Paul Goodman was an American novelist, poet, literary critic, psychotherapist, although now best known as a social critic and anarchist philosopher. Though thought of as a sociologist, he vehemently denied being one in a presentation in the Experimental College at San Francisco State in 1964, in fact said he could not read sociology because it was too lifeless; the author of dozens of books including Growing Up Absurd and The Community of Scholars, Goodman was an activist on the pacifist Left in the 1960s and a cited inspiration to the student movement of that decade. A lay therapist for a number of years, he was a co-founder of Gestalt therapy in the 1940s and 1950s. Paul Goodman was born to Augusta and Barnett Goodman, Americans of German and middle-class heritage, on September 9, 1911 in New York City, his father left the family prior to his birth, making Paul their fourth and last child, after Alice and Percival. Their mother worked to support the family as a women's clothes traveling saleswoman, which left Goodman to be raised by his aunts and sister in New York City.
His brother Percival Goodman, with whom Paul collaborated, was an architect noted for his many synagogue designs. As a child, Goodman roamed the streets and public libraries of his native New York City, experiences which inspired his radical concept of "the educative city." Goodman attended New York City public schools, where he was a "good student" and came to associate himself with Manhattan. He went to Hebrew school. Goodman performed well in literature and languages during his time at Townsend Harris Hall High School, graduated first in his class in 1927, he started at City College of New York the same year, where Goodman majored in philosophy, was influenced by philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen, found an intellectual circle of what would be lifelong friends. He graduated with a bachelor's in 1931. Goodman wanted to make a career as a writer and so lived with his sister Alice while writing poems and stories, he did not keep a regular job, but taught drama at a Zionist youth camp during the summers 1934 through 1936, audited Columbia University graduate philosophy classes.
In 1936, Goodman became a philosophy graduate student at the University of Chicago. He served as a research assistant and part-time instructor before taking his prelims in literature in 1940. Goodman was an active bisexual by this part of his life, though he entered a common law marriage with Virginia Miller between 1938 and 1943 and begat a daughter, Susan, in 1939. In 1940, Goodman was removed from his University of Chicago faculty position for issues pertaining to his open bisexuality and affairs with students. In 1940, he was published in Partisan Review, his first novel, The Grand Piano was published in 1942, he and Virginia Miller split in 1943. He taught at Manumit, a progressive boarding school, in 1943 and 1944 and was let go for "homosexual behavior." Goodman was rejected from the World War II draft. In 1945, he published a book of stories as The Facts of Life and appeared in libertarian journals such as politics, Why?, Retort as he started to develop his thoughts on anarchism. The same year, Goodman started what would become a 27-year common law marriage with Sally Duchsten, a secretary, that would last until his death.
Their son, Mathew Ready, was born in 1946. In 1946, Goodman began to participate in psychoanalytic therapy and was a popular yet "marginal" figure in New York bohemia, he published the novel The State of Nature and a book of anarchist and aesthetic essays and Social Nature. The next year, he published Communitas, a book on urban planning written with his brother Percival, the academic book Kafka's Prayer, he spent 1948 and 1949 writing in New York and published The Break-Up of Our Camp, stories from his experience working at summer camp. In the early 1950s, he continued with his psychoanalytic sessions and began his own occasional practice, which he continued through 1960, he published Gestalt Therapy with Fritz Perls and Ralph Hefferline in 1951. He continued to write and published two novels: the 1950 The Dead of Spring and the 1951 Parent's Day. Goodman was dismissed for reasons related to his bisexuality, he returned to his writing and therapy practice in New York City in 1951 and finished his University of Chicago literature dissertation, The Structure of Literature, in 1954.
Throughout the late 1950s, Goodman continued to publish in journals including Commentary, Dissent and The Kenyon Review. The Living Theatre staged his theatrical work. A comprehensive edition of Goodman's multi-volume novel The Empire City was published in 1959. Goodman became famous with his 1960 social criticism book Growing Up Absurd, which in turn brought him wealth and academic opportunities, he purchased a farm outside of New Hampshire, which he used as an occasional home. In the next decade, he published multiple books of social criticism and literature while teaching in a variety of academic institutions, he first taught at Sarah Lawrence College and published Our Visit to Niagara, a collection of sketch stories. In 1962, he released his critique of academia, collections of both his poetry and his previous articles. Goodman became a Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies, he published his "memoir-novel" Making Do that year, followed by Compulsory Mis-ed
Delmore Schwartz was an American poet and short story writer. Schwartz was born in 1913 in Brooklyn, New York, where he grew up, his parents and Rose, both Romanian Jews, separated when Schwartz was nine, their divorce had a profound effect on him. He had Kenneth. In 1930, Schwartz's father died at the age of 49. Though Harry had accumulated a good deal of wealth from his dealings in the real estate business, Delmore inherited only a small amount of that money as the result of the shady dealings of the executor of Harry's estate. According to Schwartz's biographer, James Atlas, "Delmore continued to hope that he would receive his legacy as late as 1946."Schwartz spent time at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin before graduating with a B. A. from New York University in 1935. He did some graduate work in philosophy at Harvard University, where he studied with the philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, but left and returned to New York without receiving a degree. In 1937, he married Gertrude Buckman, a book reviewer for Partisan Review, whom he divorced after six years.
