b
TIM S.p. A. operating under the name Telecom Italia, is an Italian telecommunications company headquartered in Rome and Milan, which provides telephony services, mobile services, DSL data services. It is the largest Italian telecommunications services provider in subscribers, it was founded in 1994 by the merger of several state-owned telecommunications companies, the most important of, Società Italiana per l'Esercizio Telefonico p. A. the former state monopoly telephone operator in Italy. The company's stock is traded in the Borsa Italiana. Since 2017 the Italian State exercises the "Golden Power", which allows the government to take actions to protect the strategic interests of the country, over Telecom Italia. In 1925, the phone network was reorganised by the Benito Mussolini cabinet and the company Stipel was established in the same year; the original core of Telecom Italia included 4 companies: TIMO, Teti, TELVE and SET. Each of them operated in a specific geographical area. In 1964 these companies merged in one single group under the name of SIP.
In 1964, Società Idroelettrica Piemontese, a former energy company founded in 1918, ceased producing energy and acquired all of the Italian telephone companies, becoming SIP - Società Italiana per l'Esercizio Telefonico. It was run by the Italian Ministry of Finance. SIP was a state monopoly from 1964 to 1996 and Italian people had to pay the "Canone Telecom" in order to have a phone at home. Telecom Italia was created on 27 July 1994 by the merger of several telecommunication companies among which SIP, Italcable and Sirm; this was due to a reorganization plan for the telecommunication sector presented by IRI to the Minister of Finance. In 1995, the mobile telephony division was spun off as TIM. Interbusiness, Italy’s largest Internet network, was created and in the same period with TIN and the first ISPs, internet access became a reality in Italy. In 1996, TIM introduced a new prepaid rechargeable phone card, one year launched short messaging service capability. In 1997, under the chairmanship of Guido Rossi, Telecom Italia was privatised and was transformed into a large multimedia group.
By 2001, the company was acquired by Marco Tronchetti Provera. The following year, the group released its DSL Flat service in Italy, Alice ADSL, with a download speed of 32 kbit/s and an upload speed of 8 kbit/s for €40/month plus a monthly based tax of €14.57, the "Canone Telecom", besides the mandatory monthly bills for home telephone numbers. Telecom Italia Media, the group's multimedia company, was formed in 2003 from Seat Pagine Gialle, focussing its business on the television sector with La7 and MTV channels. After the reorganization of editorial activities, in 2005 Telecom Italia acquired Tin.it and Virgilio from Telecom Italia Media. The Telecom Italia Group operates in South America. TIM Brasil has its local headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. Telecom Italia reported mounting debts in 2005, one year CEO Marco Tronchetti Provera resigned. In 2007 the company was bought by a consortium of Telefónica and several Italian banks. Telefónica owned 46 % of the holding company that controlled 22 % of Telecom Italia.
In late 2013, Telefónica announced its intention to acquire the entirety of Telco by January 2014 becoming Telecom Italia's largest shareholder. The plan, however, is being challenged by the Brazilian competition authority since Telefónica and Telecom Italia, with Vivo and TIM are the two largest telephone companies competing in Brazil. In 2015, Telecom Italia Group started a rebranding process of the telephony and mobile businesses under the single TIM brand. In the same year, the Board of Directors approved the new company's division, the Infrastrutture Wireless Italiane, or INWIT, which operates 11,500 wireless towers, it was revealed in October 2015 that shareholders Vivendi would raise their stakes further in the company from its current level of 15.49%. As of May 2017, Vivendi owns 24.6% of the company with Vivendi's CEO Arnaud de Puyfontaine becoming Executive Chairman of Telecom Italia. Amos Genish is the new CEO since 28 September 2017 and he has been criticized to have fired 4500 Telecom Italia employees in June 2018.
Telecom Italia Mobile illegally charged money for Internet providing renew subscriptions for 5 years to its customers during the "free" subscription renewals. On 8 August 2012, TIM Brasil became involved in a massive scandal in Brazilian news after the release of report by the Brazilian National Telecommunications Agency Anatel; the report points that on TIM's prepaid voice plan, called "Infinity", the calls were intentionally dropped by the company, forcing the customers to make new calls to keep talking. In just one day, 8.1 million calls were dropped and the total profit was $2 million. Upon release of the report, the Public Ministry of the Paraná State filed a lawsuit against TIM asking that it stop selling new mobile lines in Brasil and pay a multimillion-dollar fine for the damages against consumers; the Telecom Italia Group provides phone landline services and mobile services in Italy, GSM mobile phone services in Italy and Brazil through its TIM subsidiary, DSL internet and telephony services in Italy and San Marino.
It operates in international telecommunication services for other opera
Comparison of netbook-oriented Linux distributions
Netbooks are small laptops, with screen sizes between 7 and 12 inches and low power consumption. They use either an SSD or a HDD for storage, have up to 2 gigabytes of RAM, lack an optical disk drive, have USB, Ethernet, WiFi and Bluetooth connectivity; the name emphasizes their use as portable Internet appliances. There are special Linux distributions, called netbook distributions, for these machines. All such distributions purport to be optimized for use with low-resolution displays, they tend to include a broad mix of VOIP and web-focused tools, including proprietary applications seen installed by default by mainstream desktop distributions. For instance, Nokia Maemo and Asus' customized Xandros both ship with Skype and Adobe Flash installed, Ubuntu's Netbook Edition offers the option to do the same for OEMs. While no public numbers measuring the install-base of these operating systems are available, Google Trends data on a handful of them indicate their relative popularity: Android List of Linux distributions that run from RAM List of tools to create Live USB systems