American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90-95% of the American Jewish population. Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number of now elderly earlier immigrants, as well as some more recent foreign-born immigrants. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim and Portuguese Jews represented the bulk of America's small Jewish population, while their descendants are a minority today, they along with an array of other Jewish communities represented the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of converts to Judaism; the American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after Israel. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term, which constitutes between 1.7% and 2.6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in the Thirteen Colonies since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700; those early arrivers were Sephardic Jewish immigrants, of Western Sephardic ancestry, but by 1720 Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English Plantation Act 1740 for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to the colonies. Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many German Jews had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth, they became merchants and shop-owners. There were 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from the poor diaspora communities of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Belarus and Moldova. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews arrived from Galicia, at that time the most impoverished region of the Austro-Hungarian empire with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out by economic reasons.
Many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Landsmanshaften for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage; the suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been disproportionately successful in many fields and aspects over the years; the Jewish community in America has gone from a lower class minority, with most studies putting upwards of 80% as manual factory laborers prior to World War I and with the majority of fields barred to them, to the consistent richest or second richest ethnicity in America for the past 40 years in terms of average annual salary, with high concentrations in academia and other fields, today have the highest per capita income of any ethnic group in the United States, at around double the average income of non-Jewish Americans. In 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000. Scholars debate whether the favorable historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
An investment bank is a financial services company or corporate division that engages in advisory-based financial transactions on behalf of individuals and governments. Traditionally associated with corporate finance, such a bank might assist in raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities. An investment bank may assist companies involved in mergers and acquisitions and provide ancillary services such as market making, trading of derivatives and equity securities, FICC services. Most investment banks maintain prime brokerage and asset management departments in conjunction with their investment research businesses; as an industry, it is broken up into the Bulge Bracket, Middle Market, boutique market. Unlike commercial banks and retail banks, investment banks do not take deposits. From the passage of Glass–Steagall Act in 1933 until its repeal in 1999 by the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, the United States maintained a separation between investment banking and commercial banks.
Other industrialized countries, including G7 countries, have not maintained such a separation. As part of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Volcker Rule asserts some institutional separation of investment banking services from commercial banking. All investment banking activity is classed as either "sell side" or "buy side"; the "sell side" involves trading securities for cash or for other securities, or the promotion of securities. The "buy side" involves the provision of advice to institutions. Private equity funds, mutual funds, life insurance companies, unit trusts, hedge funds are the most common types of buy-side entities. An investment bank can be split into private and public functions with a Chinese wall separating the two to prevent information from crossing; the private areas of the bank deal with private insider information that may not be publicly disclosed, while the public areas, such as stock analysis, deal with public information. An advisor who provides investment banking services in the United States must be a licensed broker-dealer and subject to U.
S. Securities and Exchange Commission and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority regulation; the Dutch East India Company was the first company to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the first publicly traded company, being the first company to be listed on an official stock exchange; the Dutch helped lay the foundations of the modern practice of investment banking. Investment banking has changed over the years, beginning as a partnership firm focused on underwriting security issuance, i.e. initial public offerings and secondary market offerings and mergers and acquisitions, evolving into a "full-service" range including securities research, proprietary trading, investment management. In the 21st century, the SEC filings of the major independent investment banks such as Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley reflect three product segments: investment banking, asset management, trading and principal investments. In the United States, commercial banking and investment banking were separated by the Glass–Steagall Act, repealed in 1999.
The repeal led to more "universal banks" offering an greater range of services. Many large commercial banks have therefore developed investment banking divisions through acquisitions and hiring. Notable large banks with significant investment banks include JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank, UBS, Barclays. After the financial crisis of 2007–08 and the subsequent passage of the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, regulations have limited certain investment banking operations, notably with the Volcker Rule's restrictions on proprietary trading; the traditional service of underwriting security issues has declined as a percentage of revenue. As far back as 1960, 70% of Merrill Lynch's revenue was derived from transaction commissions while "traditional investment banking" services accounted for 5%. However, Merrill Lynch was a "retail-focused" firm with a large brokerage network. Investment banking is split into front office, middle office, back office activities. While large service investment banks offer all lines of business, both "sell side" and "buy side", smaller sell-side investment firms such as boutique investment banks and small broker-dealers focus on investment banking and sales/trading/research, respectively.