Soon thereafter, he made his parents' disastrous marriage the subject of his most famous short story, "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities", published in 1937 in the first issue of Partisan Review. This story and other short stories and poems became his first book titled In Dreams Begin Responsibilities, published in 1938 when Schwartz was only 25 years old; the book was well received, made him a well-known figure in New York intellectual circles. His work received praise from some of the most respected people in literature, including T. S. Eliot, William Carlos Williams, Ezra Pound, Schwartz was considered one of the most gifted and promising young writers of his generation. According to James Atlas, Allen Tate responded to the book by stating that " poetic style marked'the first real innovation we've had since Eliot and Pound.'"For the next couple of decades, he continued to publish stories, poems and essays, edited the Partisan Review from 1943 to 1955, as well as The New Republic. Schwartz was upset when his epic poem, which he published in 1943 and hoped would stand alongside other Modernist epics like The Waste Land and The Cantos as a masterpiece, received a negative critical response.
In 1948, he married the much younger novelist, Elizabeth Pollet. This relationship ended in divorce. In 1959, he became the youngest-ever recipient of the Bollingen Prize, awarded for a collection of poetry he published that year, Summer Knowledge: New and Selected Poems, his poetry differed from his stories in that it was more philosophical. His verse became abstract in his years, he taught creative writing at six universities, including Syracuse and Kenyon College. In addition to being known as a gifted writer, Schwartz was considered a great conversationalist and spent much time entertaining friends at the White Horse Tavern in New York City. Much of Schwartz's work is notable for its philosophical and meditative nature, the literary critic, R. W. Flint, wrote that Schwartz's stories were "the definitive portrait of the Jewish middle class in New York during the Depression." In particular, Schwartz emphasized the large divide that existed between his generation and his parents' generation. In another take on Schwartz's fiction, Morris Dickstein wrote that "Schwartz’s best stories are either poker-faced satirical takes on the bohemians and outright failures of his generation, as in'The World Is a Wedding' and'New Year’s Eve,' or chronicles of the distressed lives of his parents’ generation, for whom the promise of American life has not panned out."A selection of his short stories was published posthumously in 1978 under the title In Dreams Begin Responsibilities and Other Stories and was edited by James Atlas who had written a biography of Schwartz, Delmore Schwartz: The Life of An American Poet, two years earlier.
Another collection of Schwartz's work, Screeno: Stories & Poems, was published in 2004. This collection contained fewer stories than In Dreams Begin Responsibilities and Other Stories but it included a selection of some of Schwartz's best-known poems like "The Heavy Bear Who Goes With Me" and "In The Naked Bed, In Plato's Cave". Screeno featured an introduction by the fiction writer and essayist, Cynthia Ozick. Schwartz was unable to repeat or build on his early successes in life as a result of alcoholism and mental illness, his last years were spent in seclusion at the Chelsea Hotel in New York City. In fact, Schwartz was so isolated from the rest of the world that when he died in his hotel room on July 11, 1966, at age 52, of a heart attack, two days passed before his body was identified at the morgue. Schwartz was interred in Emerson, New Jersey. One of the earliest tributes to Schwartz came from Schwartz's friend, fellow poet Robert Lowell, who published the poem "To Delmore Schwartz" in 1959 in the book Life Studies.
In it, Lowell reminisces about the time that the two poets lived together in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1946, writing that they were "underseas fellows, nobly mad,/ we talked away our friends."Schwartz's former student at Syracuse University, Lou Reed, was the singer and principle songwriter for the band the Velvet Underground. Wanting to dedicate a song to Schwartz on their debut album The Velvet Underground and Nico Reed chose "European Son" as it had the fewest lyrics.
