World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH was an English actor and theatre director whose career spanned eight decades, who, along with his contemporaries Peggy Ashcroft, Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardson, dominated the British stage of much of the 20th century. A member of the Terry family theatrical dynasty, he gained his first paid acting work as a junior member of his cousin Phyllis Neilson-Terry's company in 1922. After studying at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art he worked in repertory theatre and in the West End before establishing himself at the Old Vic as an exponent of Shakespeare in 1929–31. During the 1930s Gielgud was a stage star in the West End and on Broadway, appearing in new works and classics, he began a parallel career as a director, set up his own company at the Queen's Theatre, London. He was regarded by many as the finest Hamlet of his era, was known for high comedy roles such as John Worthing in The Importance of Being Earnest. In the 1950s Gielgud feared that his career was threatened when he was convicted and fined for a homosexual offence, but his colleagues and the public supported him loyally.
When avant-garde plays began to supersede traditional West End productions in the 1950s he found no new suitable stage roles, for several years he was best known in the theatre for his one-man Shakespeare show Ages of Man. From the late 1960s he found new plays that suited him, by authors including Alan Bennett, David Storey and Harold Pinter. During the first half of his career, Gielgud did not take the cinema seriously. Though he made his first film in 1924, had successes with The Good Companions and Julius Caesar, he did not begin a regular film career until his sixties. Gielgud appeared in more than sixty films between Becket, for which he received his first Academy Award nomination for playing Louis VII of France, Elizabeth; as the acid-tongued Hobson in Arthur he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. His film work further earned him two BAFTAs. Although indifferent to awards, Gielgud had the rare distinction of winning an Oscar, an Emmy, a Grammy, a Tony, he was famous from the start of his mastery of Shakespearean verse.
He broadcast more than a hundred radio and television dramas between 1929 and 1994, made commercial recordings of many plays, including ten of Shakespeare's. Among his honours, he was knighted in 1953 and the Gielgud Theatre was named after him. From 1977 to 1989, he was president of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Gielgud was born in South Kensington, the third of the four children and youngest of three sons of Frank Henry Gielgud and his second wife, Kate Terry-Gielgud, née Terry-Lewis; the two elder boys were Lewis, who became a senior official of the Red Cross and UNESCO, Val head of BBC radio drama. On his father's side, Gielgud was of Polish descent; the surname derives from a village in Lithuania. The Counts Gielgud had owned the Gielgudziszki Castle on the River Niemen, but their estates were confiscated after they took part in a failed uprising against Russian rule in 1830–31. Jan Gielgud took refuge in England with his family. Frank married into a family with wide theatrical connections.
His wife, on the stage until she married, was the daughter of the actress Kate Terry, a member of the stage dynasty that included Ellen and Marion Terry, Mabel Terry-Lewis and Edith and Edward Gordon Craig. Frank worked all his life as a stockbroker in the City of London. In 1912, aged eight, Gielgud went to Hillside preparatory school in Surrey as his elder brothers had done. For a child with no interest in sport he acquitted himself reasonably well in cricket and rugby for the school. In class, he hated mathematics, was fair at classics, excelled at English and divinity. Hillside encouraged his interest in drama, he played several leading roles in school productions, including Mark Antony in Julius Caesar and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. After Hillside and Val had won scholarships to Eton and Rugby, respectively, he was sent as a day boy to Westminster School where, as he said, he had access to the West End "in time to touch the fringe of the great century of the theatre". He saw Sarah Bernhardt act, Adeline Genée dance and Albert Chevalier, Vesta Tilley and Marie Lloyd perform in the music halls.