Inns issuing securities and investors buying securities. For corporations, investment bankers offer information on when and how to place their securities on the open market, an activity important to an investment bank's reputation. Therefore, investment bankers play a important role in issuing new security offerings. Front office is described as a revenue-generating role. There are two main areas within front office: investment banking and markets Investment banking involves advising organizations on mergers and acquisitions, as well as a wide array of capital raising strategies. Markets is divided into "sales and trading", "research". Corporate finance is the aspect of investment banks, which involves helping customers raise funds in capital markets and giving advice on mergers and acquisitions
Columbia Business School
Columbia Business School is the business school of Columbia University in the City of New York in Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1916, Columbia Business School is one of the oldest business schools in the world, it is one of six Ivy League business schools, has been referred to as among the most selective of top business schools. The school was founded in 1916 with 11 full-time faculty members and an inaugural class of 61 students, including 8 women. Banking executive Emerson McMillin provided initial funding in 1916, while A. Barton Hepburn president of Chase National Bank, provided funding for the School's endowment in 1919; the School expanded enrolling 420 students by 1920, in 1924 added a PhD program to the existing BS and MS degree programs. In 1945, Columbia Business School authorized the awarding of the MBA degree. Shortly thereafter, in the 1950s, the School adopted the Hermes emblem as its symbol, reflecting the entrepreneurial nature of the Greek god Hermes and his association with business and communication.
In 1952, CBS admitted its last class of undergraduates. The school offers executive education programs that culminate in a Certificate in Business Excellence and full alumni status, several degree programs for the MBA and PhD degrees. In addition to the full-time MBA, the school offers four Executive MBA programs: the NY-EMBA Friday/Saturday program, the EMBA-Global program, the EMBA-Americas program launched in 2012, the EMBA-Global Asia program. Students in jointly run programs earn an MBA degree from each of the cooperating institutions. On July 1, 2004, R. Glenn Hubbard became Columbia Business School's eleventh dean. Hubbard, the former chair of President Bush's Council of Economic Advisers, has worked in the private and nonprofit sectors, played a role in shaping national and international economic policy, including the deregulation policy leading up Wall Street bank failures in 2008. In Charles Ferguson's 2010 documentary, Inside Job, when prompted, Hubbard maintains that his political and financial connections to government and Wall Street firms do not create any potential academic conflict of interest.
Hubbard has announced plans to step down as dean in June 2019. Columbia Business School is housed in Uris Hall, at the center of Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. An auxiliary space, Warren Hall, is shared with the law school. In October 2010, Columbia Business School announced that alumnus Henry Kravis, the billionaire co-founder of private-equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, pledged $100 million to fund expansion of Columbia Business School, the largest gift in its history; the donation will go toward construction of the business school’s new site in the Manhattanville section of New York City, where Columbia University is extending its campus. One of the school’s two new buildings will be named for Kravis; the buildings will be designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro. In December 2012, Ronald Perelman donated $100 million to the construction of the second business school building; the Columbia MBA Program is competitive with an admission rate of 16% for the 2017 entering class. The student body is accomplished and diverse.
Students in the class that entered in 2009 speak more than 50 languages. The revised core curriculum, launched in the fall of 2008, represents about 40% of the degree requirement, it consists of 2 full courses and 12 half-term courses including Corporate Finance, Financial Accounting, Managerial Statistics, Managerial Economics, Operations Management, Marketing Strategy. While the first year of the program is devoted to completing the requirements of the core curriculum, the second year provides students with the opportunity to choose from the more than 130 elective courses available at the School and supplement them with more than 4,000 graduate-level classes from the University's other graduate and professional schools. Among the most popular electives at Columbia Business School are the Economics of Strategic Behavior, Financial Statement Analysis and Earnings Quality, Launching New Ventures, Modern Political Economy, the Seminar in Value Investing. Columbia Business School has a firm grade non-disclosure policy, stating that students refrain from disclosing specific class grades, GPAs, or transcripts until they accept full-time, post graduation positions.
Students enter Columbia's MBA program in two tracks. The traditional fall term is 550 students, while the January term "J-Term" is 200 students. Students entering in the fall are divided into eight clusters of 65 students that take all first year core classes together. J-Term students are broken into three clusters; the J-Term is aimed at students who want an accelerated 18-month program who plan to return to their previous job, are company sponsored, will not pursue a summer internship because they take classes during the summer. The launched Columbia CaseWorks program utilizes the faculty’s research and industry experience and brings that perspective into the classroom through the development of new cases and teaching materials. Beginning in orientation and continuing through core classes and electives, students are immersed in cases that use faculty research to address real-world business issues. Columbia CaseWorks challenges students to debate corporate decision making and to develop appropriate recommendations and solutions.
