The USENIX Association is the Advanced Computing Systems Association. It was founded in 1975 under the name "Unix Users Group," focusing on the study and development of Unix and similar systems. In June 1977, a lawyer from AT&T Corporation informed the group that they could not use the word UNIX as it was a trademark of Western Electric, which led to the change of name to USENIX, it has since grown into a respected organization among practitioners and researchers of computer operating systems more generally. Since its founding, it has published a technical journal entitled. USENIX was started as a technical organization; as commercial interest grew, a number of separate groups started in parallel, most notably the Software Tools Users Group, a technical adjunct for Unix-like tools and interface on non-Unix operating systems, /usr/group, a commercially oriented user group. USENIX has a special interest group for system administrators, LISA SAGE, it sponsors several conferences and workshops each year, most notably the USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, the USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, the USENIX Annual Technical Conference, the USENIX Security Symposium, the USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies, with LISA, the Large Installation System Administration Conference.
USENIX's founding President was Lou Katz. USENIX became the first computing association to provide open access to their conference and workshop papers in 2008; as of 2013, it remains the only one to have done so. Since 2011, they have included audio and video recordings of paper presentations in their open-access materials; this award called the "Flame" award, has been presented since 1993. 2018 Eddie Kohler 2014 Thomas E. Anderson 2012 John Mashey 2011 Dan Geer 2010 Ward Cunningham 2009 Gerald J. Popek 2008 Andrew S. Tanenbaum 2007 Peter Honeyman 2006 Radia Perlman 2005 Michael Stonebraker 2004 M. Douglas McIlroy 2003 Rick Adams 2002 James Gosling 2001 The GNU Project and all its contributors 2000 W. Richard Stevens 1999 "The X Window System Community at Large" 1998 Tim Berners-Lee 1997 Brian W. Kernighan 1996 The Software Tools Users Group 1995 The Creation of USENET by Jim Ellis, Steven M. Bellovin, Tom Truscott 1994 Networking Technologies 1993 Berkeley UNIX AUUG LISA Marshall Kirk McKusick LISA SIG: Formerly SAGE Unix USENIX: The Advanced Computing Systems Association LISA: The USENIX SIG for Sysadmins Official USENIX YouTube Channel
Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum, sometimes referred to by the handle ast, is an American-Dutch computer scientist and professor emeritus of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands. He is best known as the author of MINIX, a free Unix-like operating system for teaching purposes, for his computer science textbooks, regarded as standard texts in the field, he regards his teaching job as his most important work. Since 2004 he has operated Electoral-vote.com, a website dedicated to analysis of polling data in federal elections in the United States. Tanenbaum grew up in suburban White Plains, New York, he is Jewish. His paternal grandfather was born in Khorostkiv in the Austro-Hungarian empire, he received his bachelor of Science degree in Physics from MIT in 1965 and his Ph. D. degree in astrophysics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1971. Tanenbaum served as a lobbyist for the Sierra Club, he moved to the Netherlands to live with his wife, Dutch, but he retains his United States citizenship.
He teaches courses about Computer Organization and Operating Systems and supervises the work of Ph. D. candidates at the VU University Amsterdam. On 9 July 2014, he announced his retirement. Tanenbaum is well recognized for his textbooks on computer science, they include: Computer Networks, co-authored with David J. Wetherall Operating Systems: Design and Implementation, co-authored with Albert Woodhull Modern Operating Systems Distributed Operating Systems Structured Computer Organization Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms, co-authored with Maarten van SteenHis book, Operating Systems: Design and Implementation and MINIX were Linus Torvalds' inspiration for the Linux kernel. In his autobiography Just for Fun, Torvalds describes it as "the book that launched me to new heights", his books have been translated into many languages including Arabic, Bulgarian, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Italian, Korean, Mexican Spanish, Polish, Romanian, Russian and Spanish. They are used at universities around the world.
Tanenbaum has had a number of Ph. D. students who themselves have gone on to become known computer science researchers. These include: Henri Bal, professor at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam Frans Kaashoek, professor at MIT Sape Mullender, researcher at Bell Labs Robbert van Renesse, professor at Cornell University Leendert van Doorn, distinguished engineer at the Microsoft Corporation Werner Vogels, Chief Technology Officer at Amazon.com In the early 1990s, the Dutch government began setting up a number of thematically oriented research schools that spanned multiple universities. These schools were intended to bring professors and Ph. D. students from different Dutch universities together to help them cooperate and enhance their research. Tanenbaum was one of the cofounders and first Dean of the Advanced School for Computing and Imaging; this school consisted of nearly 200 faculty members and Ph. D. students from the Vrije Universiteit, University of Amsterdam, Delft University of Technology, Leiden University.