The school choir sang in services at Westminster Abbey. He showed talent at sketching, for a while thought of scenic design as a possible career; the young Gielgud's father took him to concerts, which he liked, galleries and museums, "which bored me rigid". Both parents were keen theatregoers, but did not encourage their children to follow an acting career. Val Gielgud recalled, "Our parents looked distinctly sideways at the Stage as a means of livelihood, when John showed some talent for drawing his father spoke crisply of the advantages of an architect's office." On leaving Westminster in 1921, Gielgud persuaded his reluctant parents to let him take drama lessons on the understanding that if he was not self-supporting by the age of twenty-five he would seek an office post. Gielgud, aged seventeen, joined a private drama school run by Constance Benson, wife of the actor-manager Sir Frank Benson. On the new boy's first day Lady Benson remarked on his physical awkwardness: "she said I walked like a cat with rickets.
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Berbers, or Amazighs are an ethnic group of several nations indigenous to North Africa and in some northern parts of Western Africa. Berbers constitute the populations of Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, northern Mali, northern Niger, a small part of western Egypt. Berber nations are distributed over an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River in West Africa. Berber nations spoke the Berber language, a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. There are about 100 million Berbers in North Africa, but only some 25–30 million of them still speak the Berber language; the number of ethnic Berbers is far greater than the speakers of the Berber language, as a large part of the Berbers have lost their ancestral language and switched to other languages over the course of many decades or centuries. The majority of North Africa's population west of Egypt is believed to be Berber in ethnic origin, although due to Arabization and Islamization some ethnic Berbers identify as Arabized Berbers.
Most Berber people who speak Berber today live in Morocco, Libya, northern Mali, northern Niger. Smaller Berber-speaking populations are found in Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Egypt's Siwa town. There are large immigrant Berber communities living in France, Canada, the Netherlands, Germany and other countries of Europe; the majority of Berbers are Sunni Muslim. Although, since some Berbers have converted to Shia Islam and atheism; the Berber identity is wider than language and ethnicity and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. Berbers are not an homogeneous ethnicity, they encompass a range of societies and lifestyles; the unifying forces for the Berber people may be their shared language or a collective identification with Berber heritage and history. Berbers call themselves some variant of the word i-Mazigh-en meaning "free people" or "noble men"; the name had its ancient parallel in the Roman and Greek names for Berbers such as Mazices. Some of the best known of the ancient Berbers are the Numidian king Masensen, king Yugerten, the Berber-Roman author Apuleius, Saint Augustine of Hippo, the Berber-Roman general Lusius Quietus, instrumental in defeating the major wave of Jewish revolts of 115–117 in ancient Israel.
The Berber queen Dihya, or Kahina, was a religious and political leader who led a military Berber resistance against the Arab-Muslim expansion in Northwest Africa. Kusaila was a 7th-century leader of the Berber Awerba tribe and King of the Iẓnagen confederation and resisted the Arab-Muslim invasion. Yusef U Tashfin was a Muslim king of the Berber Almoravid dynasty. Abbas Ibn Firnas was a Berber-Andalusian prolific inventor and early pioneer in aviation. Ben Bettota was a medieval Berber explorer who departed from Tanja and traveled the longest known distances of his time and chronicled his impressions of hundreds of nations and cultures; the name Berber derives from an ancient Egyptian language term meaning "outlander" or variations thereof. The exonym was adopted by the Greeks, with a similar connotation. Among its oldest written attestations, Berber appears as an ethnonym in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Despite these early manuscripts, certain modern scholars have argued that the term only emerged around 900 AD in the writings of Arab genealogists, with Maurice Lenoir positing an 8th or 9th century date of appearance.
The English term was introduced in the 19th century. The Berbers are the Mauri cited by the Chronicle of 754 during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, to become since the 11th century the catch-all term Moros on the charters and chronicles of the expanding Christian Iberian kingdoms to refer to the Andalusi, the north Africans, the Muslims overall. For the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg, the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in the Targum. According to Leo Africanus, Amazigh meant "free man", though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning "free" in modern Berber languages; this dispute, however, is based on a lack of understanding of the Berber language as "Am-" is a prefix meaning "a man, one, " Therefore, the root required to verify this endonym would be zigh, "free", which however is missing from Tamazight's lexicon, but may be related to the well attested aze "strong", Tizzit "bravery", or jeghegh "to be brave, to be courageous".