During their first year, students study and discuss an integrated case that focuses on a
The Hill School
The Hill School is a coeducational preparatory boarding school located on a 200-acre campus. In Pottstown, about 35 mi northwest of Philadelphia; the Hill is part of the Ten Schools Admission Organization. The school is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Elementary and Secondary Schools; the Hill School was founded in 1851 by the Rev. Matthew Meigs as the Family Boarding School for Boys and Young Men. However, it has been known as the Hill School since at least 1874; the school opened on May 1851, enrolling 25 boys for the first year. According to Paul Chancellor's The History of The Hill School: 1851-1976, “He wanted to stress that he was not founding still another academy, but a type of school quite new and rare in America. There is a tendency to think that the boys’ boarding school as we know it existed as long as there have been private schools, it has not.... The Hill was the first to be founded as a "family boarding school", as opposed to boarding with families in the town.
In 1998, the school became coeducational. Each grade at The Hill is known as a form, consistent with the English schooling term. Ninth grade is called third form, tenth grade is called fourth form, so forth; the school's academic year is divided into trimesters. The Hill maintains a formal academic dress code that requires boys to wear a coat and tie and conservative trousers and girls to wear a blazer and appropriate collared dress shirt with trousers or skirt, or a conservative dress during the school day and for special events and activities. Casual academic dress and casual dress codes apply at other times. Two required nondenominational chapel services are held during the school week. Voluntary worship services are offered each weekend during the school year. In the early 20th century, The Hill was a feeder school for Princeton University; the prevalence of Hill alumni, as well as those of Lawrenceville, Hotchkiss and Phillips Academy at Princeton led F. Scott Fitzgerald to lament that it was those of'lesser' preparatory schools which were more prepared for the fray.
The admissions process was relaxed for Hill School students, with cases including George Garrett, Princeton 1952, admitted when he confessed that he liked the striped football uniforms. At one point and Hill sent more students to Princeton than all public schools combined Today, Hill alumni attend a wide variety of colleges; the Hill School offers classes in each of its nine academic departments and offers 28 Advanced Placement courses. The Hill offers classes in Chinese, Spanish, Arabic and Ancient Greek; the Hill School has had a relationship with Charterhouse School in the United Kingdom since 1994 that includes instructional trips, along with exchanges of extracurricular programs and teachers. It is linked with the Maru a Pula School in Botswana; as well, the Hill hosts a Thai King's Scholar every year. The Hill School is a participating school in the Naval Academy Foundation Prep Program. In the early days of the school, boys played shinney, town ball and cricket. Matthew Meigs was not an athlete, yet allowed sporting pursuits, unlike his contemporaries such as Samuel Taylor of Phillips Academy.
During John Meigs' tenure as headmaster and interscholastic sports began at The Hill. Tennis became the dominant sport unlike baseball at other schools; the Hill is a member of the Mid-Atlantic Prep League, which the School joined in 1998. The Hill was a charter member of the Pennsylvania Independent Schools Athletic Association, which became an sanctioned organization in 2011. In 2014, The Hill received associate membership in the New England Preparatory School Athletic Council; the Hill's rivalry with Lawrenceville dates back to 1887, is the fifth-oldest high school rivalry in the United States. An annual football game, the schools now compete against each other in all of the fall sports on either the first or second weekend in November. Peddie School maintains a "Hill Day" during which several teams from Hill and Peddie compete. Participation in athletics is considered a key part of a Hill education. All third and fourth form students are required to participate in at least two seasons of interscholastic sports, all fifth and sixth formers must play at least one interscholastic season.
Students may fulfill a season requirement by serving as team manager. The Hill has been described as different in style and spirit from its counterparts in New England, has been described as strict and demanding, it has been described as conservative. Alumnus Oliver Stone described his experience at The Hill: "I hated the Hill School at the time, it was monastic. Horrible food, no girls, it was one of those Charles Dickens’ types of experiences.. And I hated it. Years I came to appreciate it. I think the inquiry and above all the discipline, of studying and concentrating and sitting down and doing it." The Hill has been criticized, alongside other East Coast Protestant schools, for promoting "snobbish", "un-American values". E. Digby Baltzell's book The Protestant Establishment identified Hill as one of the "select sixteen" best boarding schools in the United States. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, two of the 21 richest Nouveau riche families sent their sons to The Hill; the school was used as a filming location in the 2009 movie The Mighty Macs.
