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Lions Clubs International

Lions Clubs International is an international non-political service organization established in 1917 in Chicago, Illinois, by Melvin Jones. It is now headquartered in Illinois; as of January 2020, it had over 46,000 local clubs and more than 1.4 million members in more than 200 countries around the world. Lions Clubs International, a service membership organization of over 1.4 million members worldwide, was founded in Evansville, Indiana on 24 October 1916 by Dr. William Perry Woods and subsequently evolved as an international service organization under the guidance and supervision of its Secretary, Melvin Jones. In 1917, Melvin Jones, was a 38-year-old Chicago business leader who told members of his local business club they should reach beyond business issues and address the betterment of their communities and the world. Jones' group, the Business Circle of Chicago, agreed. After contacting similar groups around the United States, an organizational meeting was held on June 7, 1917, in Chicago, Illinois, US.

The Business Circle subsequently joined one of the invited groups, the "International Association of Lions Clubs" and at a national convention held in Dallas, Texas that year, those who were assembled: adopted a Constitution, By-Laws, Code of Ethics and an Emblem. The Lions motto is "We Serve". Local Lions Club programs include sight conservation and speech conservation, diabetes awareness, youth outreach, international relations, environmental issues, many other programs; the discussion of politics and religion is forbidden. The LIONS acronym stands for Liberty, Our Nations' Safety; the stated purposes of Lions Clubs International are: To Organize and supervise service clubs to be known as Lions clubs. To Coordinate the activities and standardize the administration of Lions clubs. To Create and foster a spirit of understanding among the peoples of the world. To Promote the principles of good government and good citizenship. To Take an active interest in the civic, cultural and moral welfare of the community.

To Unite the clubs in the bonds of friendship, good fellowship and mutual understanding. To Provide a forum for the open discussion of all matters of public interest. To Encourage service-minded people to serve their community without personal financial reward, to encourage efficiency and promote high ethical standards in commerce, professions, public works and private endeavors. Lions Clubs plan and participate in a wide variety of service projects that meet the international goals of Lions Clubs International as well as the needs of their local communities. Examples include donations to hospices, or community campaigns such as Message in a bottle, a United Kingdom and Ireland initiative which places a plastic bottle with critical medical information inside the refrigerators of vulnerable people. Money is raised for international purposes; some of this is donated in reaction to events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan where Lions and LCIF provided disaster relief locally and from around the world, with donations and commitments surpassing US$1 million.

Other money is used to support international campaigns, coordinated by the Lions Clubs International Foundation, such as Sight First and Lions World Sight Day, launched in 1998 to draw world media attention to the plight of sight loss in the developing world. Lions take on all sorts of various fundraisers to fund these projects. For example, the Dublin, Virginia Lions Club host two flea markets a year, sell their famous Lion Dog, a fresh prepared variation of a corn dog. Lions focus on work for the blind and visually impaired began when Helen Keller addressed the international convention at Cedar Point, Ohio, on 30 June 1925 and charged Lions to be Knights of the Blind. Lions have a strong commitment to community hearing- and cancer-screening projects. In Perth, Western Australia, they have conducted hearing screening for over 30 years and provided seed funding for the Lions Ear and Hearing Institute established September 9, 2001, a center of excellence in the diagnosis and research of ear and hearing disorders.

In Perth, Lions have been instrumental in the establishment of the Lions Eye Institute. In Brisbane, the Lions Medical Research Foundation provides funding to a number of researchers. Ian Frazer's initial work, leading to the development of a HPV vaccine for the human papillomavirus which could lead to cervical cancer, was funded by the Lions Medical Research Foundation. Lions Clubs International has supported the work of the United Nations since that organization's inception in 1945, when it was one of the non-governmental organizations invited to assist in the drafting of the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, California. Lions Clubs International Foundation is "Lions helping Lions serve the world". Donations provide funding in the form of grants to financially assist Lions districts with large-scale humanitarian projects that are too expensive and costly for Lions to finance on their own; the Foundation aids Lions in making a greater impact in their local communities, as well as around the world.