They were working on problems in advanced computer systems such as parallel computing and image analysis and processing. Tanenbaum remained dean for 12 years, until 2005, when he was awarded an Academy Professorship by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, at which time he became a full-time research professor. ASCI has since grown to include researchers from nearly a dozen universities in The Netherlands and France. ASCI offers Ph. D. level courses, has an annual conference, runs various workshops every year. The Amsterdam Compiler Kit is a toolkit for producing portable compilers, it was started sometime before 1981 and Andrew Tanenbaum was the architect from the start until version 5.5. In 1987, Tanenbaum wrote a clone of UNIX, called MINIX, for the IBM PC, it was targeted at others who wanted to learn how an operating system worked. He wrote a book that listed the source code in an appendix and described it in detail in the text; the source code itself was available on a set of floppy disks.
Within three months, a Usenet newsgroup, comp.os.minix, had sprung up with over 40,000 subscribers discussing and improving the system. One of these subscribers was a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds who began adding new features to MINIX and tailoring it to his own needs. On October 5, 1991, Torvalds announced his own kernel, called Linux, which used the MINIX file system but is not based on MINIX code. Although MINIX and Linux have diverged, MINIX continues to be developed, now as a production system as well as an educational one; the focus is on building a modular and secure operating system. The system is based with only 5000 lines of code running in kernel mode; the rest of the operating system runs as a number of independent processes in user mode, including processes for the file system, process manager, each device driver. The system continuously monitors each of these processes, when a failure is detected is capable of automatically replacing the failed process without a reboot, without disturbing running programs, without the user noticing.
MINIX 3, as the current version is called, is available under the BSD license for free. Tanenbaum has been involved in numerous other research projects in the areas of operating systems, distributed systems, ubiquitous computing as supervisor of Ph. D. students or a postdoctoral researcher. These projects include: Amoeba Globe Ma
Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah. Its most significant product was the multi-platform network operating system known as Novell NetWare, which became the dominant form of personal computer networking during the second half of the 1980s and first half of the 1990s. Novell technology contributed to the emergence of local area networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe computing model and changed computing worldwide. Novell became instrumental in making Utah Valley a focus for software development. Under the leadership of founder Ray Noorda, during the early- to mid-1990s Novell attempted to compete directly with Microsoft by acquiring Digital Research, Unix System Laboratories, WordPerfect, the Quattro Pro division of Borland; these moves did not work out, NetWare began losing market share once Microsoft bundled network services with the Windows NT operating system and its successors. Despite new products such as Novell Directory Services and GroupWise, Novell entered a long period of decline.
Novell acquired SUSE Linux and attempted to refocus its technology base. The company was an independent corporate entity until it was acquired as a wholly owned subsidiary by The Attachmate Group in 2011, which in turn was acquired in 2014 by Micro Focus International. Novell products and technologies are now integrated within various Micro Focus divisions; the company began in 1979 in Orem, Utah as Novell Data Systems Inc. a hardware manufacturer producing CP/M-based systems. Former Eyring Research Institute employee Dennis Fairclough was a member of the original team, it was co-founded by George Canova, Darin Field, Jack Davis. Victor V. Vurpillat brought the deal to Pete Musser, chairman of the board of Safeguard Scientifics, Inc. who provided the seed funding. The company did not do well; the microcomputer produced by the company was comparatively weak against performance by competitors. In order to compete on systems sales Novell Data Systems planned a program to link more than one microcomputer to operate together.
The former ERI employees Drew Major, Dale Neibaur and Kyle Powell, known as the SuperSet Software group, were hired to this task. At ERI, Major and Powell had worked on government contracts for the Intelligent Systems Technology Project, thereby gained an important insight into the ARPANET and related technologies, ideas which would become crucial to the foundation of Novell; the Safeguard board ordered Musser to shut Novell down. Musser contacted two Safeguard investors and investment bankers, Barry Rubenstein and Fred Dolin, who guaranteed to raise the necessary funds to continue the business as a software company as Novell Data Systems' networking program could work on computers from other companies. Davis left Novell Data Systems in November 1981, followed by Canova in March 1982. Rubinstein and Dolin, along with Jack Messman and hired Raymond Noorda; the required funding was obtained through a rights offering to Safeguard shareholders, managed by the Cleveland brokerage house, Prescott and Turben, guaranteed by Rubenstein and Dolin.