Further, it has a cognate in the Tuareg word Amajegh, meaning "noble". This term is common in Morocco among Central Atlas and Shilah speakers in 1980, but elsewhere within the Berber homeland sometimes a local, more particular term, such as Kabyle or Chaoui, is more used instead in Algeria; the Egyptians, Greeks and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater "Libya" in the areas where Berbers were found. Tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are still related to the modern Amazigh; the Meshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called a few centuries afterwards in Greek as Mazyes by Hektaios and as Maxyes by Herodotus, while it was called after that Mazaces and Mazax in Latin sources, related to the Massylii and Masaesyli. All those names are similar and foreign renditions of the
ʿOmar al-Mukhṭār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṭ al-Manifī, called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Cyrenaica Eastern Libya under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya. A teacher-turned-general, Omar was a prominent figure of the Senussi movement, he is considered the national hero of Libya and a symbol of resistance in the Arab and Islamic worlds. Beginning in 1911, he organised and, for nearly twenty years, led the Libyan resistance movement against the colonial Italians during the Pacification of Libya. After many attempts, the Italian Armed Forces managed to capture Al-Mukhtar near Solonta and hanged him in 1931. Omar al-Mukhtar fought against the French colonization of Chad and the British occupation of Egypt.'Omar Al-Mukhtar was born in 1862 to a poor family in the town of Zanzur near Tobruk, belonging to the Mnifa Clan who were a Arabized Berber tribe, they were seen as Libyan Ashrafs, in the region of Cyrenaica under Ottoman control, young Omar lost his father early on, spent his youth in poverty, he was adopted by Sharif El Gariani, nephew of Hussein Ghariani, a political-religious leader in Cyrenaica, received his early education at the local mosque, before continuing his studying for eight years at the Senussi university in Jaghbub, the holy city of the Senussi Tariqa, He became a popular expert on the Quran and an imam, joining the confraternity of the Senussi, he came to be well informed of the social structure of his society, as he was chosen to settle intertribal disputes.
Mukhtar developed a strong relationship with the Senussid Movement during his years in Jaghbub, in 1895, Al-Mahdi Senoussi traveled with him south to Kufra, on another occasion further south to Karo in Chad, where he was appointed as sheikh of Zawiyat Ayn Kalk, when the Colonial French advanced on Chad in 1899 he was sent among other Senussites to help defend from the invaders, as the Senussi considered their expansion dangerous for their Missionary activity in Central and West Africa. In 1902, Omar was recalled north after the death of Al-Mahdi, the new Senussi leader Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi appointed him as Sheikh of the troubled Zawiyat Laqsur in Northern Cyrenaica. In October 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War, the Regia Marina under the command of Admiral Luigi Faravelli reached the shores of Libya a territory subject to Ottoman Turkish control; the admiral demanded that the Turkish administration and garrison surrender their territory to the Italians or incur the immediate destruction of the city of Tripoli and Benghazi.
The Turks and their Libyan allies withdrew to the countryside instead of surrendering, the Italians bombarded the cities for three days, proclaimed the Tripolitanians to be'committed and bound to Italy'. This marked the beginning of a series of battles between the Italian colonial forces and the Libyan armed opposition in Cyrenaica. A teacher of the Qur'an by profession, Mukhtar was skilled in the strategies and tactics of desert warfare, he knew local geography well and used that knowledge to advantage in battles against the Italians, who were unaccustomed to desert warfare. Mukhtar led his small alert groups in successful attacks against the Italians, after which they would fade back into the desert terrain. Mukhtar’s men skilfully attacked outposts, ambushed troops, cut lines of supply and communication; the Regio Esercito was left embarrassed by his guerrilla tactics. In the mountainous region of Jebel Akhdar in 1924, Italian Governor Ernesto Bombelli created a counter-guerrilla force that inflicted a severe setback to rebel forces in April 1925.