Lucien Carr was a key member of the original New York City circle of the Beat Generation in the 1940s. Carr was born in New York City. After his parents separated in 1930, young Lucien and his mother moved back to St. Louis. At the age of 12, Carr met David Kammerer, a man who would have a profound influence on the course of his life. Kammerer was a teacher of English and a physical education instructor at Washington University in St. Louis. Kammerer was a childhood friend of William S. Burroughs, another scion of St. Louis wealth who knew the Carr family. Burroughs and Kammerer had gone to primary school together, as young men they traveled together and explored Paris's nightlife: Burroughs said Kammerer "was always funny, the veritable life of the party, without any middle-class morality." Kammerer met Carr when he was leading a Boy Scout Troop of which Carr was a member, became infatuated with the teenager. Over the next five years, Kammerer pursued Carr, showing up wherever the young man was enrolled at school.
Carr would insist, as would his friends and family, that Kammerer had been hounding Carr sexually with a predatory persistence that would today be considered stalking. Whether Kammerer's attentions were frightening or flattering to the younger man is now a matter of some debate among those who chronicle the history of the Beat Generation. What is not in dispute is that Carr moved from school to school: from the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, to Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, to the University of Chicago, that Kammerer followed him to each one; the two of them socialized on occasion. Carr always insisted, Burroughs believed, that he never had sex with Kammerer, he explained away this act as a "work of art," but the apparent suicide attempt, which Carr's family believed was catalyzed by Kammerer, led to a two-week stay in the psychiatric ward at Cook County hospital. Carr's mother, who had by this time moved to New York City, brought her son there and enrolled him at Columbia University, close to her own home.
If Marion Carr was seeking to protect her son from David Kammerer, she did not succeed. Kammerer soon quit his job and followed Carr to New York, moving into an apartment on Morton Street in the West Village. William Burroughs moved to New York, to an apartment a block away from Kammerer; the two older men remained friends. As a freshman at Columbia, Carr was recognized as an exceptional student with a roving mind. A fellow student from Lionel Trilling's humanities class described him as "stunningly brilliant.... It seemed as if he and Trilling were having a private conversation." He joined the Philolexian Society. It was at Columbia that Carr befriended Allen Ginsberg in the Union Theological Seminary dormitory on West 122nd Street, when Ginsberg knocked on the door to find out, playing a recording of a Brahms trio. Soon after, a young woman Carr had befriended, Edie Parker, introduced Carr to her boyfriend, Jack Kerouac twenty-two and nearing the end of his short career as a sailor. Carr, in turn, introduced Ginsberg and Kerouac to one another – and both of them to his older friend with more first-hand experience at decadence: William Burroughs.
The core of the New York Beat scene had formed, with Carr at the center. As Ginsberg put it, "Lou was the glue." Carr, Kerouac and Burroughs explored New York's grimier underbelly together. It was at this time that they fell in with Herbert Huncke, an underworld character and writer and poet. Carr had a taste for provocative behavior, for bawdy songs and for coarse antics aimed at shocking those with staid middle-class values. According to Kerouac, Carr once convinced him to get into an empty beer keg, which Carr rolled down Broadway. Ginsberg wrote in his journal at the time: "Know these words, you speak the Carr language: fruit, clitoris, feces, womb, Rimbaud." It was Carr who first introduced Ginsberg to the poetry and the story of 19th century French poet Arthur Rimbaud. Rimbaud would be a major influence on Ginsberg's poetry. Ginsberg was plainly fascinated by Carr, whom he viewed as a self-destructive egotist but as a possessor of real genius. Fellow students saw Carr as talented and dissolute, a prank-loving late-night reveler who haunted the dark pockets of Chelsea and Greenwich Village until dawn, without making a dent in his brilliant performance in the classroom.
On one occasion, asked why he was carrying a jar of jam across the campus, Carr explained that he was "going on a date." Returning to his dorm in the early hours another morning to find that his bed had been short-sheeted, Carr retaliated by spraying the rooms of his dorm-mates with the hallway fire-hose – while they were still sleeping. Carr developed what he called the "New Vision," a thesis recycled from Emersonian transcendentalism and Paris Bohemianism which helped undergird the Beats' creative rebellion: Naked self-expression is the seed of creativity; the artist's consciousness is expanded by derangement of the senses. Art eludes conv
Irwin Allen Ginsberg was an American poet and writer. He is considered to be one of the leading figures of both the Beat Generation during the 1950s and the counterculture that soon followed, he vigorously opposed militarism, economic materialism, sexual repression and was known as embodying various aspects of this counterculture, such as his views on drugs, hostility to bureaucracy and openness to Eastern religions. He was one of many influential American writers of his time known as the Beat Generation, which included famous writers such as Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs. Ginsberg is best known for his poem "Howl", in which he denounced what he saw as the destructive forces of capitalism and conformity in the United States. In 1956, "Howl" was seized by US Customs. In 1957, it attracted widespread publicity when it became the subject of an obscenity trial, as it described heterosexual and homosexual sex at a time when sodomy laws made homosexual acts a crime in every U. S. state. "Howl" reflected Ginsberg's own bisexuality and his relationships with a number of men, including Peter Orlovsky, his lifelong partner.