Major and Powell continued to support Novell through their SuperSet Software Group. In January 1983, the company's name was shortened to "Novell, Inc.", Noorda became the head of the firm. That same year, the company introduced its most significant product, the multi-platform network operating system, Novell NetWare; the first Novell product was a proprietary hardware server based on the Motorola 68000 CPU supporting six MUX ports per board for a maximum of four boards per server using a star topology with twisted pair cabling. A network interface card was developed for the IBM PC industry standard architecture bus; the server was using the first network operating system called ShareNet. ShareNet was ported to run on the Intel platform and renamed NetWare; the first commercial release of NetWare was version 1.5. Novell based its network protocol on Xerox Network Systems, created its own standards from IDP and SPP, which it named Internetwork Packet Exchange and Sequenced Packet Exchange. File and print services ran on the NetWare Core Protocol over IPX, as did Routing Information Protocol and Service Advertising Protocol.
Novell had acquired Kanwal Rekhi's company Excelan in 1989, which manufactured smart Ethernet cards and commercialized the Internet protocol TCP/IP, solidifying Novell's presence in these niche areas. Novell did well throughout the 1980s, it aggressively expanded its market share by selling its expensive Ethernet cards at cost. By 1990, Novell had an monopolistic position in NOS for any business requiring a network. With this market leadership, Novell began to acquire and build services on top of its NetWare operating platform; these services extended NetWare's capabilities with such products as NetWare for SAA, Novell multi-protocol router, GroupWise and BorderManager. However, Novell was diversifying, moving away from its smaller users to target large corporations, although the company attempted to refocus with NetWare for Small Business, it reduced investment in research and was slow to improve the product administration tools, although it was helped by the fact its products needed little "tweaking" — they just ran.
Under Noorda, Novell made a series of acquisitions interpreted by many to be a challenge to Microsoft. Novell acquired Digital Research in June 1991. NetWare used DR DOS as a boot loader and maintenance platform, Novell intended to extend its desktop presence by integrating networking into DR DOS and providing an alternative to Microsoft's Windows. At first, the idea was to provide a graphical environment based on
Version 6 Unix
Sixth Edition Unix called Version 6 Unix or just V6, was the first version of the Unix operating system to see wide release outside Bell Labs. It was released in May 1975 and, like its direct predecessor, targeted the DEC PDP-11 family of minicomputers, it was superseded by Version 7 Unix in 1978/1979, although V6 systems remained in regular operation until at least 1985. AT&T Corporation licensed Version 5 Unix to educational institutions only, but licensed Version 6 to commercial users for $20,000, it remained the most used version into the 1980s. An enhanced V6 was the basis of the first commercially sold Unix version, INTERACTIVE's IS/1. Bell's own PWB/UNIX 1.0 was based on V6, where earlier versions were based on V4 and V5. Whitesmiths marketed a V6 clone under the name Idris; the code for the original V6 Unix has been made available under a BSD License from the SCO Group. Since source code was available and the license was not explicit enough to forbid it, V6 was taken up as a teaching tool, notably by the University of California, Johns Hopkins University and the University of New South Wales.
UC Berkeley distributed a set of add-on programs called the First Berkeley Software Distribution or 1BSD, which became a full-fledged operating system distribution. UNSW professor John Lions' famous Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition was an edited selection of the main parts of the kernel as implemented for a Digital PDP-11/40, was the main source of kernel documentation for many early Unix developers. Due to license restrictions on Unix versions, the book was distributed by samizdat photo-copying. In 1977, Richard Miller and Ross Nealon, working under the supervision of professor Juris Reinfelds at Wollongong University, completed a port of V6 Unix to the Interdata 7/32, thus proving the portability of Unix and its new systems programming language C in practice, their "Wollongong Interdata UNIX, Level 6" included utilities developed at Wollongong, releases had features of V7, notably its C compiler. Wollongong Unix was the first port to a platform other than the PDP series of computers, proving that portable operating systems were indeed feasible, that C was the language in which to write them.