Mukhtar quickly modified his own tactics and was able to count on continued help from Egypt. In March, 1927, despite occupation of Giarabub from February 1926 and stringent rule under Governor Attilio Teruzzi, Mukhtar surprised Italian troops at Raheiba. Between 1927 and 1928, Mukhtar reorganised the Senusite forces, who were being hunted by the Italians. General Teruzzi recognized Omar's qualities of "exceptional perseverance and strong will power."Marshal Pietro Badoglio, Governor of Libya from January 1929, after extensive negotiations concluded a compromise with Mukhtar similar to previous Italo-Senusite accords. At the end of October, 1929, Mukhtar denounced the compromise and re-established a unity of action among Libyan forces, preparing himself for the ultimate confrontation with General Rodolfo Graziani, the Italian military commander from March 1930. A massive offensive in June against Mukhtar's forces having failed, Graziani, in full accord with Badoglio, Emilio De Bono, Benito Mussolini, initiated a plan to break the Libyan Mujāhideen:100,000 population of Jebel Akhdar would be relocated to concentration camps on the coast, the Libyan-Egyptian border from the coast at Giarabub would be closed, preventing any foreign help to the fighters and depriving them of support from the native population.
These measures, which Graziani initiated early in 1931, took their toll on the Senusite resistance. The rebels were deprived of help and reinforcements, spied upon, hit by Italian aircraft, pursued on the ground by the Italian forces aided by local informers and collaborators. Mukhtar continued to struggle despite increased hardships and risks, but on 11 September 1931, he was ambushed near Slonta. Mukhtar's final adversary, Italian General Rodolfo Graziani, has given a description of the Senusite leader, not lacking in respect
Sky du Mont
Sky du Mont is a German actor. Sky du Mont family, related to the famous publishers DuMont Schauberg, fled the Nazis in the 1930s to South America, he was born in Argentina as the son of the British Chiquita Neven du Mont.. He grew up in England, but came to Germany in 1969, where he studied acting between 1969 and 1972 in Munich. In Germany, he is well-known for playing suave and urbane, sometimes villainous or shady upper-class-characters since the 1970s, he appeared in three of the commercially most successful German film comedies of all time: In Otto – Der Film as an aristrocratic-looking swindler, as the villain "Santa Maria" in the Western comedy Der Schuh des Manitu and in Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1, where he reprised his role as "Santa Maria" and played a second role as "Herzog William der Letzte" in the Middle Ages. In international cinema, Sky du Mont portrayed the Hungarian businessman Sandor Szavost in Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut and played one of the Nazi killers in The Boys from Brazil.
Other international roles include the US-miniseries War and Remembrance as Claus von Stauffenberg and a recurring role in the soap opera General Hospital in the 1980s. Du Mont made an uncredited appearance in Das Boot as an officer aboard the resupply ship Weser. While he only appears in the background in the theatrical and director's cut, his full appearance is featured in the uncut mini-series, he serves as the German narrator of Thomas & Friends. Sky du Mont does a lot of voiceover work for commercials as well as television continuity for German channel Pro 7. Sky du Mont has been married four times. In 2016, he separated from his wife Mirja Du Mont, the mother of two of his three children, Tara Neven du Mont and Fayn Neven du Mont, his third and oldest son is named Clemens Neven du Mont. He was a member of the Free Democratic Party and supported them in campaigns, but left them in early 2018. Film Silence in the Forest The Boys From Brazil Avalanche Express Goetz von Berlichingen of the Iron Hand Lion of the Desert Night Crossing Otto – Der Film Eyes Wide Shut as Sandor Szavost Manila Der Schuh des Manitu Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1 Bullyparade – Der Film Television Derrick - Season 3, Episode 2: "Tod des Trompeters" Derrick - Season 5, Episode 6: "Klavierkonzert" Derrick - Season 7, Episode 6: "Die Entscheidung" Derrick - Season 9, Episode 7: "Hausmusik" Inside the Third Reich The Winds of War Derrick - Season 11, Episode 4: "Drei atemlose Tage" Derrick - Season 12, Episode 1: "Der Mann aus Antibes" Derrick - "Der Augenzeuge" Derrick - "Die Stimme" Derrick - "Die Mordsache Druse" War and Remembrance Derrick - "Mord im Treppenhaus" Derrick - "Ein Objekt der Begierde" Derrick - "Der Schlüssel" Derrick - "Ein Mord und lauter nette Leute" Derrick - "Zeuge Karuhn" Arme Millionäre Sky du Mont on IMDb Official website ZBF Agency Munich
National Fascist Party
The National Fascist Party was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism. The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism. Preceding the PNF, Mussolini's first established political party was known as the Fascist Revolutionary Party, founded in 1915 according to Mussolini. After poor November 1919 election results, the PFR was renamed the National Fascist Party during the Third Fascist Congress in Rome on 7–10 November 1921; the National Fascist Party was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.