Headmasters of The Hill School since its founding in 1851: The Hill School The Association o
Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California. The products and brands it produces include Fisher-Price, Monster High, Ever After High, Polly Pocket, Hot Wheels and Matchbox, Masters of the Universe, American Girl, board games, WWE. In the early 1980s, Mattel produced video game systems, under its own brands and under license from Nintendo; the company has presence in 40 countries and territories and sells products in more than 150 countries. The company operates through three business segments: North America and American Girl, it is the world's second largest toy maker in terms of revenue, after The Lego Group. In 2014, it ranked #403 on the Fortune 500 list. On January 17, 2017, Mattel named former Google executive Margo Georgiadis as CEO. Georgiadis stepped down as CEO of Mattel on April 19, 2018, her last day was on April 26, 2018. Ynon Kreiz is now the new CEO of Mattel; the name Mattel is a portmanteau of Elliot Handler, the company's founders.
Harold "Matt" Matson and Elliot Handler founded Mattel in 1945. The company sold picture frames, dollhouse furniture. Matson sold his share to Handler due to poor health, Handler's wife Ruth took Matson's role. In 1947, the company had its first hit toy, a ukulele called "Uke-A-Doodle"; the company incorporated the next year in California. Mattel became the first year-round sponsor of the Mickey Mouse Club TV series in 1955; the Barbie doll debuted in 1959. In 1960, Mattel introduced Chatty Cathy, a talking doll revolutionizing the toy industry, which led to pull-string talking dolls and toys flooding the market throughout the 1960s and 1970s; the company went public in 1960, the New York Stock Exchange listed them in 1963. Mattel acquired a number of companies during the 1960s. In 1965, the company built on its success with the Chatty Cathy doll to introduce the See'n Say talking toy, spawning a line of products, they released Hot Wheels to the market on May 18, 1968. In May 1970, Mattel formed a joint venture film production company Radnitz/Mattel Productions with producer Robert B.
Radnitz, entered a multimillion-dollar partnership with Mehra Entertainment, whose CEO, Dr. Nishpeksh Padmamohan Mehra, is one of Mattel's Inc.'s main directors for Barbie. Mattel purchased The Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1971 for $40 million from the Feld family, whom Mattel kept as management. Mattel sold the circus corporation by December 1973, despite its profit contributions, as Mattel showed a $29.9 million loss in 1972. In 1974, an investigation found Mattel guilty of issuing false and misleading financial reports, banishing Elliot and Ruth Handler from their own company. Arthur S. Spear, a Mattel vice president, took control of the company in 1975, who returned the company to profitability in 1977. Ruth Handler sold her stock in 1980; the Mattel Electronics line debuted in 1977 with an all-electronic handheld game. The success of the handheld led to the expansion of the line with game console the line becoming its own corporation in 1982. Mattel Electronics forced Mattel to take a $394 million loss in 1983 and filed for bankruptcy.
In 1979, through Feld Productions, Mattel purchased the Holiday on Ice and Ice Follies for $12 million. Acquired that year was Western Publishing for $120 million in cash and stock; the Felds bought the circus in 1982 for $22.8 million. New York venture capital firms E. M. Warburg, Pincus & Co. and Drexel Burnham Lambert invested a couple hundred million in Mattel in 1984 to help the company survive. However, the Master of the Universe action figure line sales dropped, causing a $115 million loss in 1987. Chairman John W. Amerman improved the company's financial performance in 1987 by focusing on core brands. Mattel returned to working with the Disney company in 1988. In 1991, Mattel moved its headquarters from California to El Segundo, California. Mattel entered the game business in 1992 with the purchase of International Games, maker of Uno and Skip-Bo. Mattel purchased Fisher-Price, Inc. in 1993, Tyco Toys, Inc. in 1997, Pleasant Company in 1998. Mattel sold it in 2000 at a loss; the company had a $430.9 million net loss that year.
Mattel earned the first grant for Disney Princess doll licenses in 2000. In December 2000, Mattel sued the band Aqua, saying their song "Barbie Girl" violated the Barbie trademark and turned Barbie into a sex object, referring to her as a "blonde bimbo." The lawsuit was rejected in 2002. In 2000, Mattel signed a deal with Warner Bros to became the master licensee for Harry Potter-branded toys. In 2002, the companies extended their partnership, with Mattel becoming master licensee for Batman, Justice League and the Looney Tunes toys for all markets except Asia. In 2002, Mattel closed its last factory in the United States part of the Fisher-Price division, outsourcing production to China, which began a chain of events that led to a lead contamination scandal. On August 14, 2007, Mattel recalled over 18 million products; the New York Times covered Mattel's multiple recalls. Many of the products had exceeded the US limits set on surface coatings. Surface coatings cannot exceed.06% lead by weight. Additional recalls were because it was possible that some toys could pose a danger to children due to the use of strong magnets that could detach.