Through LCIF, Lions bring healing and hope to people worldwide. Major initiatives of the foundation include the following: SightFirst progr

Intha people

The Intha are members of a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group living around Inle Lake. They speak an archaic dialect of Burmese and are believed to have come from Tanintharyi Region in the southern tip of Myanmar, they live on Inle Lake and support themselves through the tending of vegetable farms on floating gardens. The Intha are well known for their unusual leg-rowing techniques. There are around 100,000 to 200,000 Intha, they live in four cities bordering the lake, in numerous small villages along the lake's shores, on the lake itself. The entire lake area is in Nyaung Shwe township. Intha live in simple houses of wood and woven bamboo on stilts. Most transportation on the lake is traditionally by small boats, or by somewhat larger boats fitted with'long-tail' motors that are necessary because of the usual shallowness of the lake. Local fishermen are known for practicing a distinctive rowing style which involves standing at the stern on one leg and wrapping the other leg around the oar; this unique style evolved for the reason that the lake is covered by reeds and floating plants making it difficult to see above them while sitting.

Standing provides the rower with a view beyond the reeds. However, the leg rowing style is only practiced by the men. Women row in the customary style, using the oar with their hands, sitting cross legged at the stern

Coronation of Edward VII and Alexandra

The coronation of Edward VII and his wife Alexandra as king and queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions took place at Westminster Abbey, London, on 9 August 1902. Scheduled for 26 June of that year, the ceremony had been postponed at short notice, because the King had been taken ill with an abdominal abscess that required immediate surgery; the 1838 coronation of Queen Victoria, Edward VII's mother and predecessor, had been an unrehearsed and somewhat lacklustre event in the Abbey, though the newly extended street procession and celebrations around the country had been a great popular success. The success of Victoria's Golden and Diamond Jubilees had created the expectation that Edward's coronation would be an expression of the nation's status as a great imperial power. In December 1901, an Executive Coronation Committee was formed, whose leading member, Viscount Esher, worked with the King to set the agenda for the event. Esher had been responsible for organising the Diamond Jubilee in 1897 and was one of the driving forces behind the renewed enthusiasm for royal ceremonial.

The position of Director of Music was given to Sir Frederick Bridge, the organist and choirmaster at Westminster Abbey. Bridge had transformed the quality of music at the Abbey and had directed the music at the Golden Jubilee, for which he had been made a Member of the Royal Victorian Order. By the time of his accession, the 59-year-old Edward was overweight and fond of large meals and cigars, he launched himself into his new role, but his first busy months on the throne were bedevilled by a succession of illnesses and injuries. On 23 June, three days before the date set for the coronation and his wife, Alexandra of Denmark, returned from Windsor Castle to Buckingham Palace in preparation. Foreign journalists noted that he appeared "worn and pale" and was leaning on his cane; that evening, the King and Queen hosted a formal dinner for seventy British and overseas royal guests. On the following day at noon, a telegram marked "OFFICIAL" was dispatched around the Empire, with the news that the coronation was postponed and that the King was undergoing an operation.

Shortly afterwards, a bulletin was released from Edward's medical team, stating that "The King is suffering from perityphlitis. The condition on Saturday was so satisfactory that it was hoped that with care His Majesty would be able to go through the Coronation ceremonies. On Monday evening a recrudescence became manifest, rendering a surgical operation necessary today", it was undersigned by, among others, Lord Lister and Sir Frederick Treves, who carried out the operation on a table in the Music Room at Buckingham Palace, to drain his abdominal cyst. On 26 June itself, a "solemn service of intercession" was held at St Paul's Cathedral, attended by many of the British and foreign dignitaries who were in London for the coronation. Although workmen received instructions to begin dismantling the wooden stands, erected along the route of the procession, Edward was insistent that regional celebrations and a planned "Coronation Dinner for the Poor of London" should go ahead. Organised by Sir Thomas Lipton, 500,000 dinners were served to Londoners on 5 July at 800 locations around the capital.