In 1980, this version was licensed to The Wollongong Group in Palo Alto that published it as Edition 7. Around the same time, a Bell Labs port to the Interdata 8/32 was completed, but not externally released; the goal of this port was to improve the portability of Unix more as well to produce a portable version of the C compiler. The resulting Portable C Compiler was distributed with V7 and many versions of Unix, was used to produce the UNIX/32V port to the VAX. A third Unix portability project was completed at Princeton, N. J. in 1976–1977, where the Unix kernel was adapted to run as a guest operating on IBM's VM/370 virtualization environment. This version became the nucleus of Amdahl's first internal UNIX offering. Bell Labs developed several variants of V6, including the stripped-down MINI-UNIX for low-end PDP-11 models, LSI-UNIX or LSX for the LSI-11, the real-time operating system UNIX/RT, which merged V6 Unix and the earlier MERT hypervisor. After AT&T decided the distribution by Bell Labs of a number of pre-V7 bug fixes would constitute support a tape with the patchset was slipped to Lou Katz of USENIX, who distributed them.
The University of Sydney released the Australian Unix Share Accounting Method in November 1979, a V6 variant with improved security and process accounting. In the Eastern Bloc, clones of V6 Unix appeared for local-built PDP-11 clones and for the Elektronika BK personal computer. V6 was used for teaching at MIT in 2002 through 2006, subsequently replaced by an x86 clone called xv6. V6 source code Wollongong Interdata UNIX source code Unix V6 Manuals – Web interface to the V6 manual pages. Unix V6 documents, e.g. C Reference, man pages The First Unix Port.
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
X86 is a family of instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address; the term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 processors. Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years consistently with full backward compatibility; the architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA and many other companies. Of those, only Intel, AMD, VIA hold x86 architectural licenses, are producing modern 64-bit designs; the term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility, as this implies a multitude of other computer hardware. As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, when the 8088 and 80286 were still in common use, the term x86 represented any 8086 compatible CPU. Today, however, x86 implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386; this is due to the fact that this instruction set has become something of a lowest common denominator for many modern operating systems and also because the term became common after the introduction of the 80386 in 1985. A few years after the introduction of the 8086 and 8088, Intel added some complexity to its naming scheme and terminology as the "iAPX" of the ambitious but ill-fated Intel iAPX 432 processor was tried on the more successful 8086 family of chips, applied as a kind of system-level prefix. An 8086 system, including coprocessors such as 8087 and 8089, as well as simpler Intel-specific system chips, was thereby described as an iAPX 86 system. There were terms iRMX, iSBC, iSBX – all together under the heading Microsystem 80. However, this naming scheme was quite temporary.
Although the 8086 was developed for embedded systems and small multi-user or single-user computers as a response to the successful 8080-compatible Zilog Z80, the x86 line soon grew in features and processing power. Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers, is used in midrange computers, workstations and most new supercomputer clusters of the TOP500 list. A large amount of software, including a large list of x86 operating systems are using x86-based hardware. Modern x86 is uncommon in embedded systems and small low power applications as well as low-cost microprocessor markets, such as home appliances and toys, lack any significant x86 presence. Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some low power and low cost segments. There have been several attempts, including by Intel itself, to end the market dominance of the "inelegant" x86 architecture designed directly from the first simple 8-bit microprocessors.
Examples of this are the iAPX 432, the Intel 960, Intel 860 and the Intel/Hewlett-Packard Itanium architecture. However, the continuous refinement of x86 microarchitectures and semiconductor manufacturing would make it hard to replace x86 in many segments. AMD's 64-bit extension of x86 and the scalability of x86 chips such as the eight-core Intel Xeon and 12-core AMD Opteron is underlining x86 as an example of how continuous refinement of established industry standards can resist the competition from new architectures; the table below lists processor models and model series implementing variations of the x86 instruction set, in chronological order. Each line item is characterized by improved or commercially successful processor microarchitecture designs. At various times, companies such as IBM, NEC, AMD, TI, STM, Fujitsu, OKI, Cyrix, Intersil, C&T, NexGen, UMC, DM&P started to design or manufacture x86 processors intended for personal computers as well as embedded systems; such x86 implementations are simple copies but employ different internal microarchitectures as well as different solutions at the electronic and physical levels.