Judge Clayton W. Horn ruled that "Howl" was not obscene, adding, "Would there be any freedom of press or speech if one must reduce his vocabulary to vapid innocuous euphemisms?"Ginsberg was a practicing Buddhist who studied Eastern religious disciplines extensively. He lived modestly, buying his clothing in second-hand stores and residing in downscale apartments in New York's East Village. One of his most influential teachers was the Tibetan Buddhist Chögyam Trungpa, the founder of the Naropa Institute in Boulder, Colorado. At Trungpa's urging and poet Anne Waldman started The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics there in 1974. Ginsberg took part in decades of non-violent political protest against everything from the Vietnam War to the War on Drugs, his poem "September on Jessore Road", calling attention to the plight of Bangladeshi refugees, exemplifies what the literary critic Helen Vendler described as Ginsberg's tireless persistence in protesting against "imperial politics, persecution of the powerless."His collection The Fall of America shared the annual U.
S. National Book Award for Poetry in 1974. In 1979, he received the National Arts Club gold medal and was inducted into the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Ginsberg was a Pulitzer Prize finalist in 1995 for his book Cosmopolitan Greetings: Poems 1986–1992. Ginsberg was born into a Jewish family in Newark, New Jersey, grew up in nearby Paterson; as a young teenager, Ginsberg began to write letters to The New York Times about political issues, such as World War II and workers' rights. While in high school, Ginsberg began reading Walt Whitman, inspired by his teacher's passionate reading. In 1943, Ginsberg graduated from Eastside High School and attended Montclair State College before entering Columbia University on a scholarship from the Young Men's Hebrew Association of Paterson. In 1945, he joined the Merchant Marine to earn money to continue his education at Columbia. While at Columbia, Ginsberg contributed to the Columbia Review literary journal, the Jester humor magazine, won the Woodberry Poetry Prize, served as president of the Philolexian Society, joined Boar's Head Society.
Ginsberg has stated that he considered his required freshman seminar in Great Books, taught by Lionel Trilling, to be his favorite Columbia course. According to The Poetry Foundation, Ginsberg spent several months in a mental institution after he pleaded insanity during a hearing, he was being prosecuted for harboring stolen goods in his dorm room. It belonged to an acquaintance. Ginsberg referred to his parents, in a 1985 interview, as "old-fashioned delicatessen philosophers", his father, Louis Ginsberg, was a high school teacher. Ginsberg's mother, Naomi Livergant Ginsberg, was affected by a psychological illness, never properly diagnosed, she was an active member of the Communist Party and took Ginsberg and his brother Eugene to party meetings. Ginsberg said that his mother "made up bedtime stories that all went something like:'The good king rode forth from his castle, saw the suffering workers and healed them.'" Of his father Ginsberg said "My father would go around the house either reciting Emily Dickinson and Longfellow under his breath or attacking T. S. Eliot for ruining poetry with his'obscurantism.'
I grew suspicious of both sides."Naomi Ginsberg's mental illness manifested as paranoid delusions. She would claim, for example, that the president had implanted listening devices in their home and that her mother-in-law was trying to kill her, her suspicion of those around her caused Naomi to draw closer to young Allen, "her little pet", as Bill Morgan says in his biography of Ginsberg, titled, I Celebrate Myself: The Somewhat Private Life of Allen Ginsberg. She tried to kill herself by slitting her wrists and was soon taken to Greystone, a mental hospital, his experiences with his mother and her mental illness were a major inspiration for his two major works, "Howl" and his long autobiographical poem "Kaddish for Naomi Ginsberg". When he was in junior high school, he accompanied his mother by bus to her therapist; the trip disturbed Ginsberg – he mentioned it and other moments from his childhood in "Kaddish". His experiences with his mother's mental illness and her institutionalization are frequently referred to in "Howl".