The King contributed £30,000 towards the cost and there were donations by commercial companies and wealthy individuals. The confectionery maker Rowntree's provided each diner with a tin of chocolate and a rather better one for the 60,000 people who had acted as stewards, on the grounds that they would "be of greater influence than the poor". Many people had intended to watch the coronation procession, rooms along the planned route had been rented out at high rates for the expected day of the coronation; the postponement of the coronation led to many demands for refunds on the rental contracts, resulting in the "Coronation cases", which set an important precedent in the doctrine of frustration of purpose in the English common law of contract. One unintended effect of the postponement was the departure of the foreign delegations; this made the coronation "a domestic celebration of the British race united by the influence of the Imperial Crown" according to J. E. C. Bodley, the official historian of the event.

Among the 8,000 guests at the Abbey were the prime ministers of the British Dominions, thirty one rulers of the Indian princely states, the Sultan of Perak and the Litunga of Barotseland. The Times enthused that "King Edward is the first of our kings to be attended in his Coronation by an illustrious group of statesmen from our self-governing colonies, as he is the first to be accompanied by a number of the great feudatory Princes of India... They are bound to preserve the fabric of British polity and of British civilization." The contents of the service itself had been selected to ensure that its spiritual character was maintained, while keeping the ceremony as brief as possible. The draft was the work of Randall Davidson, the Bishop of Winchester; the service was conducted by the elderly and infirm Archbishop of Canterbury, Frederick Temple, who would be dead before the end of the year. He steadfastly refused to delegate any part of his duties and had to be supported throughout by two other bishops.

Because of his failing eyesight, the text of the service had to be printed in gigantic type onto rolls of paper called "prompt scrolls". Archbishop Temple provided most of the upsets in an otherwise splendid ceremony.

Ministry of Health (Indonesia)

The Ministry of Health is a government ministry which organise public health affairs within the Indonesian government. Ministry of Health has 5 special advisors and 8 centres; the directorates are: Office of the Deputy Minister of Health Secretariat General of Public Health Directorate General of Disease Prevention and Control Directorate General of Health Service Directorate General of Pharmacy and Medical Devices Development Inspectorate General Agency of Health Research and Development Agency of Health Human Resources Development and EmpowermentThe centres of ministry are Centre of Data and Information Centre of Health Crisis Centre of Health Finance and Insurance Centre of Health Determinant Analysis Centre of Hajj HealthThe expert staff of ministry are Expert Staff of Health Technology and Globalisation Expert Staff of Health Economics Expert Staff of Health Decentralization Expert Staff of Health Law Boentaran Martoatmodjo Darma Setiawan Johannes Leimena, & Surono Sutopo Ferdinand Lumbantobing Lie Kiat Teng Handrianus S Abdul Azis Saleh Satrio G.

A. Siwabessy Soewardjono Soerjaningrat Adhyatma Sujudi Farid Anfasa Moeloek Achmad Sujudi Siti Fadilah Supari Endang Rahayu Sedyaningsih Nafsiah Mboi Nila Moeloek Terawan Agus Putranto Wasisto, Broto. Sejarah Pembangunan Kesehatan Indonesia 1973-2009. Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. ISBN 9799254922. "Tupoksi". Kementerian Kesehatan. 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012

Aadi Perukku

Aadi Perukku known as the Aadi monsoon festival and written as Aadiperukku is a Tamil festival celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month of Adi. The festival pays tribute to water's life-sustaining properties. For the blessing of mankind with peace and happiness, nature worship in the form of Amman deities are organized to shower Nature’s bountiful grace on human beings; the goddess, as Pachai Amman, is a manifestation of divine design, to establish peace and harmony in the world. Pachai amman or Kanni amman appeared in many local spots which exhibited holy centers by inherent energy presence and influence of over that localities. In the manifestation of Pachai Amman in Thirumullaivaayal, the amman deity was successful in establishing peace and prosperity in this world, she is called the goddess of marriage. There is a tall statue of Ayyanar housed in Pachai amman temple of Thirumullaivaayal, an added attraction. A tank near the temple is said to possess medicinal properties. Devotees surge to have a rendezvous with the goddess on Tuesdays and Sundays and more specially on Aadi month.