Fascists promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes. Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, but did not seek a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, not in line with a forward-looking direction on policy, it was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but was opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy; the National Fascist Party along with its successor, the Republican Fascist Party, are the only parties whose re-formation is banned by the Constitution of Italy: "It shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatsoever, the dissolved fascist party".
After World War I, despite the Kingdom of Italy being a full-partner Allied Power against the Central Powers, Italian nationalism claimed Italy was cheated in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, thus the Allies had impeded Italy's progress to becoming a "Great Power". Thenceforth, the PNF exploited that perceived slight to Italian nationalism in presenting Fascism as best suited for governing the country by claiming that democracy and liberalism were failed systems. In 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference, the Allies compelled the Kingdom of Italy to yield to Yugoslavia the Croatian seaport of Fiume, a Italian city of little nationalist significance, until early 1919. Moreover, elsewhere Italy was excluded from the wartime secret Treaty of London it had concorded with the Triple Entente, wherein Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the enemy by declaring war against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary in exchange for territories at war's end, upon which the Kingdom of Italy held claims.
In September 1919, the nationalist response of outraged war hero Gabriele D'Annunzio was declaring the establishment of the Italian Regency of Carnaro. To his independent Italian state, he installed himself as the Regent Duce and promulgated the Carta del Carnaro, a politically syncretic constitutional amalgamation of right-wing and left-wing anarchist, proto-fascist and democratic republican politics, which much influenced the politico-philosophic development of early Italian Fascism. Consequent to the Treaty of Rapallo, the metropolitan Italian military deposed the Regency of Duce D'Annunzio on Christmas 1920. In the development of the fascist model of government, D’Annunzio was a nationalist and not a fascist, whose legacy of political–praxis was stylistic and not substantive, which Italian Fascism artfully developed as a government model. Founded in Rome during the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921, the National Fascist Party marked the transformation of the paramilitary Fasci Italiani di Combattimento into a more coherent political group.
The Fascist Party was instrumental in popularizing support for Mussolini's ideology. In the early years, groups within the PNF called Blackshirts built a base of power by violently attacking socialists and their institutions in the rural Po Valley, thereby gaining the support of landowners. Compared to its predecessor, the PNF abandoned republicanism to turn decisively towards the right-wing of the political spectrum. On 28 October 1922, Mussolini attempted a coup d'état, titled by the Fascist propaganda, the March on Rome, in which took part 30,000 fascists; the quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo, Michele Bianchi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi, organized the March while the Duce stayed behind for most of the march, though he allowed pictures to be taken of him marching along with the Fascist marchers. Generals Gustavo Fara and Sante Ceccherini assisted to the preparations of the March of 18 October. Other organizers of the march included Ulisse Igliori. On 24 October 1922, Mu
Maurice-Alexis Jarre was a French composer and conductor, "one of the giants of 20th-century film music", "among the most sought-after composers in the movie industry" and "a creator of both subtle underscoring and grand, sweeping themes, not only writing for conventional orchestras... but experimenting with electronic sounds in his career". Although he composed several concert works, Jarre is best known for his film scores for his collaborations with film director David Lean. Jarre composed the scores to all of Lean's films from Lawrence of Arabia on. Notable scores for other directors include The Train, Messenger of God, Lion of the Desert and Ghost. Jarre was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Three of his compositions spent a total of 42 weeks on the UK singles chart. Jarre was nominated for nine Academy Awards, winning three in the Best Original Score category for Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, A Passage to India, all of which were directed by David Lean, he won four Golden Globes, two BAFTA Awards, a Grammy Award.