Mattel re-wrote its policy on magnets issuing a recall in August 2007. The recall included 7.1 million Polly Pocket toys produced before November 2006, 600,0
History of the Jews in Russia
Jews in Russia have constituted a large religious diaspora. Within these territories the Ashkenazi Jewish communities of many different areas flourished and developed many of modern Judaism's most distinctive theological and cultural traditions, while facing periods of anti-Semitic discriminatory policies and persecutions; the largest group among Russian Jews are Ashkenazi Jews, but the community includes a significant proportion of other non-Ashkenazi Diasporan Jewish groups, such as Mountain Jews, Sephardic Jews, Crimean Karaites, Bukharan Jews, Georgian Jews. The presence of Jewish people in the European part of Russia can be traced to the 7th–14th centuries CE. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Jewish population in Kiev, in present-day Ukraine, was restricted to a separate quarter. Evidence of the presence of Jewish people in Muscovite Russia is first documented in the chronicles of 1471. During the reign of Catherine II in the 18th century, Jewish people were restricted to the Pale of Settlement within Russia, the territory where they could live or immigrate to.
Alexander III escalated anti-Jewish policies. Beginning in the 1880s, waves of anti-Jewish pogroms swept across different regions of the empire for several decades. More than two million Jews fled Russia between 1880 and 1920 to the United States and what is today the State of Israel; the Pale of Settlement took away many of the rights that the Jewish people of the late 17th century Russia were experiencing. At this time, the Jewish people were restricted to an area of what is current day Belarus, eastern Poland and Ukraine. Where Western Europe was experiencing emancipation at this time, the laws for the Jewish people were getting more strict; the general attitude towards Jewish people was to look down on the people. It was as a race, something that one could not escape if they tried; the Jewish people were allowed to move further east towards a less crowded population. This was a small change, did not come to all Jewish people, not a small minority of them. In this more spread out area, the Jewish people lived in communities, known as Schtetls.
These communities were similar to what would be known as ghettos in World War II, with the cramped and subpar living conditions. Before 1917 there were 300,000 Zionists in Russia, while the main Jewish socialist organization, the Bund, had 33,000 members. Only 958 Jews had joined the Bolshevik Party before 1917; the chaotic years of World War I, the February and October Revolutions, the Russian Civil War had created social disruption that led to anti-Semitism. Some 150,000 Jews were killed in the pogroms of 1918–1922, 125,000 of them in Ukraine, 25,000 in Belarus; the pogroms were perpetrated by anti-communist forces. After a short period of confusion, the Soviets started executing guilty individuals and disbanding the army units whose men had attacked Jews. Although pogroms were still perpetrated after this by Ukrainian units of the Red Army during its retreat from Poland, in general, the Jews regarded the Red Army as the only force, able and willing to defend them; the Russian Civil War pogroms shocked world Jewry and rallied many Jews to the Red Army and the Soviet regime, strengthened the desire for the creation of a homeland for the Jewish people.
In August 1919 the Soviet government arrested many rabbis, seized Jewish properties, including synagogues, dissolved many Jewish communities. The Jewish section of the Communist Party labeled the use of the Hebrew language "reactionary" and "elitist" and the teaching of Hebrew was banned. Zionists were persecuted harshly, with Jewish communists leading the attacks. Following the civil war, the new Bolshevik government's policies produced a flourishing of secular Jewish culture in Belarus and western Ukraine in the 1920s; the Soviet government outlawed all expressions of anti-Semitism, with the public use of the ethnic slur жид being punished by up to one year of imprisonment, tried to modernize the Jewish community by establishing 1,100 Yiddish-language schools, 40 Yiddish-language daily newspapers and by settling Jews on farms in Ukraine and Crimea. At the beginning of the 1930s, the Jews were 1.8 percent of the Soviet population but 12–15 percent of all university students. In 1934 the Soviet state established the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Russian Far East, but the region never came to have a majority Jewish population.
Today, the JAO is Russia's only autonomous oblast and, outside of Israel, the world's only Jewish territory with an official status. The observance of the Sabbath was banned in 1929, foreshadowing the dissolution of the Communist Party's Yiddish-language Yevsektsia in 1930 and worse repression to come. Numerous Jews were victimized in Stalin's purges as "counterrevolutionaries" and "reactionary nationalists", although in the 1930s the Jews were underrepresented in the Gulag population; the share of Jews in the Soviet ruling elite declined during the 1930s, but was still more than double their proportion in the general Soviet population. According to Israeli historian Benjamin Pinkus, "We can say that the Jews in the Soviet Union took over the privileged position held by the Germans in tsarist Russia". In the 1930s, many Jews held high rank in the Red Army High Command: Generals Iona Yakir, Yan Gamarnik, Yakov Smushkevich and Grigori Shtern (Commander-in-Chief in the war against Japan