Quite early compatible microprocessors were 16-bit, while 32-bit designs were developed much later. For the personal computer market, real quantities started to appear around 1990 with i386 and i486 compatible processors named to Intel's original chips. Other companies, which designed or manufactured x86 or x87 processors, include ITT Corporation, National Semiconductor, ULSI System Technology, Weitek. Following the pipelined i486, Intel introduced the Pentium brand name for their new set of superscalar x86 designs.
University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington. Established in 1949, it is ranked 4th in Australia, 45th in the world, 2nd in New South Wales according to the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the university comprises nine faculties, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. The main campus is located on a 38-hectare site in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, 7 km from the Sydney central business district; the creative arts faculty, UNSW Art & Design, is located in Paddington, UNSW Canberra is located at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra and sub-campuses are located in the Sydney CBD, the suburbs of Randwick and Coogee. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales. UNSW is one of the founding members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities, it has international research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world.
The origins of the university can be traced to the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts established in 1833 and the Sydney Technical College established in 1878. These institutions were established to meet the growing demand for capabilities in new technologies as the New South Wales economy shifted from its pastoral base to industries fueled by the industrial age; the idea of founding the university originated from the crisis demands of World War II, during which the nation's attention was drawn to the critical role that science and technology played in transforming an agricultural society into a modern and industrial one. The post-war Labor government of New South Wales recognised the increasing need to have a university specialised in training high-quality engineers and technology-related professionals in numbers beyond that of the capacity and characteristics of the existing University of Sydney; this led to the proposal to establish the Institute of Technology, submitted by the New South Wales Minister for Education Bob Heffron, accepted on 9 July 1946.
The university named the "New South Wales University of Technology", gained its statutory status through the enactment of the New South Wales University of Technology Act 1949 by the Parliament of New South Wales in Sydney in 1949. In March 1948, classes commenced with a first intake of 46 students pursuing programs including civil engineering, mechanical engineering, mining engineering and electrical engineering. At that time the thesis programs were innovative; each course embodied a specified and substantial period of practical training in the relevant industry. It was unprecedented for tertiary institutions at that time to include compulsory instruction in humanities; the university operated from the inner Sydney Technical College city campus in Ultimo as a separate institution from the College. However, in 1951, the Parliament of New South Wales passed the New South Wales University of Technology Act 1951 to provide funding and allow buildings to be erected at the Kensington site where the university is now located.
In 1958, the university's name was changed to the "University of New South Wales" to reflect its transformation from a technology-based institution to a generalist university. In 1960, it established faculties of arts and medicine and shortly after decided to add the Faculty of Law, which came into being in 1971; the university's first director was Arthur Denning, who made important contributions to founding the university. In 1953, he was replaced by Philip Baxter, who continued as vice-chancellor when this position's title was changed in 1955. Baxter's dynamic, if authoritarian, management was central to the university's first 20 years, his visionary, but at times controversial, energies saw the university grow from a handful to 15,000 students by 1968. The new vice-chancellor, Rupert Myers, brought consolidation and an urbane management style to a period of expanding student numbers, demand for change in university style and challenges of student unrest; the stabilising techniques of the 1980s managed by the vice-chancellor, Michael Birt, provided a firm base for the energetic corporatism and campus enhancements pursued by the subsequent vice-chancellor, John Niland.
The 1990s saw the addition of fine arts to the university. The university established colleges in Newcastle and Wollongong, which became the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong in 1965 and 1975 respectively; the former St George Institute of Education amalgamated with the university from 1 January 1990, resulting in the formation of a School of Teacher Education at the former SGIE campus at Oatley. A School of Sports and Leisure Studies and a School of Arts and Music Education were subsequently based at St George; the campus was closed in 1999. In 2012 private sources contributed 45% of the University's annual funding; the university is home to the Lowy Cancer Research Centre, one of Australia's largest cancer research facilities. The centre, costing $127 million, is Australia's first facility to bring together researchers in childhood and adult cancer. In 2003, the university was invited by Singapore's Economic Development Board to consider opening a campus there. Following a 2004 decision to proceed, the first phase of a planned $200 m campus opened in 2007.
Students and staff were sent home and the campus closed after one semester following substantial financial losses. In 2019, the university moved to a trimester timetable as part of UNSW's 2025 Strategy; the Grant of Arms was made by the College of Arms on