Aadi Perukku is a unique South Indian and specially a Tamil festival celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month of Adi. The festival coincides with the annual freshes of the rivers and to pay tribute to water's life-sustaining properties, it is celebrated near river basins, water tanks and wells etc. of Tamil Nadu when the water level in the rises heralding the onset of Monsoon. It is famous among Sri Lankan Tamils; this is celebrated by most of the Tamils/Hindus around the world. In India the rivers Ganges and Yamuna and Godavari are considered sacred. Just like the earth gives us food, water is considered as a sacred necessity to meet the needs of individuals. People began to worship water in the form of wells and rivers, it is common among people to throw fruits, saffron cloths, etc. when the rivers and lakes are in spate purely based on the belief that these rivers are the species of female deities. Every temple has sacred wells and tanks, water in these resources are considered pure. There are cultural developments of the society that highlight many variations on the theme of primeval water which shows that water culture and civilization represent human interest with sacredness.

Aadi Perukku, otherwise called Padinettam Perukku is a unique occasion dedicated to the all the perennial river basins of Tamil Nadu and major lakes water source areas and is intended to celebrate the water rising levels due to the onset of monsoon, expected to occur invariably on the 18th day of the solar month, Aadi corresponding to 2 or 3 August every year. Hence "Padinettam perukku" - Padinettu signifies eighteen, Perukku denotes rising; this festival is observed predominately by women in Tamil Nadu. The Adiperukku, as a water-ritual, celebrated by women; the association of this ritual with fertility and reproduction is both natural and human. This water ritual practice is performed on the banks of Rivers, described as a rice-cultivation tract; the history of this ritual practice dates back to the ancient period and was patronised by the Kings and royal households. This ritual practice existed in various historical periods. Aadi is the month for sowing, planting of seeds and vegetation since it is peak monsoon time when rain is showered in abundance.

Apart from people flocking at the waterfalls sources of western ghats for premonsoon and monsoon festivals. People living on the banks of the river beds and other important water generation sources offer pujas to the water goddess and river god. For Aadi perukku every year so that when nurseries are raised in the fields subsequently and sustained north- east monsoon; the crop will be ready for harvest during Thai Pongal Celebration in 5 months duration. According to the Tamil calendar, Aadi is the fourth month of the year; the first day of this month falling on 16 July, is celebrated as Aadi Pandigai or Aadi Perukku, an important festival to most Tamils newly-weds. The most visible manifestation of the month of Aadi is the huge'kolams' that are painstakingly patterned early each morning in front of houses, they are bordered with red'kaavi' and across the front doorway at the top are strung mango leaves. The first of the month is marked with a special puja, followed by a feast with'payasam' prepared with coconut milk,'puran poli' and vadai.

Traditionally, the family of a'pudhu maappillai' is invited to the girl's house, where the couple is gifted new clothes and other presents. Aadi is a month of fervour and observances dedicated to the Goddesses related to water and other natural forces where prayers and pujas are offered to propitiate the powerful goddess to seek their protection from the inauspicious aspects that are associated with the month. No weddings or other similar functions are celebrated during Aadi, it is during this time that the monsoon peaks on the west coast and the rivers of Tamil Nadu, shrunken in the summer heat, get replenished to near full levels. The 18th day of Aadi 2 August, is observed as'Aadi Perukku', a day of offerings and prayers to these rivers, which mean so much to the lives and prosperity of the people; the day is an occasion for rejoicing for those living on the banks of the all the main rivers, its branches and tributaries. There is a belief that young girls who do this puja offering Kaadholai and Kaapparisi will be


Efalizumab is a available medication designed to treat autoimmune diseases marketed to treat psoriasis. As implied by the suffix -mab, it is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody administered once weekly by subcutaneous injection. Efalizumab binds to the CD11a subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and acts as an immunosuppressant by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and cell migration out of blood vessels into tissues. Efalizumab was associated with fatal brain infections and was withdrawn from the market in 2009. Known side effects include bacterial sepsis, viral meningitis, invasive fungal disease and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a brain infection caused by reactivation of latent JC virus infection. Four cases of PML were reported in plaque psoriasis patients, an incidence of one in 500 treated patients. Due to the risk of PML, the European Medicines Agency and the FDA recommended suspension from the market in the European Union and the United States, respectively.

In April 2009, Genentech Inc. announced a phased voluntary withdrawal of Raptiva from the U. S. market