For example, "Pilgrim State and Grey Stone's foetid halls" is a reference to institutions frequented by his mother and Carl Solomon
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
John Hollander was an American poet and literary critic. At the time of his death, he was Sterling Professor Emeritus of English at Yale University, having taught at Connecticut College, Hunter College, the Graduate Center, CUNY. Hollander was born in Manhattan, to Muriel and Franklin Hollander, Jewish immigrant parents, he attended the Bronx High School of Science and Columbia College of Columbia University, where he studied under Mark Van Doren and Lionel Trilling, overlapped with Allen Ginsberg, Jason Epstein, Richard Howard, Robert Gottlieb, Roone Arledge, Max Frankel, Louis Simpson and Steven Marcus. At Columbia, he joined the Boar's Head Society. After graduating, he supported himself for a while writing liner notes for classical music albums before returning to obtain a Ph. D. in literature. Hollander resided in Woodbridge, where he served as a judge for several high-school recitation contests, said he enjoyed working with students on their poetry and teaching it. With his ex-wife, Anne Loesser, he was the father of writer Martha Hollander and uncle of the songwriter Sam Hollander.
He married Natalie Charkow in 1981. Hollander died at Branford, Connecticut, on August 17, 2013, at the age of 83. Hollander stressed the importance of hearing poems out loud:'A good poem satisfies the ear, it creates a picture that grabs you, informs you and entertains you. The poet needing to be aware of the "sound of sense. To Hollander, verse was a kind of music in words, he spoke eloquently about their connection with the human voice. Known for his translations from Yiddish. Hollander wrote his poems on a computer, but if inspiration struck him, he offered that, "I've been known to start poems on napkins and scraps of paper, too."Hollander was considered to have technical poetic powers without equal, as exampled by his "Powers of Thirteen" poem, an extended sequence of 169 unrhymed 13-line stanzas with 13 syllables in each line. These constraints liberated rather than inhibited Hollander's imagination, giving a fusion of metaphors that enabled Hollander to conceive this work as "a perpetual calendar".
Hollander composed poems as "graphematic" emblems and epistolary poems exampled in and, as a critic, offered telling insights into the relationship between words and music and sound in poetry, in metrical experimentation, and'the lack of a theory of graphic prosody'. Hollander influenced poet Karl Kirchwey. Hollander taught him. Kirchwey recalled Hollander's passion:'Since he is a poet himself... he conveyed a passion for that knowledge as a source of current inspiration.' Hollander served in the following positions, among others: member of the board, Wesleyan University Press. And commenced his other role as a poetry critic. Hollander's poetry has been set to music by Milton Babbitt, Elliott Carter, others. 2006: Appointed Poet Laureate of the State of Connecticut 2006: Robert Fitzgerald Prosody Award 2002: Philolexian Award for Distinguished Literary Achievement 1990: MacArthur Fellowship 1983: Bollingen Prize for Powers of Thirteen. 1979: elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters Department of Literature 1958: Yale Series of Younger Poets for his first book of poems, A Crackling of Thorns, chosen by W. H. Auden.
A Crackling of Thorns poems The Untuning of the Sky The Wind and the Rain editor with Harold Bloom Movie-Going poems Philomel "cantata text" for the composition of the same name by American composer Milton Babbitt Visions from the Ramble poems Jiggery-Pokery: A Compendium of Double Dactyls with Anthony Hecht Types of Shape poems Images of Voice criticism The Night Mirror poems Town and Country Matters poems The Head of the Bed poems Tales Told of the Fathers poems Vision and Resonance criticism Reflections on Espionage poems Spectral Emanations: New and Selected Poems Blue Wine poems The Figure of Echo criticism Rhyme's Reason: A Guide to English Verse manual of prosody Powers of Thirteen poems In Time and Place poems Harp Lake poems Melodious Guile: Fictive Pattern in Poetic Language Some Fugitives Take Cover poems Tesserae and Other Poems Selected Poetry Animal Poems poems The Gazer's Spirit: Poems Speaking to Silent Works of Art criticism The Work of Poetry criticism Figurehead and Other Poems poems Picture Window American Wits: An Anthology of Light Verse, editor The Oxford Anthology of English Literature, American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century, editor Poems Bewitched and Haunted editor A Draft of Light, poems Sonnets.
From Dante to the present, Everyman's library pocket poets. Review of'Stanley Cavell and the Claim of Reason' J. D. McClatchy. "John Hollander, The Art of Poetry No. 35". The Paris Review. Brief biography John Hollander at Random House Paul Devlin Interview with John Hollander Curiosities - Quest of the Gole by Bud Webster at F&SF Problems of Graphic order