Jarre was born in Lyon, France, in 1924, the son of Gabrielle Renée and André Jarre, a radio technical director. He first enrolled in the engineering school at the Sorbonne, but decided to pursue music courses instead, he left the Sorbonne against his father's will and enrolled at the Conservatoire de Paris to study composition and harmony and chose percussion as his major instrument. He became director of the Théâtre National Populaire and recorded his first film score in France in 1951. In 1961 Jarre's music career experienced a major change when British film producer Sam Spiegel asked him to write the score for the 1962 epic Lawrence of Arabia, directed by David Lean; the acclaimed score won Jarre his first Academy Award and he would go on to compose the scores to all of Lean's subsequent films. He followed with The Train and Grand Prix, both for director John Frankenheimer, in between had another great success in David Lean's Doctor Zhivago, which included the lyricless tune "Lara's Theme", which earned him his second Oscar.
He worked with Alfred Hitchcock on Topaz. His score for David Lean's Ryan's Daughter, set in Ireland eschews traditional Irish music styles, owing to Lean's preferences; the song "It Was a Good Time," from Ryan's Daughter went on to be recorded by musical stars such as Liza Minnelli who used it in her critically acclaimed television special Liza with a Z as well as by others during the 1970s. He contributed the music for Luchino Visconti's The Damned, John Huston's The Man Who Would Be King, he was again nominated for an Academy Award for scoring The Message in 1976 for the director and producer Moustapha Akkad. He followed with Dead Poets Society, for which he won a British Academy Award. In the 1970s and 1980s, Jarre turned his hand to science fiction, with scores for The Island at the Top of the World, Enemy Mine, Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome; the latter is written for full orchestra, augmented by a chorus, four grand pianos, a pipe organ, fujara, a battery of exotic percussion, three ondes Martenot, which feature in several of Jarre's other scores, including Lawrence of Arabia, Jesus of Nazareth, The Bride and Prancer.
The balalaika features prominently in Jarre's score for Doctor Zhivago. In 1990 Jarre was again nominated for an Academy Award scoring the supernatural love story/thriller Ghost, his music for the final scene of the film is based on "Unchained Melody" composed by fellow film composer Alex North. Other films for which he provided the music include A Walk in the Clouds, for which he wrote the score and all of the songs, including the romantic "Mariachi Serenade". To his credit is the passionate love theme from Fatal Attraction, the moody electronic soundscapes of After Dark, My Sweet, he was well respected by other composers including John Williams, who stated on Jarre's death, " is to be well remembered for his lasting contribution to film music...we all have been enriched by his legacy."Jarre's television work includes the score for the miniseries Jesus of Nazareth, directed by Franco Zeffirelli, Shōgun, the theme for PBS's Great Performances. Jarre scored his last project in 2001, a television mini-series about the Holocaust entitled Uprising.
Jarre wrote for orchestras, but began to favour synthesized music in the 1980s. Jarre pointed out that his electronic score for Witness was more laborious, time-consuming and expensive to produce than an orchestral score. Jarre's electronic scores from the 80s include Fatal Attraction, The Year of Living Dangerously, Firefox and No Way Out. A number of his scores from that era feature electronic / acoustic blends, such as Gorillas in the Mist, Dead Poets Society, The Mosquito Coast and Jacob's Ladder. Jarre was married the first three marriages ending in divorce. In the 1940s, his marriage to Francette Pejot, a French Resistance member and concentration camp survivor, produced a son, Jean-Michel Jarre, a French composer and music producer, one of the pioneers in electronic music; when Jean-Michel was five y